ED 302 Foundations

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ED 302 Foundations by Mind Map: ED 302 Foundations

1. Q#1- School-to-work programs are: relevant education, allowing students to perform different careers and to see what skills are required for the working environment that is wanted to pursue. Skills will be obtained from training and work based experiences. Valued credentials are needed as well as certain benchmarks and educational standards. pg. 527. Teacher education 1.)The perceived lack of rigor and intellectual demands in teacher education programs. 2.) the need to attract and retain competent and professional components of teacher education. 3.) the necessity to reorganize the academic and professional components of teacher education programs at both baccalaureate and post levels.

2. Politics of Education (2)

2.1. conservative

2.2. liberal

2.3. radical

2.4. neo-liberal

2.5. Purposes of schooling

2.5.1. Intellectual – cognitive skills in math, reading, science , history, language Political – to indoctrinate people into a particular order of patriotism Social – to help people be socialable, productive members of society Economic – prepare students for their occupation

2.6. purpose of schooling/education

2.6.1. Society's ability to transmit knowledge, skills, values. What type of society do we wish to have? What constitutes the “good life” and a “good person”?

2.7. your political perspective where do you stand?

2.7.1. Competition is good. Every person determines their outcome. Every person is responsible for their outcome. Economically free markets best serve people. Individuals make their own future and determine their own success. Individuals make society.

2.7.2. Capitalism and free economies must be kept in check. Governments must intervene to insure equality in education and economies. Governments must address societal issues. Economies unregulated cause unfair distribution of wealth and opportunities. Educational opportunities must be equal across the nation, states and communities.

2.7.3. Government should be able to provide all citizens with a minimally acceptable standard of living. Capitalism and free economy is the root of the educational problems. Problems in education and economy are causes of social disorder and social class perpetuation. Issues must be address at the social class level not the individual.

2.8. three main political perspectives

2.8.1. Explain the three main political perspectives concerning education according to the following: Conservative Liberal Radical Neo-Liberal The role of the school Explanations of unequal educational performance Definition of educational problems Educational policy and reform The American Dream

2.9. Assignment

2.9.1. Question #1

2.9.1.1. 1.)intellectual purposes are to teach basic skills such as: reading, writing, and math. Transmitting specific knowledge and to produce thinking skills. 2.) political purposes are to prepare the students to be citizens that have to participate in political order. 3.) social purposes are to help solve social problems and to help students understand the importance of socialism. 4.) economic purposes are to prepare students for when they begin in the work force.

2.9.2. Question #2

2.9.2.1. 1.) the purpose of schooling is mainly cultural; it depends on the functions of education in that society. 2.) Students that come from lower socioeconomic backgrounds tend to perform less well in school opposed to students from a higher status level. 3.) My biggest concern in educational problems would be that school systems place too much emphasis on authority rather than helping students become their individual person.

3. History of U.S. Education (3)

3.1. 1.) A huge reform movement would be the widespread effort to make education available to more children. Horace Man was called "the father of education" because of his efforts. He argued for the establishment of free elementary schooling. This movement has had great effect even for today.

3.2. 2.) The democratic-liberal school deals with a school system that committed to having equality. Lawrence A. Cremin believed in opportunity and purpose and wanted education to become more diverse and did not want to deny anyone the opportunity of learning.

3.3. Cycles of Reform preogressive v. traditional -equality and equity, civil rights act 1963, plessy v. ferguson of 1896 seperate but equal, brown v. topeka board of education 1954, desegregation was the main focus, schools and colleges opened doors for all

3.4. lee v. Macon-provided for special ed

3.5. Schools/educations responsibility

3.5.1. Schooling has historically been in response to the uncertainty that family, church, or community could not provide the necessary tools needed to meet the needs of a literate person in a democratic society. The school serves as the focal point for addressing societal issues. There is little consensus on motives for school reform

3.6. colonial era

3.6.1. Old Deluder Satan Law 1647 Massachusetts School Law of 1647 Society was highly stratified (have and have-nots) Colleges were established before the country was created. (Harvard, 1636, Yale 1701) Wealthy saw education as perpetuating the ruling class, religion, utilitarian, civics. Franklin saw education to support trades and common man. Jefferson supported public education

