Teaching, Learning and Development

Get Started. It's Free
or sign up with your email address
Rocket clouds
Teaching, Learning and Development by Mind Map: Teaching, Learning and Development

1. To teach students with exceptional needs, we must develop a wider repertoire of teaching strategies and deeper diagnostic skills

1.1. Inclusion is KEY to properly address students' diverse learning needs!

1.2. TRIBES by Jeanne Gibbs = a learning community 1. Attentive Listening 2. No put downs 3. Right to pass 4. Mutual respoect

2. Considering Developmental Differences

2.1. Growth Mindset

2.1.1. inspiration

2.1.2. greater sense of free will

2.1.3. learn from criticism

2.1.4. embrace challenges

2.1.5. THE POWER OF YET

2.1.5.1. grade called "not yet" give you a path into the future = greater confidence

2.1.5.2. "I love a challenge" = a growth mindset

2.1.5.3. process praise

2.1.5.4. reward process

2.1.5.4.1. online games - students are rewarded for effort, strategy and progress. standardized tests rewards you for getting answers right

2.1.5.5. perservance

2.2. Theoretical Approaches

2.2.1. Erikson

2.2.1.1. Psychological development (8 stages)

2.2.1.2. Identity crisis and resolution

2.2.2. Vygatsky

2.2.2.1. Scaffolding

2.2.2.2. Gradual Release of Responsibility

2.2.2.3. Instructional Support

2.2.2.3.1. We learn when we get stuck; it is ok to make mistakes

2.2.2.3.2. Promote student self-confidence

2.2.3. Piaget

2.2.3.1. sensimotor

2.2.3.2. pre-operational

2.2.3.3. schema

2.2.3.3.1. For example, in Language Arts, it is important to select a reading of a text that has schema (form a mental representation of the world), otherwise, students cannot attach a meaning to it.

2.2.3.4. adaptation

2.2.3.4.1. assimilation

2.2.3.4.2. accomodation

2.2.3.4.3. = equilibrium

2.2.3.5. formal operational

2.2.3.6. concrete operational

2.2.4. Chomsky

2.2.4.1. language acquisition device

2.3. Developmental Changes

2.3.1. 5 Principals pf Development

2.3.1.1. orderly progression

2.3.1.2. periods of rapid and slow growth

2.3.1.3. quantitive and qualitative changes

2.3.1.3.1. physical/biological development

2.3.1.3.2. cognitive learning development

2.3.1.4. individual's development at different rates

2.3.1.4.1. Every kid needs a champion! The importance of having close relationships with students is greatly outlined in Rita Pierson’s tedtalk. My champion – my second grade teacher Mrs. P - was big on relationships, positive engagement, and communication in the classroom. We sang songs, made crafts, used manipulatives, made cool projects, had group discussions, construct a short play, all that good stuff! She made sure to get to know me as well as my parents who would come in to pick me up after school. She always had a welcoming smile on her face and worked over time to make sure I was given enough time or extra work to excel myself. She was so caring. And that’s what I want to be – caring. Obviously, we have curriculums that we follow and we have things that aid in teaching. But I don’t think a lack of those things will make or break a teaching environment, having a teacher who cares will.

2.3.1.5. genetics set developmental potentail

2.3.1.6. environment determines potential realized

2.3.2. imperative to create opportunities for children because they are going to be the next generation, the one who will bring this world forward

2.4. ADORA SVITAK What Adults Can Learn From Kids

2.4.1. reciprocal learning

2.4.2. big dreams, high expectations

2.4.3. childish thinking

2.4.4. always learning

3. Planning for the Upcoming Year

3.1. "Stop Stealing Dreams"

3.1.1. no memorization

3.1.2. lifelong learning

3.1.3. open book policy

3.1.4. experience based

3.1.5. homework during the day, lectures at night

3.1.6. hands on, face to face, creative

3.2. Planning

3.2.1. curricular

3.2.1.1. educational purpose

3.2.1.2. learning expectations

3.2.1.3. evaluation

3.2.2. instructional

3.2.2.1. student centred approach

3.2.2.2. teacher centred approach

3.2.3. Time Management is important!

3.2.4. Inquiry Based Lesson activities to encourage students to question, interpret, analyze and construct....

3.2.4.1. Math: 3 Part Lesson

3.2.5. Nurture a sense of wonder!

3.3. Research and Practice

3.3.1. qualatative

3.3.2. quantatative

3.3.3. 5 steps:

3.4. Teacher Reflection Pactice

3.4.1. I will use self-reflection to learn from experience to improve my professional practice as a teacher e.g. Did I bring my biases into my classroom? What could be done differently in terms of the students' learning environment? What do I want my students to understand in order to lead a successful life? What big ideas do I want my students to understand beyond this unit of study?

