Diversity of living things concept map

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Diversity of living things concept map by Mind Map: Diversity of living things concept map

1. Domains of Life

1.1. Bacteria

1.1.1. Comes in 3 different shapes: coccus, bacillus or spirillum

1.1.2. Has a cell wall which contains peptidoglycan

1.1.3. It is either arranged in: Diplo (pairs), Statphlo (Clumps) or Strapto (strings)

1.1.4. Most are heterotrophic

1.1.5. Are either: Obligate Aerobes (bacteria that need oxygen to live), Facultative Aerobes (bacteria that makes energy if oxygen is present but is capable of switching to anaerbic respiration if oxygen is not present, or Obligate Anaerbes (bacteria that cannot live in enviroments if oxygen is present)

1.1.6. Their lifestyle is either: unicellular, colony or filamentous

1.2. Archaea

1.2.1. they inhabit extreme environments such as hot springs, arctic ice, highly acidic water, intestines of mammals

1.2.2. They do not cause diseases unlike bacteria

1.2.3. oldest organism on earth

1.2.4. cell membrane and cell wall lack peptidoglycan

1.2.5. reproduces through binary fission and conjugation

1.2.6. has no cell wall

1.3. Eubacteria

1.3.1. single or multi cellular organisms

1.3.2. genetic material organized into a nucleus

1.3.3. possess organelles

1.3.4. huge range in diversity

1.3.5. are enclosed by a cell wall

2. Kingdoms

2.1. Eubacteria

2.1.1. Are prokaryotic

2.1.2. Are unicellular

2.1.3. contains peptidoglycan layer

2.1.4. autotrophs/ heterotrophs

2.1.5. does binary fission as its primary means of reproduction

2.1.6. Three morphologies: cocci, rod and spiral

2.1.7. Cocci: diplo

2.1.8. Rod: Mycobacteria

2.2. Archeabacteria

2.2.1. archaea cell walls and cell membranes are much more resistant to physical and chemical disruptions

2.2.2. Archaea contains polysaccharides and proteins

2.2.3. Lacks peptidoglycan

2.2.4. Unicellular and prokaryote

2.2.5. Autotroph/Heterotroph

2.2.6. Representative species: Methanogens, halophiles, extreme thermophiles and physcrophilles

2.3. Protista

2.3.1. Eukaryote

2.3.2. Unicellular or multicellular

2.3.3. cellulose in some; occasionally no cell wall

2.3.4. autotrophs/ heterotrophs

2.3.5. reproduce asexually/sexually

2.3.6. Gymnosperm: Progressive reduction of gametophyte stage, evolution of pollen and evolution of the seed (ex: cycas)

2.3.7. Photoautotrophs- chloroplasts: can do photosynthesis and eat food. Heterotrophs. Mixotrophs three feeding approaches have arisen independently multiple times

2.3.8. The three feeding strategies are: animal like, fungi-like and plant-like protists

2.3.9. Phyla found in each grouping and how they move: Ciliophora (ex: Paramecium) and it moves by beating cilia. 2nd: Zoomasitigina (ex: Giardia) and it moves by use of flagella. 3rd: Sarcoodina (ex: Ameba) and it moves by pseudopod. 4th: Sporozoa (ex: Plasmodium) and it is non-motille typically

2.4. Fungi

2.4.1. Are eukaryote

2.4.2. Mostly multicellular

2.4.3. Cell wall made from chitin

2.4.4. Mostly heterotrophs

2.4.5. Usually reproduce sexually

2.4.6. 5 major phyla: Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota, Glomeromycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota

2.4.7. major decomposers on earth, produce important antibiotics and are natural pesticides

2.4.8. 3 types of fungal nutrition: Parasitic, Predatory and Mutualistic

2.5. Plants

2.5.1. have chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll

2.5.2. cell walls which are rich in cellulose

2.5.3. Plants are generally autotrophic

2.5.4. oxygen evolving photosynthesis

2.5.5. Bryophytes: offspring develop from multicellular embryos that remain attached to the mother plant for protection and nourishment (ex: rica)

2.5.6. Seedless vascular: contains vascular tissue to contain food and water (ex: club mosses)

2.5.7. Angiosperm: allow plants to reproduce sexually without water, seeds provide protection against unfavorable environmental conditions and are very successful reproducers. Seeds can be dispersed through many ways of pollination (ex: sunflower)