3.6.2. Meritocracy provided for higher education. Grammar Schools became present day elementary schools. Dame schools were created for girls. Secondary schools were for boys and the elite Latin Grammar Schools (Boston). Education in the South was mainly intended for upper class (plantation owners).p. 66

3.7. age of reform: the rise of the common school

3.7.1. The right to vote was restricted to all men except slaves and emotionally disturbed. Jefferson supported public education to further the success of the U.S. Horace Mann lobbied to create the first state board of education. (created in 1837 in Mass.) Normal schools were created for teacher education. (Mass 1839) Public education was for public stability and social mobility

3.8. public education

3.8.1. Morrill Act est. land grants in each county and state for public education. (1862) p.68 Education for women and slaves was limited. Women were educated for domestic purposes. Slaves were not educated with the exception of a few northern states that had special schools for African Americans. Emma Hart Willard, Troy University, 1821. p. 68

3.8.2. Mount Holyoke Seminary 1837, women’s college had same requirements for women as for men. The first public university to admit women was the University of Iowa in1856. p.69

3.9. urbanization and the progression impetus

3.9.1. Industrial revolution caused the need for educated workers. Gap between rich and poor widened. Cities contained enormous amounts of uneducated people thus dividing the social classes even more. John Dewey, the father of modern education, emphasized the needs of the individual to create a better society. p. 70 Schools became the focus of social problems such as hygiene, health and social skills.p.70

3.10. progressive movement

3.10.1. Curriculum supports the needs of the child and thus gives knowledge/insight to human history and promotes impetus for change and betterment of society. P.71 John Dewey-Progressivism Embryonic Society – miniature community Dewey’s philosophy is the reason we have vocational schools.

3.11. the committee of ten

3.11.1. The Committee of Ten was created by the National Education Association which was chaired by Harvard University president, Charles Elliot. The committee's recommendation for high school in 1918 was; Health Command of fundamental processes Worthy home membership Vocation Citizenship Worthy use of leisure Ethical character They also est. Carnegie units for graduation and college entrance curriculum.

3.12. education for all

3.12.1. The Dilemma Four Themes for High School Purposes in 1875. Tension between classical subjects such as Latin and Greek versus science and math, etc. College entrance requirements due to so many disparities in entrance requirements. High School students should be prepared for life not college. All students should follow the same courses of study regardless of need for further education. The Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education p. 73

3.13. post WWII

3.13.1. Progressive v. Traditional Post World War II demands required more technical innovations and focused on social mobility. The battle; standards of an education versus the education opportunity for all. The college student movement for civil rights U. of Michigan U. of California at Berkeley San Francisco State U. Kent State U. P. 7

3.14. cycles of reform

3.14.1. Equality and Equity p.76 Civil Rights Act 1963 Plessy v. Ferguson of 1896 p. 77 Brown v. Topeka Board of Education 1954 Desegregation was the main focus Schools and Colleges opened doors for all. P. 79

3.15. reforms of the standards era

3.15.1. Sputnik and the Space race influence 1957-1960’s emphasis on excellence Mid 1960’s emphasis went back to individual needs due to the Civil Rights Act 1963. Elementary/Secondary Education Act 1965 provided for special needs students

3.15.2. Nation at Risk (Reagan) Goals 2000 (Clinton) NCLB (Bush) RTT (Obama) Teaching to the Test to Survive Failing Schools Charter Schools Privatization of Schools

3.16. the historical perspectives

3.16.1. Democratic-Liberal School Radical-Revisionist School Conservative School

4. Sociological Perspectives (4)

4.1. Definition; p114 Understanding how social aspirations and fears force people to ask questions about the societies and culture in which they live.

4.2. Persell’s Model for Analyzing School and Societies relationship

4.2.1. The Societal level includes the most general levels of society such as its political and economic systems, level of development, and system of social stratification. The Institutional level includes family, schools, churches, business, government and media. The Interpersonal includes all the processes, symbols interactions within such organizations such as face to face interactions, gestures and rituals. The Intrapsychic which includes the individual thoughts, beliefs, values and feelings which are shaped by societies institutions.

4.3. The Uses of Sociology for teachers

4.3.1. Can schools create a more functional and equitable society? What is the relationship between schools and society? How does teacher interaction with students determine student success? Does sociology help educators to create more Highly Effective Schools which include; strong leadership, a safe and orderly environment, high expectations that all can learn, continual review of student progress, and a clear mission?