3.4.2. ability to critically think; embrace new approaches, learning instead of instilling content,

3.4.3. We have to recognize that our beliefs, values, way of teaching is not the nly way to teach everyone. We must be open to new ideas.

3.4.4. We must get to know our students as well as ourselves.

3.5. Educational Psychology

3.5.1. 4 common places of Education

3.5.1.1. teacher

3.5.1.2. student

3.5.1.3. curriculum

3.5.1.4. classroom

3.5.2. Central Topics

3.5.2.1. individual needs

3.5.2.1.1. I will use a diagnostic assessment to help in planning because it allows you to know what level each student is at and what prior knowledge they have.

3.5.2.2. behaviour classroom management

3.5.2.3. social foundations of curricula

3.5.2.4. assessment and evaluation

3.5.2.5. motivation and cultural influences

3.6. First Day of School

3.6.1. tell your classroom the expectations on the first day

3.6.1.1. cooperative learning

3.6.1.2. safe and caring environment

3.6.1.3. respected for their abilities, cultures, gender, interests

3.6.1.4. feel included & appreciated

3.6.1.5. My students will contribute to the rules and procedures of what a functional classroom should look like so that the classroom transforms from the teacher-controlled classroom to a school family environment. If children are misbehaving, I will ask them was what you did safe? Was it kind? They can look back at the classroom rules that we created together and understand how are we expected to sit at our seat, on the carpet, at our desk, how we walk in the school, etc. The idea of letting students make the rules allows students to make their own judgements, take control of their learning, and helps them to remember what the appropriate roles are in the classroom because they created them.

3.6.2. criss cross applesauce

3.6.3. dont be afraid of silence

3.6.4. Students are not going to remember what you taught but that you taught them

3.6.5. access the parents at some point in time; what are they looking for? what would they like to see their child accomplish? = relationships, relationships, relationships!

3.7. Constructivism: actively and meaningfully constructing one's own knowledge and understanding

4. Establishing a Positive Environment

4.1. Keys to Bump System

4.1.1. ignore

4.1.2. touch

4.1.3. gesture

4.1.4. students name

4.1.5. proximity

4.1.6. the look

4.2. Instructional Strategy Choices

4.2.1. homework and questions

4.2.2. cooperative learning

4.2.3. controlling instruction variables

4.2.3.1. time

4.2.3.2. language

4.2.3.3. SEL

4.2.3.4. difficulty level

4.2.3.5. space

4.2.4. graphic organizers

4.2.5. cooperative learning

4.2.6. BELL WORK

4.2.7. COMMUNITY CIRCLE; opportunity for students to share and feel connected and care for in the classroom

4.3. Resiliency

4.3.1. self esteem

4.3.2. optimism

4.3.3. ownership

4.3.4. personal control

4.3.5. self discipline

4.4. Todd Rose

4.4.1. ADHD

4.4.2. THE MYTH OF AVERAGE

4.4.3. differentiation

4.4.3.1. I believe a great teacher will produce a positive and happy environment for their students, one in which students feel a sense of safety, respect, belonging, trust and encouragement. To support this, I will eliminate closed-minded perspectives and ideas that could influence my students such as racism, gender and socioeconomic status. In my classroom, I will aim to create a community that embraces difference and encourages new relationships with students, colleagues, families and peers as I believe we are all an essential component in the learning community.

