Teaching, Learning and Development

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Teaching, Learning and Development by Mind Map: Teaching, Learning and Development

1. Unit 2: Considering Developmental Differences

1.1. Link to personal experience: I have taught art classes to students ranging from JK-Grade 12; I have seen first-hand that students develop at different rates. As a teacher, it is my duty to be cognizant of my students' development, and adjust my teaching style accordingly.

1.2. Researchers

1.2.1. Vygotsky Zone of proximal development The difference between what a learner can do without the aid of a teacher, and what they cannot do. Scaffolding "Support points" help students perform an action.

1.2.2. Erikson Psychosocial Development 8 stages

1.2.3. Growth Mindset

1.2.4. Piaget Piaget's 4 stages of cognitive development (as detailed above, in the Unit 1 section of the mind map) These stages are useful for determining the "normal" or "typical" rate of development; however, it is important to note that these stages or not concrete. Indeed, students of the same age may show signs of differentiating development.

1.2.5. Kahlberg Moral Development Stage 1: Pre-conventional Stage 2: Conventional Stage 3: Post-conventional

2. Unit 1: Preparing for the Upcoming School Year

2.1. Prepare as much as possible before September!

2.1.1. Accomplish this by looking at class lists ahead of time. If possible, refer to OSRs. Identify any IEP or Student Success students, and plan accordingly.

2.1.2. Begin to plan lessons; which lessons worked last year? Which did not?

2.2. 4 Commonplaces, According to Schwab

2.2.1. 1) Teacher

2.2.2. 2) Curriculum

2.2.3. 3) Student

2.2.4. 4) Classroom

2.3. Jean Piaget

2.3.1. Constructivism

2.3.2. Theory of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor (birth-2 years) Preoperational (2-7 years) Concrete Operational (7-11 years) Formal Operational (11 years-onward)

2.4. Styles (approaches) of instruction

2.4.1. Student-centered Useful for encouraging student collaboration and engagement Link to personal experience - Pros: Students hone communication skills. Cons: room is extremely noisy, and can become unruly

2.4.2. Teacher centered Useful for quickly and clearly conveying information to students Link to personal experience - Pros: Orderly classroom. Teacher is in charge of what is discussed, and how it is deal with. Cons: Students may "zone out" during instruction. General lack of engagement.

3. Unit 3: Establishing a Positive Learning Environment

3.1. Dynamic Classroom Management (DCM)

3.1.1. Designed by Alan Edmunds at the University of Western Ontario

3.1.2. Incorporates the most current research available on classroom management

3.1.3. Adheres to the five global principles of effective classroom management, as summarized by Evertson and Weinstein 1) Develop caring, supportive relationships with and among students. 2) Organize and implement instruction in ways that optimize students’ access to learning. 3) Use group management methods that encourage students’ engagement in academic tasks. 4) Promote the development of students’ social skills and self-regulation. 5) Use appropriate interventions to assist students with behaviour problems.

3.1.4. Link to personal experience: While teaching a lunch-hour art program to "at-risk" teens at a Guelph high school, the classroom could easily become unruly. I implemented some of the strategies of DCM, without actually realizing that they contribute to an official classroom management strategy. I can say, from a place of personal experience, that these methods work.

3.2. Link to personal experience: As a future high school teacher, I want to incorporate my students in the rule making process. As outlined in the textbook, older students are more receptive to rules when they have contributed to their conception.

3.3. ADHD

3.3.1. Becoming more and more commonplace among our students

3.3.2. Can be difficult to distinguish between ADHD-caused behaviours and regular inattentiveness

3.3.3. Creating a balance between accountability and expectations

3.4. Deci's 3 guiding principals to nurture fundamental needs:

3.4.1. 1) Autonomy

3.4.2. 2) Competence

3.4.3. 3) Relatedness

4. Unit 4: Instructional Decisions

4.1. Backward Design

4.1.1. Identifying the intended goals that you want your students to accomplish/be able to do as a result of your lesson

4.1.2. 4 step method to this approach: 1) What do I want my students to learn? What I want students to learn is called an instructional goal/learning objective. 2) How will I determine whether or not they have learned? The educational device that determines whether or not the learning objective has been learned is called an assessment question. 3) What will I teach? I will teach topics/units/lessons that directly address the intended instructional goal/learning objectives. 4) How will I teach? I will choose the best way to teach the topics/units/lessons so that objectives are fully achieved/realized.

4.2. Bloom's Taxonomy

4.2.1. The acquisition of knowledge is a complicated, hierarchical process. Bloom's taxonomy breaks this process down to six steps/stages, from least complex to most complex: Knowledge Remembering or recognizing something factual Comprehension Interpreting/understanding information Application Being able to use information to solve a problem Analysis Breaking concepts into parts; indicating relationships Synthesis Bringing ideas together; generating/creating new ideas from other related ideas Judgement Judging the respective worth/value of something

4.3. Link to personal experience: I wholeheartedly subscribe to the approach of backward design. I want to always start by identifying what I want my students to learn; as such, I can alter the process in order to accomplish this goal, without being limited by what I have already planned. This is a malleable and effective approach to education

4.4. Inquiry-based learning

4.4.1. Teaching a subject/topic by asking questions, instead of simply relaying information Incorporating students into their own learning process Applications: Use open-ended questions on exit tickets

5. Unit 5: Assessing Student Progress

5.1. Purposes/ Different Types of Assessment

5.1.1. Diagnostic Assessment Assessment that occurs before instruction. The teacher uses this type of assessment to gauge the students' level of competency, and to thereafter modify instruction accordingly

5.1.2. Formative Assessment Assessment that occurs during instruction. The teacher uses this type of assessment in order to verify his/her students' comprehension, and to make sure they responding well to the instruction. This type of assessment can take many forms, such as quizzes, exit cards, and group work.