4.4. The Relation between Schools and Society

4.4.1. Schools are agents of cultural social transmission. Students are taught the values and beliefs of the society for them to think and act like other members of society. Schools stratify students into tracks by curricular placements which results in how they are successful. Schools select students for educational mobility.

4.5. Three Theoretical Perspectives

4.5.1. Theoretical Perspectives include; Functional Theories, Conflict Theories, Interactional Theories. Functional poses that society is best when a consensus rules. Education creates the moral unity for social cohesion and harmony. Conflict is a breakdown of shred values. Conflict poses that influential groups impose their will on subordinate groups. Interactional poses that society develops as a result of interactions between students and teachers. Conflict- schools are oppressive and students are rebellious. They are forced to attend. College degrees are primarily status symbols and do not indicate actual achievement. Where you go to school can determine your success more than achievement

4.5.2. Notable Philosophers of Conflict Theory Karl Marx Argued that the struggle in society was between owners and workers. Workers worked 18hour days and for poor wages and struggled to make any difference for their lives. The working class or proletariat would rise up against the owners and create a more equitable society known as socialism. Max Weber Power struggles between dominant and subordinate groups structured schools. College diplomas are status symbols and have no major impact on actual achievement.

4.6. The Relation between Schools and Societyp.119-120

4.6.1. Interactional theorist suggest that schools are; middle class organizations lower social classes are at a disadvantage. speech patterns are a reflection of social class backgrounds What is the goal of education? Perhaps training people for employment or for thinking?

4.7. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

4.7.1. knowledge and Attitudes p. 121 The higher the social class of a student the higher level of educational achievement. Differences between schools is not a significant impact. Academically oriented schools have higher levels of student achievement. 2. Employment p. 121 More education results in better jobs and opportunities. Do schools determine who gets the good jobs? Schools don’t prepare workers for job performance

4.7.2. Education and Mobility p. 122 Education is the great equalizer in the status race. Where you attend has great impetus. Poor and rich people see no effect on their social status as a result of their education attainment. Competition is not fair. Winners win with exceptions and losers are dropped from the competition. Rules are not always fair.

4.7.3. Inside the Schools p. 123 Curriculum is determined by those who want to perpetuate certain values and beliefs. Not all students study the same curriculum Curriculum determines who goes to college. Cultural transmission, selective channeling of opportunity and social mobility are determined at the school level and its curriculum.

4.7.4. 4.Teacher Behavior p.124 Teachers may have as many as 1000 interactions with students on a daily basis. Teacher expectations directly influence student achievement. Self-fulfilling prophecy has a direct impact on student success. The more teachers demanded from their students results in higher student self esteem and success.

4.7.5. 5.Student Peer Groups and Alienation p. 125 Rebellious students and violence in schools Nerds, coolness and athletes Four major types of college students includes; Careerists which are middle and upper middle class and do not have a good college experience. Intellectuals come from highly educated families, earned academic honors, and are politically motivated. Strivers come from middle and lower class hard workers and did not have great academic success but had a sense of accomplishment with their degree. The Unconnected came from all backgrounds and did not participate or achieve any success and were dissatisfied

4.7.6. 6.Education and Inequality p.125 American society resembles a triangle where most people are at the base. The top 20% in the U.S. possess 75% of the wealth. The top 2% of the world possess 80% of the wealth. Are social classes perpetuated by society and schools? 7.Inadequate Schools p. 126 Affluent schools provide better social mobility than poorer schools. 8.Tracking p. 126-127 Tracking has a direct effect on student expectations and success.

4.7.7. 9.De facto Segregation p. 127 People segregate themselves into their comfort areas. Racial integration benefits minorities more than the majority. Integration does not seem to harm the majority. 10.Gender Biases Men are still paid more for equivalent jobs. Academics are leveling between the sexes. Schools are still perpetuating gender inequalities.

4.7.8. The Current Educational Crisis p. 128 One third of children are at-risk of failing. One fourth of preschool children live in poverty. Fifteen million are reared by single mothers. How can schools help students to be successful members of society when they start out at such a disadvantage?