4.4.4. learning disorders

4.5. Classroom Management

4.5.1. Culturally and linguistically diverse students

4.5.2. ELL teacher assistant is helpful

4.5.3. homogenous approach

4.5.4. positive reinforcement

4.6. Wellbeing

4.6.1. celebrate accomplishments

4.6.2. respect and honour differences

4.6.3. promote personal growth

4.7. Community of Learners

4.7.1. reflective dialogue

4.7.2. student centred

4.7.3. job embedded

4.7.4. active learning

4.7.5. collaborative

4.8. Self-Efficacy

4.8.1. self regulation

4.8.2. collaboration

4.8.3. self evaluation

4.8.4. control tasks

5. Making Instructional Decisions

5.1. SOLE classroom

5.1.1. computers

5.1.2. collaborative

5.1.3. space

5.2. Exit Ticket Assessment

5.2.1. I think this is a great assessment strategy without the anxiety/pressure on the students! E.g. "Write two things you have learned today"

5.3. Universal Instructional Design

5.3.1. Instructional system designed and delivered with the needs of the least independently able students in mind

5.3.2. Results in instruction that is accessible and effective for all students

5.4. Response to Intervention

5.4.1. I will make sure that every child receives the support that he or she needs at any given time and that might change weekly.

5.5. Differentiated Instruction

5.6. Inclusion

5.6.1. UNESCO

5.6.2. Starting on the “inside” rather than the “outside”

5.6.3. The use of research-based strategies, practices, models

5.6.4. The best use of resources

5.6.5. A real effort to meet a child’s needs Accommodations and modifications that facilitate appropriate learning

5.7. Cognitive Verbs

5.7.1. creating

5.7.2. evaluating

5.7.3. remembering

5.7.4. understanding

5.7.5. applying

5.7.6. cognitive credit card

5.8. Direct Instruction

5.8.1. clear learning objectives

5.8.2. well planned lessons

5.8.3. lots of practices

5.8.4. explicit teaching

5.9. Role of the Learning Objective

5.9.1. Blooms Taxonomy

5.9.1.1. Hierarchical classification of Cognitive Learning Objectives

5.9.1.1.1. application

5.9.1.1.2. evaluation

5.9.1.1.3. knowledge

5.9.1.1.4. comprehension

5.9.1.1.5. evaluation

5.9.1.1.6. synthesis

5.10. Problem Based Learning

5.10.1. Inquired Based Learning

5.11. SOI Information Processing Model

5.11.1. integrate the info with prior knowledge

5.11.2. organize the info

5.11.3. select relevant info

5.12. How People Learn Framework

5.12.1. learner centredness

5.12.2. knowledge centredness

5.12.3. community connectedness

5.12.4. teaching & learning assessment centredness

5.12.5. to organize what is known

5.13. Metacognition

5.13.1. evaluating

5.13.2. comprehending

5.13.3. planning

5.14. Backward design

5.14.1. What do I expect students to be able to do at the end of the course

5.14.2. How will I know that they have learned these things?

5.14.3. What lessons will be most effective in helping students demonstrate that they have learned these things?

5.15. What motivates student to learn?

5.15.1. challenging and meaningful tasks

5.15.2. being able to effectively use learning strategies

5.15.3. having teacher suport

5.15.4. being required to support to demonstrate knowledge

5.15.5. feeling like the teacher cares for them

5.16. Constructivist Views of Learning

5.16.1. • Learners are active in constructing their own personal knowledge –they actively seek meaning • Social negotiating is important to knowledge construction /learning • Learning includes developing skills to solve problems, think critically, answer questions, accept multiple views • Self-determination is needed to further knowledge development

5.16.1.1. • Dialogue & Instructional Conversations • Inquiry Learning • Problem-based Learning

5.16.1.2. • Teacher and Peer Learning • Cognitive Apprenticeships • Collaborative Learning

5.16.1.3. • Complex, challenging learning environments • Real world situations • Social negotiation –collaborative work • Multiple representations of content • Making students aware of the knowledge construction process –becoming self-regulated learners • Student-centered instruction; student ownership of learning

5.17. Teaching for Critical Thinking/Inquiry Based Learning

5.17.1. Ask not only what happened, but “how” and “why” Examine “facts” to determine if there is enough evidence to support them Argue in a reasoned way rather than through emotions Recognize that there may be more than one right answer or explanation Compare various answers and then judge which is the best Evaluate and possibly question what others say Ask questions and speculate beyond what we already know

5.17.1.1. The Importance of Inquiry | Helen Waller | TEDxInyaLake

5.18. Universal Design for Learning

5.18.1. I. Provide Multiple Means of Representation Perception: Language, expressions, and symbols Comprehension II. Provide Multiple Means of Action and Expression Physical action: Expression and communication Executive function III. Provide Multiple Means of Engagement Recruiting interest: Sustaining effort and persistence Self-regulation

6. Assessing Student Progress

6.1. Portfolio: a collection of a student's work and growth

6.2. Types of Assessment

6.2.1. summative

6.2.1.1. Takes place after instructions and is used to assess how well the students have learned the material throughout the course of the unit.

