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Elderly by Mind Map: Elderly

1. Elderly

1.1. Physiological change

1.1.1. Body weight

1.1.2. body composition

1.1.3. immune system

1.1.4. GI tract

1.1.5. tooth loss

1.1.6. sensory loss

1.1.7. psychological change

1.1.8. social changes

1.1.9. economic changes

2. Nutrition

2.1. water

2.2. energy, energy nutrient & fiber

2.3. vitamins and minerals

2.4. nutrient supplements

3. Nutrition related concerns

3.1. vision

3.1.1. cataracts

3.1.1.1. thickening/age related clouding of the eye lenses

3.1.1.2. Vit C, vit E & carotenoids decrease/ slow progression of cataracts

3.1.1.3. some associate with diabetes

3.1.2. aged related macular degeneration

3.1.2.1. deterioration of the macula (centre of retina)

3.1.2.2. antioxidant ,lutein, zeaxanthins, zinc and omega 3 (Preventive)

3.1.2.3. risk factor: fat intake & sunlight induced oxidative stress

3.2. arthritis

3.2.1. osteoarthritis/degenerative arthritis

3.2.1.1. risk factor: age, smoking, overweight, BMI 40, lack of hormone in women

3.2.1.2. deterioration of the cartilage in the joints

3.2.1.3. arthritis: no cure, omega 3 reduce joint tenderness and improve motility. Vit C & carotenoids as antioxidants, glucosamine and chondroitin reduce the pain of arthritis but not confirm

3.3. aging brain

3.3.1. genetic and environmental factors

3.3.2. neurons diminished as people age

3.3.3. effect of nutrient deficiency on brain function : decrease blood supply, neurotransmitter need precursor nutrients

3.4. alzheimer's disease

3.4.1. abnormal deterioration of the brain due to:

3.4.1.1. deterioration of the brain due to increase in free radicals (oxidative stress promote the development of brain senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles)

3.4.1.2. increase in beta-amyloid (associate with clumps of beta-amyloid protein in the brain)

3.4.1.3. decrease in acetylcholine synthesis (affect memory)

3.4.2. drug

3.4.3. maintaining body weight ( patient forget to eat)

3.4.4. beta amyloid

3.4.4.1. comes from larger protein found in the fatty membrane surrounding nerve cells

3.4.4.2. plaques formed when beta amyloid clump together

3.4.4.3. activate immune system cells that trigger inflammations