4.8. Question #1

4.8.1. Theoretical Perspectives include; Functional Theories, Conflict Theories, Interactional Theories. Functional poses that society is best when a consensus rules. Education creates the moral unity for social cohesion and harmony. Conflict is a breakdown of shred values. Conflict poses that influential groups impose their will on subordinate groups. Interactional poses that society develops as a result of interactions between students and teachers. Conflict- schools are oppressive and students are rebellious. They are forced to attend. College degrees are primarily status symbols and do not indicate actual achievement. Where you go to school can determine your success more than achievement

4.9. Question #2

4.9.1. 1.)Teacher Behavior p.124 Teachers may have as many as 1000 interactions with students on a daily basis. Teacher expectations directly influence student achievement. Self-fulfilling prophecy has a direct impact on student success. The more teachers demanded from their students results in higher student self esteem and success. 2.)Student Peer Groups and Alienation p. 125 Rebellious students and violence in schools Nerds, coolness and athletes Four major types of college students includes; Careerists which are middle and upper middle class and do not have a good college experience. Intellectuals come from highly educated families, earned academic honors, and are politically motivated. Strivers come from middle and lower class hard workers and did not have great academic success but had a sense of accomplishment with their degree. The Unconnected came from all backgrounds and did not participate or achieve any success and were dissatisfied 3).Education and Inequality p.125 American society resembles a triangle where most people are at the base. The top 20% in the U.S. possess 75% of the wealth. The top 2% of the world possess 80% of the wealth. Are social classes perpetuated by society and schools? 7.Inadequate Schools p. 126 Affluent schools provide better social mobility than poorer schools. 8.Tracking p. 126-127 Tracking has a direct effect on student expectations and success.

5. Philosophy of Education (5)

5.1. Question #1 Pragmatism

5.1.1. John Dewey George Sanders Pierce William James John Locke Jean-Jacques Rousseau Learning through experience (experiential learning “What is practical has meaning and value” The approach to learning is by scientific inquiry. Pragmatism encourages people to find processes that work to achieve their desired outcome. Ex. Problem – speculative thought – action - results

5.1.2. Philosophies that were born from Pragmatism Progressivism – John Dewey Social Reconstructionism – George Counts, The Goal of Education Provide students with the knowledge to improve society. Role of the Teacher – facilitator of learning activities Methods of Instruction – learn individually as well as in groups. Curriculum – Integrated core subjects, teaching across the curriculum

5.2. What is philosophical approach to education

5.2.1. A philosophical approach aids teachers in; Selecting knowledge for the classroom Ordering their classroom Interacting with students, peers , parents and administrators Selecting values for their classroom. A philosophy aids teachers in understanding; Who they are and Why they do what they do.

5.3. particular philosophies

5.3.1. Idealism (Socrates and Plato) Dialectic and “dialectical approach” “doctrine of reminiscence” Idealist in education encourage students to search for truth. With truth comes responsibility. Education is a transformation. Role of the teacher; a role model in the classroom To provoke thought To bring out what is already in their mind

5.4. idealism

5.4.1. Methods of Instruction Discussion Questioning Lecture on material not presented in text Curriculum Study the great works All new problems have their roots in the past Study history Great literature, sciences, math, history, philosophy A basic core foundation

5.5. essentialism

5.5.1. Emphasis is on academics Promotion is based on mastery of subject Academically rigorous Curriculum is determined by administrators Curriculum consist of basic subjects Teaching across the curriculum

5.6. realism

5.6.1. The material world is real It exist without anyone perceiving The real world exist before ideas exist. Aristotle develop a system of logical thinking Syllogism or a system of logical thinking A major premise A minor premise Conclusion Understand the facts then make assumptions and conclusions.

5.6.2. Notable Realists Thomas Aquinas Francis Bacon John Locke (Blank slate or tabula rasa) Goal of Education Understand the real world then apply science and logic to solve problems

5.6.3. Role of the teacher Present ideas in a clear and consistent manner Enable students to examine from an objective approach Methods of Instruction Lecture Question and Answer Discussion Curriculum; Consist of a basic body of knowledgeh

5.7. pragmatism

5.7.1. John Dewey George Sanders Pierce William James John Locke Jean-Jacques Rousseau Learning through experience (experiential learning “What is practical has meaning and value” The approach to learning is by scientific inquiry. Pragmatism encourages people to find processes that work to achieve their desired outcome. Ex. Problem – speculative thought – action - results

5.7.2. Philosophies that were born from Pragmatism Progressivism – John Dewey Social Reconstructionism – George Counts, The Goal of Education Provide students with the knowledge to improve society. Role of the Teacher – facilitator of learning activities Methods of Instruction – learn individually as well as in groups. Curriculum – Integrated core subjects, teaching across the curriculum

5.8. existentialism and phenomenology

5.8.1. Existence precedes essence We are who we are as a result of our decisions Perception of the world is based on one’s ability to make sense of it. Goal of Education – The focus is on the individual, cognitively and affectively. Education liberates the individual from a chaotic world.