6.2.1.2. presentations, tests, assignments

6.2.2. formative

6.2.2.1. Used throughout the instructional period to make sure that students are on track. It can be used for monitoring progress

6.2.2.2. observation

6.2.2.3. homework

6.2.3. diagnostic

6.2.3.1. completed before instruction to determine instructional starting points and adjust teaching methods accordingly

6.2.4. Each student is unique, therefore assessments must be considerate of diversity

6.2.4.1. Trusting my judgement through anecdotal observation instead of assessing their final product; I can have a one on one quiet conference with students in the middle of class and get feed back from them.

6.3. Types of Assessment Questions

6.3.1. True and False

6.3.2. MC

6.3.3. constructed response

6.3.3.1. short answer

6.3.3.2. essay

6.3.4. Wiggins and McTighe define three types of assessment

6.3.4.1. Performance Task— The performance task is at the heart of the learning. A performance task is meant to be a real-world challenge in the thoughtful and effective use of knowledge and skill— an authentic test of understanding, in context.

6.3.4.2. Criteria Referenced Assessment (quizzes, test, prompts) These provide instructor and student with feedback on how well the facts and concepts are being understood.

6.3.4.3. Unprompted Assessment and Self-Assessment (observations, dialogues, etc.).

6.4. My personal negative experience when I was being assessed: My 7th grade math teacher would call on me even when I did not have my hand up and therefore did not know the answer. She repeatedly did this.

6.4.1. My future classroom assessment will be clear, student involvement and participation, discussion, multiple opportunities to improve, flexible and encouraging

6.4.1.1. I understand the target

6.4.1.2. I understand the results

6.4.1.3. I know what to do next

6.4.1.4. I’m ok

6.4.1.5. I choose to keep trying

7. Individual Differences

7.1. Intelligence

7.1.1. Carroll's Hierarchal Model of Intelligences

7.1.1.1. fluid

7.1.1.2. crystallized

7.1.1.3. visual

7.1.1.4. spatial

7.1.2. Gardner's Multiple Intelligences

7.1.2.1. interpersonal

7.1.2.2. logical-mathematical

7.1.2.3. musical

7.1.2.4. naturalistic

7.1.2.5. intrapersonal

7.2. Sternberg's Triarchic Theory

7.2.1. Analytic/Componential

7.2.2. Creative/Experential

7.2.3. Practical/Contextual

7.3. Ken Robinson

7.3.1. nurture creativity

7.3.2. acknowledge multiple of intelligences

7.4. Special Education

7.4.1. high incidence exceptionalities

7.4.1.1. gifted learners

7.4.1.2. intellectual disabilities

7.4.1.3. behaviour disorders

7.4.2. low incidence exceptionalities

7.4.2.1. autism

7.4.2.2. hearing and visual impairments

7.4.2.3. serious health impairments

7.4.2.4. multiple disabilities

7.4.3. PEOPLE -FIRST LANGUAGE

7.4.3.1. Refer to “students with learning disabilities” NOT “learning disabled students”

8. Sociocultural Considerations

8.1. Critical Consciousness

8.1.1. culturally responsive practice

8.1.1.1. A culturally responsive practice has a broad cultural knowledge and instructional base that grows and changes.

8.1.1.2. Teachers must know the following: -Their own cultural assumptions -How to inquire about students’ backgrounds -How to develop teaching approaches and curriculum to meet needs of culturally diverse learners -How to establish links across cultures

8.1.1.3. I need to learn about my students and take the time to get to know who they are inside and outside the classroom because this will promote strong positive engagement and social interaction and appreciation of all students.