2.6. Animals

2.6.1. are eukaryote

2.6.2. multicellular

2.6.3. heterotrophs: feeds on plants,animals , fungi, protists and each other

2.6.4. use oxygen for aerobic respiration

2.6.5. do not have a cell wall

2.6.6. usually motile or the ability to move in atleast one stage of their life

2.6.7. reproduce sexually

2.6.8. produce an embryo that undergoes stages

3. Major Phyla

3.1. Eubacteria

3.1.1. Aquiflexa

3.1.1.1. Cyanophyceae

3.1.1.2. Synechococcales

3.1.2. Cyanobacteria

3.1.2.1. Spirulina

3.1.2.2. Anabaena

3.1.2.3. Nostoc

3.1.3. Proteobacteria

3.1.3.1. Purple sulfur bacteria

3.1.3.2. Geobactor

3.1.3.3. Gammaproteobacteria

3.1.3.4. Alphaproteobacteria

3.2. Archeabacteria

3.2.1. Euryarchaeota

3.2.1.1. Methanobacteria

3.2.1.2. Haloarchaea

3.2.1.3. Thermoplasmatales

3.2.2. Crenarchaeota

3.3. Animals

3.3.1. Porifera

3.3.1.1. Demosponge

3.3.1.2. Calcareous

3.3.1.3. Hexactinellid

3.3.1.4. Silliceous sponge

3.3.2. Cnidarians

3.3.2.1. Jellyfish

3.3.2.2. Sea anemone

3.3.2.3. Anthozoa

3.3.2.4. Box jellyfish

3.3.3. Flatworms

3.3.3.1. Trematoda

3.3.3.2. Cestoda

3.3.3.3. Turbellaria

3.3.3.4. The food chain

3.3.4. Mollusks

3.3.4.1. Octopus

3.3.4.2. Squid

3.3.4.3. Cuttlefish

3.3.4.4. Scallop

3.3.4.5. Chiton

3.3.4.6. Bivalvia

3.3.5. Roundworms

3.3.5.1. Enoplea

3.3.5.2. Adenophorea

3.3.5.3. Ascaridida

3.3.5.4. Secernentea

3.3.5.5. Chromadorea

3.3.6. Arthropods

3.3.6.1. Insect

3.3.6.2. Arachnid

3.3.6.3. Butterflies and moths

3.3.6.4. Scorpion

3.3.6.5. Crab

3.3.6.6. Crustacean

3.3.7. Echinoderms

3.3.7.1. Starfish

3.3.7.2. Sea urchin

3.3.7.3. Sea cucumber

3.3.7.4. Sand dollar

3.3.7.5. Brittle star

3.3.8. Rotifers

3.3.8.1. Euchlanis

3.3.8.2. Asplanchna

3.3.8.3. Conochilus

3.4. Protista

3.4.1. Rhodophyta

3.4.1.1. Coralline algae

3.4.1.2. Rhodophyceae

3.4.1.3. Florideae

3.4.1.4. Gelidiaceae

3.4.2. Chrysophyta

3.4.2.1. Ochromonadales

3.4.2.2. Chrysosphyaerales

3.4.3. Phyrrophyta

3.4.3.1. Dinophyceae

3.4.3.2. Syndiniales

3.5. Fungi

3.5.1. Chytrids

3.5.2. Zygomycota

3.5.2.1. Rhizopus stolonifer

3.5.3. Asomycota

3.5.3.1. Monascus

3.5.3.2. Colletotrichum

3.5.3.3. Verticillium

3.5.4. Basidimycota

3.5.4.1. Rust

3.5.4.2. Boletales

3.5.4.3. Ramaria

3.5.4.4. Geastrales

3.6. Plants

3.6.1. Hepatophyta

3.6.1.1. Complex thalloids

3.6.1.2. Porella

3.6.1.3. Jungermanniales

3.6.2. Anthocerophyta

3.6.2.1. hornworts

3.6.2.2. Gametyphyotes

3.6.3. Lycophyta

3.6.3.1. Isoetales

3.6.3.2. Selaginellales

3.6.3.3. Lepidodendron

4. Mammals

4.1. 1. Monotremes

4.1.1. warm blooded

4.1.2. high metabolic rate

4.1.3. have hair on their bodies

4.1.4. produce milk through mammary glands to feed their youngs

4.1.5. have a single bone in their lower jaw

4.1.6. have three middle ear bones

4.1.7. Examples: Echidnas, Duck billed platypuses

4.2. 2. Marsupials

4.2.1. most of the young children are carried in pouches

4.2.2. A young marsupial is born after only a few weeks as an embryo

4.2.3. It has large front paws that it uses to climb through the mother's fur to reach the pouch.

4.2.4. Examples: Kangaroos, Koalas, Possums, Wombats and Tasmanian devils

4.3. 3. Placentals

4.3.1. Largest group

4.3.2. have 4000 different species

4.3.3. Examples: Humans, elephants, whales, shrews, dogs and cats, horses, cattles

4.3.4. exchange of nutrients and wastes between the blood of the mother and that of the fetus

4.3.5. The placentals include all living mammals except marsupials and monotremes.

5. Arthropods

5.1. 3 major subphyla

5.1.1. 1. Hexapoda

5.1.1.1. Examples: Insects

5.1.2. 2. Crustacea

5.1.2.1. Examples: lobsters, crabs and shrimps

5.1.3. 3. Chelicerata

5.1.3.1. Examples: spiders and scorpions

6. Chordates

6.1. 1. Tunicate

6.1.1. Examples: Ascidians, Copelata, Larvacea

6.2. 2. Vertebrate

6.3. 3. Cephalochordate

7. Vertebrates

7.1. 1. Class Agnatha

7.1.1. Examples: Jawless vertebrates, Lampreys

7.2. 2. Class Chondrichthyes

7.2.1. Example: Cartilaginous fish

7.3. 3. Class Osteichthyes

7.3.1. Examples: Bony fish

7.4. 4. Class Amphibia

7.4.1. Examples: Amphibians

7.5. 5. Class Reptilia

7.5.1. Examples: reptiles

7.6. 6. Class Aves

7.6.1. Example: Birds

7.7. 7. Class Mammalia

7.7.1. Example: mammals