5.8.2. Role of the Teacher - The reflective teacher enables students to be reflective students. It is a very personal teacher/student relationship. Students must become “wide awake” Methods of Instruction – Each student has a different learning style. Help students understand the world through posing questions, generating activities and working together. Curriculum – Humanities are heavily emphasized Students should be exposed to the harsh and good realities of the world.

5.9. neo-marxism

5.9.1. Role of the Teacher – engage student s to critically examine the world which is similar to “wide wakeness”. Curriculum – socially constructed Teachers must have a command of how the curriculum can be socially manipulated.

5.9.2. The purpose of education in a capitalist society is to perpetuate the ideology of the dominant class. Neo-Marxist – a capitalist society should be economically proficient to allow its citizens to live productive and decent lives. Goal of Education – schools perpetuate the ideology of the dominant society and legitimize it to all other groups. Education enables individuals to understand the weaknesses of the dominant society and propose alternatives.

5.10. post modernists and critical theory

5.10.1. The Goal of Education is to explore differences and to explore possibilities that may seem inherently impossible. Working together to achieve balance and equity through democratic transformation. Role of the Teacher – an agent of change Curriculum and Instruction p. 196 Democratic processes Teachers, students, communities are all involved in the process of education. Schools and curriculum are agents of change

6. Schools as Organizations (6)

6.1. Question #1 Federal Senator Luther Strange, Richard Shelby. State Senator Paul Bussman and Randall Shedd. State Superintendent Ed Richardson. Cullman County Superintendent Shane Barnett. Cullman City Superintendent Susan Patterson. Cullman City School Board Memebers-Lee Powell, Jason Neal and Chris Branham

6.2. Question #2 Schools are separate social organizations because; They have definitive populations, They have political structures. They represent a multitude of social groups. They are prevailed by the “we feeling”. They have their own special culture. Teachers are in conflict with students. Curriculum v. social goals of students. Administrators and teachers are in conflict. Structure v. teaching. Communities are in conflict with administration. Studies show that the principal establishes the goals levels of academic and social expectations and the effectiveness of disicipline. Effecting change in schools is difficult at its minimum. Bureaucracies control everything focusing on rules, regulations and conformity. Bureaucratic rationality suppress creativity. Changing a school culture requires patience, skill and good will. “Schools of Tomorrow…Today Project” in New York City Schools focuses on child-centered teaching.

6.3. assumptive evaluations are like pen and paper tests, projects, hands on.-you can assign it and grade it. formative evaluation-overall work, opinion of student, portfolio

6.4. John Goodlad

7. Curriculum & Pedagogy (7)

7.1. What is taught and how do we teach it? Social Influences Political influences Societies’ influences Cultural influences Special interests

7.2. Q#1-social Efficiency became the cornerstone of Progressivism Conservatist say that social efficiency has diluted the curriculum to the point that it has lost the purpose of transmitting one common culture. Should the curriculum be flexible to meet all needs or should it be meeting the needs of a diverse population? Social meliorists – reform society through schools also known as social reconstruction Communities reflect what is important to them as a society. The social class composition of the school and community have determined what is of value in the curriculum. P.285

7.3. Q#2-Sociology of the curriculum Society influences the curriculum Formal curriculum – what is cognitively taught (subjects) Informal or Hidden curriculum – taught but not obvious to sight Null curriculum – what is not taught but is learned (values of the community)

8. Equality of Opportunity (8)

8.1. Q#1Class Schools represent the middle and upper class. Parental income is directly related to educational achievement and test performance. P. 342 Race Race has a direct impact on how much educational attainment a person achieves. Minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities as white Americans. P. 343 Gender In the last twenty years significant gains have been made to equalize gender educational and professional attainment. Disparities still exist in education and job salaries. P. 343 -

8.2. Q#2 The Coleman Study 1982 Private school students outperform public school students. Differences in schools do make a difference. The difference is in how much more demanding private schools are of their students. P. 368 -

8.3. PL 94-192 EHA

8.4. Lee v. Macon

9. Educational Inequality (9)

9.1. Q#1-Sociological Explanations of Inequality Functionalist Theorists support the idea that each students’ success is determined by their own hard work and desire to succeed. Conflict Theorists support the idea that student success is affected by their environment.