8.1.1.3.1. I will use a variety of resources and materials that celebrate diversity

8.1.1.3.2. I will take the temperature of my classroom to see how my students are doing and what they need

8.1.1.3.3. I will acknowledge and celebrate holidays or special events from different cultures

8.1.1.3.4. If we don't do those things, students will not be engaged in the classroom and school community.

8.1.2. political values and beliefs

8.1.3. an ideological clarity

8.1.4. a socio-cultural consciousness

8.2. Julien S. Bourvielle

8.2.1. change the way you interpret the world

8.2.2. how cultures drives behaviours

8.2.3. different perspectives

8.2.4. cultural glasses

8.3. Chimamanda Ngozi Adiche

8.3.1. the danger of a single story

8.4. Culturally Responsive teaching and learning Video

8.4.1. bottoms up head together

8.4.2. think pair share

8.4.3. action thermometer

8.4.4. arranged optimally

8.5. I will develop caring relationships, parent and community involvement, cooperative learning, the use of technology.

8.6. Stereotype Threat

8.6.1. Fear that one’s behaviour will confirm a negative stereotype about one’s identity group

8.7. Socio-Economic Status

8.7.1. Compared to all other social or cultural attributes, an individual’s socio-economic status has the greatest impact on scholastic achievement

8.7.1.1. Children from Low SES Homes = Development is at risk = Economic hardships = Scarcity of resources = More likely to experience authoritarian parenting style

8.7.1.2. Teachers must be open-minded and develop a genuine relationship with the students and the parents!

8.8. Multicultural Education

8.8.1. Developing cultural understandings and mutual respect

8.8.2. Diversity valued No culture considered dominant Dominant culture stressed Surviving in real world Diversity and dominant culture Valued striking a balance

8.8.2.1. In fourth grade, my teacher asked us to bring in a food dish that was specific to our cultural background. We could bring our parents to class that day. This helped me to learn about the importance of food in other cultures, learn the history of food while learning about world cultures. I think this activity can be applicable to an introductory Geography/Social Studies lesson that will help activate students’ prior knowledge and get them comfortable, included and excited.

8.8.3. Dimensions of Multicultural Education

8.8.3.1. Content integration Equity pedagogy Empowering school culture and social structure Prejudice reduction Knowledge construction process

8.8.4. Aboriginal Education Risk Factors

8.8.4.1. Early school failures Moving from school to school Lack of parent support Lack of teachers with knowledge of Aboriginal studies Living in remote communities Lack of resources Special needs

8.8.4.2. Aboriginal Education Protective Factors

8.8.4.2.1. Early intervention Resiliency Positive self-image Family engagement Community involvement Relevant programming Aboriginal role models

8.8.5. Instrumental Value of Education

8.8.5.1. Degree to which students believe that doing well in school produces benefits

9. Knowing that the Students Know

9.1. Enduring Questions

9.1.1. Endurance – will this expectation provide students with knowledge and skills that will be a value beyond a single test date?

9.1.2. Leverage – will this provide knowledge and skills that will be of value in multiple disciplines

9.1.3. Prepare for the next level – will this provide students with essential knowledge and skills necessary for success in the next grade or level of instruction?

9.1.4. I will use enduring questions in my classroom to get students to think critically and broaden their horizons!

9.2. How People Learn Framework

9.2.1. learner centredness

9.2.2. knowledge centredness

9.2.3. community connectedness

9.2.4. teaching & learning assessment centredness

9.2.5. to organize what is known

9.3. Understanding By Design by Jay McTighe

9.3.1. We teach and assess for understanding and transfer

9.3.2. Whats worth understanding? This is a challenge for teachers because every subject area has so much content.

9.3.3. Values in school transcend subject areas like critical thinking, creativity, the ability to work with others

9.3.4. We want students to understand the larger transferable concepts and processes within and across subjects.

9.3.4.1. = BIG IDEAS: we want teach our students and help them understand the importance of being an active, responsible citizen in their (global) community!