5.1.3. Summative Assessment Assessment that occurs after instruction. The goal of this type of assessment is to verify whether or not the students have learned, and to what degree. Examples of this type of assessment include presentations, essays and exams.

5.2. Bloom's Taxonomy

5.2.1. As explained in the Unit 4 section of this mind map Assessment can be implemented at each of the stages

5.3. How to assess? Different types of assessment questions

5.3.1. Selected Response: Students choose from a list of provided responses True/False Matching Multiple Choice

5.3.2. Constructed Response The teacher leads the students to provide a response on their own, using knowledge that they acquired through instruction Short Answer Essay Questions, where the teacher gives the topic

5.4. Link to personal experience: As a future teacher, I want to incorporate all of the above-mentioned types of assessment. In doing so, I will also be assessing the validity and effectiveness of each strategy, and I will therefore be able to adjust my teaching style accordingly.

6. Unit 6: Individual Differences

6.1. Students are all intelligent in different ways.

6.1.1. Is intelligence a structure, or a process? 8 types of intelligence as structures 1) Linguistic 2) Logical-Mathematical 3) Spatial 4) Musical 5) Kinetic 6) Intrapersonal 7) Interpersonal 8) Naturalistic Intelligence as a process Analytical/ Componential Intelligence Creative/ Experiential Intelligence Practical/ Contextual Intelligence

6.1.2. The 3 most important "General Intelligence" subtopics 1) Fluid intelligence - general reasoning 2) Crystalized intelligence - comprehension 3) Visual-spatial intelligence - visualization

6.2. How do we handle students who cannot learn the same way as other students?

6.2.1. ". . . is a document that outlines a student’s individualized educational goals, the services that a student with exceptionalities will receive, the methods and strategies that will be used to deliver these services to ensure that goals are met, and the placement in which all of these will be provided"

6.3. Link to personal experience: While teaching an art therapy class to adults with disabilities, I learned a lot about different types of intelligence. For example, although some of my students were not able to read or write, they had incredible interpersonal intelligence. As a future teacher, I want to always be sensitive to my students' differences, and help each and every one of them succeed.

7. Unit 7: Socio-cultural Decisions

7.1. Schools are becoming more and more diverse

7.1.1. Teachers must be sensitive to this diversity, and actively work to incorporate all cultures in the classroom

7.2. The biggest factor in a student's life that impacts his/her success in school is his/her Socio-Economic-Status

7.2.1. Schools can often be easily differentiated by judging the average household income of the surrounding neighbourhood In Canada, there are 5 identifiable socio-economic-statuses Lowest Lower Middle Upper-Middle Highest Teachers should strive to provide the best possible instruction that they can, regardless of funding. However, this can be difficult: teachers may be faced with a severe lack of resources, depending on the school

7.3. Teachers must also be sensitive to/ aware of a student's parental situation

7.3.1. Different approaches to parenting: Authoritarian Strong basis in tradition and obedience. This approach sometimes encourages kids to rebel, because they feel oppressed. Permissive Accepts a child's actions, regardless of whether or not they are acceptable. This approach is often criticized for its lack of structure and discipline. Authoritative Balanced approach to parenting. This approach adopts a "give-and-take" attitude. Very effective.

7.3.2. Personal experience: While teaching art classes to "at-risk" teens, I was sometimes surprised at their seemingly random mood changes from day-to-day. I had to remind myself that I did not know their situations at home, and that these parental situations may have had some impact on their attitudes at school.

7.3.3. As a teacher, I am the primary care provider for students, outside of their homes. Therefore, I must always conduct my behaviour in the classroom in order to be a positive role model for them.

8. Unit 8: Standardized Testing

8.1. Definition of a "standardized test". It is a test that...

8.1.1. 1) Contains the same questions for all test-takers

8.1.2. 2) Is administered to all individuals in the same fashion, under the same conditions, and within a specified time

8.1.3. 3) Is always scored in a systematic and uniform manner.

8.2. Achievement vs. Aptitude tests

8.2.1. Aptitude Measures a student's behavioural, cognitive, and social skills. Aims to answer the question, "What is the student able to do?"

8.2.2. Achievement Often used in a widespread manner to assess the ability of a large group of students. Aims to answer the question, "What knowledge and/or skill level has the student achieved?"

8.3. Standardized Testing in North America

8.3.1. USA: the SAT

8.3.2. Canada Ontario Administered in grades 3, 6, 9 Alberta PAT (Provincial Achievement Test)