9.2. Q#2-School Financing p. 428 public schools are financed through a combination of revenues from local, state, and federal sources. most come from state and local taxes. property values have a lot to do with this matter. quoted from pg. 428. Effective Schools p. 431 effective schools should have equal equality for it to be an effective school. Schools have to find the differences and raise questions about those differences. Argues that researchers need to compare schools with lower-socioeconomic communities. things should be compared in different communities. High expectations from everyone in the school are a must. leadership and accountability are used along with flexibility. quoted from 431. Between School Differences p. 433- different academic performances are expected from each school. higher socioeconomic schools have a higher rate of students achieving highly academically which is because positive academic achievement is implanted. quoted 453.Curriculum and Pedagogic Within School Differences p. 434- There are differences in schools as well because of different school characteristics that affect the outcome. different expectations are different for each group of students. students are divided by curriculum and ability. The prophecy of a teacher has a lot to do with this subject. Differences in track affect everything. Curriculum and Ability Grouping p. 434-436

10. Educational Reform (10)

10.1. Q#2- Full service and community schools examine and plan to educate the schools and the community. Full service schools focus on meeting students and their families educational, physical, psychological, and social needs in coordinated and collaborative fashion between school and community services. Connecting school, community, and societal reforms. 1.) leadership as the driver for change 2.) parent-community ties, 3.) professional capacity, 4.) student-centered learning climate. 5.) instructional guidance.

11. Limits and Promises of Education (1)

11.1. Educational Problems

11.1.1. achievement gaps

11.1.1.1. 1. elementary secondary education act 1965

11.1.1.2. 2. tried to erase discrepancies in opportunities

11.1.1.3. 3. NCLB reestablished these efforts in 2001

11.1.1.4. 4. because of testing \, teaching gaps have widened

11.1.1.5. 5. causes are due to funding, environment, teacher quality, parents, etc...

11.1.2. crisis in urban education

11.1.2.1. 1. demographic trends

11.1.2.2. 2. social stratification

11.1.2.3. 3. socioeconomic/ academic achievement

11.1.2.4. 4. inequalities in school systems

11.1.2.5. 5. school choice is an issue

11.1.3. decline in literacy

11.1.3.1. 1. basic skills of fundamentals

11.1.3.2. 2. teaching to the test

11.1.3.3. 3. pass them on due to age and no place to go

11.1.3.4. 4. schools become over-crowded

11.1.3.5. 5. raising academic standards (for whom)

11.1.4. assessment issues

11.1.4.1. 1. teaching to the test

11.1.4.2. 2. authentic/true assignments

11.1.4.3. questions to ask: 1. What have we measured? 2. How do we use our data? 3. What does the curriculum look like?

11.2. 4 elements of foundations of education

11.2.1. history of education

11.2.1.1. Our Purpose then; To read the Bible to save our souls( Old Deleuter Act 1642) Our Purpose Now Transmit culture Prepare for a global economy Prepare for the workforce Become a productive citizen Become a social citizen Pursuit of happiness Pursuit of freedom Pursuit of knowledge Pursuit of life

11.2.2. philosophy of education

11.2.2.1. Questions to ask yourself; How will you teach? What is in the curriculum? Who are you as a teacher ? Who are your students? What does your classroom look like? How will you assess students?

11.2.3. politics of education

11.2.3.1. How democratic are our schools? Who is involved in the decision making? What determines our curriculum? What role does special interests groups have? Business Labor unions Colleges World events Religion

11.2.4. sociological of education

11.2.4.1. Are schools a reflection of our society/community? How does the impact of social expectations drive decision making socially? Are schools perpetuating the social class/community it serves?

11.3. Foundations of your personal education

11.3.1. Questions to ask yourself; Why am I a teacher? What do I want to accomplish in my lifetime? What kind of influence will I be? What values do I want my students to have as a result of my influence?