10. Standardized Achievement Tests

10.1. Standardized Testing in Canada

10.1.1. Federal: Achievement levels of 13 year olds (math, reading, and science)

10.1.2. Provincial/Territorial: Different uses including math and literacy testing at certain grade levels and Grade 12 exit exams

10.2. Norm-Referenced: Student’s score determined by comparing performance to that of other students

10.3. Standardized Tests

10.3.1. Contain the same questions for all test-takers

10.3.2. Are administered to all test-takers in same fashion

10.3.3. Are scored in systematic and uniform manner

10.3.4. Are different from teacher-made tests and aptitude tests

10.4. Test Types

10.4.1. Criterion-Referenced: Student’s score determined by comparing performance to established criteria

10.5. Standardized Testing Programs

10.5.1. Original purpose: To assess effectiveness of instruction

10.6. Criticisms of Standardized Testing

10.6.1. Biased tests

10.6.2. Stressful for students and teachers

10.6.3. Results in teaching to the test

10.6.4. Takes up too much time

10.6.5. Does not enhance student learning

10.6.6. Content of tests does not reflect instruction

10.6.7. Situational/Environmental Factors

10.6.7.1. "it might be too bright or too dark or even too cold or too hot. The testing conditions may cause students to perform poorly such as when students might miss questions not because they do not know the material but for something as simple as the testing center had poor lighting that caused headaches in students, or because the testing room was too cold and did not allow certain students to focus."(Standardized Testing: Fair or Not? By Dr. John Poulsen and Kurtis Hewson)

10.6.7.2. "There is a tendency to “teach to the test”, which results in narrowing of the curriculum. The tests do not allow for linguistic or other cultural differences among students. There is the potential for subgroups of students to become lost within the overall numbers. Standardized testing leads to student disengagement. The tests do not adequately assess 21st Century skills such as creativity, technological ability, problem solving, or critical thinking skills."(Canadian Education Association: The Facts on Education What is the Value of Standardized Testing?)

10.6.8. Standardized Testing: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO "Children throw up... cry....feel pressured... because of tests"

10.6.8.1. STUDENTS SHOULD BE MOTIVATED TO COME TO SCHOOL AND BE EXCITED TO LEARN NEW THINGS AND EXPAND THEIR MINDS!! It is OUR job to accomplish this!

10.7. Classroom and large-scale assessments should...

10.7.1. Be based on the same curriculum framework

10.7.2. Address the same cognitive demands

10.7.3. Incorporate similar tasks

10.7.4. Use common standards for judging quality of work

10.7.5. Use same benchmarks to represent learning over time

10.8. Convey positive attitudes about testing

10.9. Constructing Better Standardized Tests

10.9.1. All tests are imperfect instruments Even the highest quality tests are problematic if used for improper applications.

10.10. Standardized tests should....

10.10.1. Enhance teaching and learning

10.10.2. Improve curricular design

10.10.3. Be minimally intrusive

10.11. Preparing Students for Standardized Tests

10.11.1. Teach test-taking skills

10.11.2. Simulate use of time limits during testing

10.11.3. Familiarize students with types of questions used

10.11.4. Involve students in marking questions of each type

10.12. Interpreting Standardized Test Scores

10.12.1. Does the student’s score make sense? How does the score compare to the student’s other achievement indicators?Does the score reveal growth in learning? Did the student just have a bad day?

10.13. Performance-Level Scores

10.13.1. Classifications of student performance that describe and clarify standardized assessment results

10.14. What is School For?

10.14.1. Fredrick J. Kelly

10.14.1.1. ostracized because he dared to speak up about a system that was working

10.14.1.2. in the past, school was about teaching obedience, saying "goodmorning boys and girls"

10.14.1.2.1. If we can understand and recognize this compliance and obedience in the school system and the ways in which the school is structured, we can come together and transform the education system. We must talk about this because not everyone learns in the same approach. Throughout my 4 year undergrad, most of my professors read from a slideshow or read from their notes without expanding on the material or engaging us. Obviously I can sit through it for a couple hours because I'm old enough to do that but the only thing that encouraged me to do was memorize for the exam and forget about it right after. What is the point of memorizing something if you are going to forget it after you write the exam? How is that preparing me for the future? For anything? In my own professional practice, I will pay attention to my students' strengths, weaknesses and interests and work towards instructing and teaching diverse, inclusive, engaging lesson plans in my classroom.

10.14.1.3. We are products of the Industrial age = productivity

10.14.1.4. Universal Public Education = to train people to fit in

10.14.1.5. art enables students to do more

10.14.1.6. we must destroy the misconception that great performance in school leads to happiness and success.. and that great parents have ids who perform great at school