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Evolution by Mind Map: Evolution

1. ex. a grey hound and corgi, cant breed due to barriers

2. Populations

2.1. fertile offspring

2.2. gene-pool-all alleles in population

2.3. polymorphism-2 or more variants for a character of a population

2.3.1. ex. elder flowered, 2 color variants

2.4. allele frequency-# of copies of an allele/total alleles for that gene

2.5. genotype- set of genes responsible for that trait, frequencies of the alleles

2.6. relative fitness- the survival rate of one genotype compared to all of the others.

2.7. variation- differences between cells due to environmental/genetic differences.

2.8. The 5 Factors of Hardy-Eq

2.8.1. mutations happen at random MRSA

2.8.2. geneflow (migration) alleles move btw populations immigrants coming in will make alleles less different.

2.8.3. chance (genetic drift) bottle neck a sudden change in environment founder effect isolation occurs from a large population

2.8.4. non-random mating

2.8.5. natural selection directional mutation makes organism better in environment, out competes other alleles----mean fitness > stabillizing too many results in problems, too less does too. Middle is preffered diversifying (disruptive) both extremes are preferred balancing heterozygous gene results in resistance to disease sexual a form of natural selection desired trait of mate intra inter

3. Plants

3.1. nonvascular (bryophytes)

3.1.1. no xylem, phloem ex. mosses, liverworts, hornworts cant be far from water bc no xylem

3.2. vascular (tracheophytes)

3.2.1. non-seed ex. ferns

3.2.2. seed naked seeds gymnosperms flower seeds angiosperms all fruit come from flowers, swollen ovarys

3.3. Terrestrial

3.4. uses alt of gen

3.4.1. sporophyte produces spores through meiosis (diploid)

3.4.2. gametophyte produces games through mitosis (haploid)

3.4.3. useful bc it disperses seeds

4. Speciation

4.1. species=kind, appearance

4.2. one population splits into 2, these split again and common ancestor disappears

4.3. Mayr's Biological Species concept based on reproduction/isolation

4.3.1. group of populations who interbreed and produce fertile offspring

4.4. Morphological Species Concept

4.4.1. based on classifying species based on characteristics such as body shape and structures towards asexual and sexual.

4.5. Ecological Species Concept

4.5.1. species based on a niche and its environment

4.6. Phylogenetic Species Concept

4.6.1. based on a common ancestor and its derived traits

4.7. reproduction isolation-barriers to prevent 2 species from making fertile offspring

4.7.1. prezygotic habitat ex. snake in lake, snake in desert temporal ex. skunks in different season may breed at different TIMES behavioral ex. meadowlark (east&west) have different chirps to their mates mechanical ex. snails trying to both go clockwise into each other's shell gametic specie's egg&sperm meets but unable to fertilize

4.7.2. postzygotic reduced hybrid viability ex. frail salanmander different species mate hybrid breakdown 1st generation makes it but not the 2nd (infertile) reduced hybrid fertility ex. donkey

4.8. cladogenesis (species splits into 2, no gene flow)

4.8.1. allopatric

4.8.2. sympatric isolated from behavior species are geographically isolated from each other black cap, birds go to britain because it is shorter and people put out bird feeders

4.9. Evo-Devo

4.9.1. studies ancestral relationships

4.9.2. study of hox genes body form plans

5. Prokaryotes

5.1. bacteria

5.1.1. first organism on Earth cyanbacteria oxygen producing, chlorophyll a and phycoblins, single-cell, grows in blooms when alot of heat is present. Alot of N and P produce cyanbacteria. freshwater, oceans, wetlands only prokaryotes to generate o2 from photosynthesis gave rise to plastids actinobacteria fix N, makes antibiotics gram positive has mycuim, looks like fungi also know asmycobacteruim chloroflexi terrestrial or aquatic decomposes organic matter

5.1.2. classified according to shape and staining sphere-shaped rod-shaped comma shaped spiral-shaped

5.1.3. gram-postive violet, thick peptidoglycan layers

5.1.4. gram-negative pink, thin layer of peptidoglycan

5.2. archaea

5.2.1. histone protiens

5.2.2. RNA polymerases

5.2.3. Ribsomal proteins

5.2.4. most recent ancestor

5.2.5. different from bacteria: archaea and eukarya share a more recent common ancestor archaea has a more complex RNA polymerase membrane bonding different from each other archaea doesnt include peptidogycan

5.3. unicellular

6. Protist

6.1. eukaryotes

6.2. not a clade bc endosymbiosis happened multiple times, termed "polyphyletic"

6.3. not a fungi, plant nor animal

6.4. invented

6.4.1. sexual life cycles protist CAN reproduce ASEXUALLY

6.4.2. multicellulararity

6.4.3. complex organelles

6.4.4. linear chromosomes, mitosis

7. Origins

7.1. Hypotheses for organic molecules (stage 1)

7.1.1. Reducing atmospere atm rich in water vapor, H2, CH4, NH3, O2 Stanley Miller used a chamber apparatus to stimulate atm & lightening Formed Precursors, amino acids, sugars, and nitrogenous bases organic molecules can come from inorganic molecules

7.1.2. Extraterrestrial meteorites brought carbon to Earth carbon, aminos, nucleic bases

7.1.3. Deep Sea Vent molecules formed between extremely hot vent water & cold ocean water

7.2. Organic polymers (stage 2)

7.2.1. nucleic acids, proteins, DNA, and carbohydrates (MACRO MOLECULES ARE FORMED)

7.2.2. nucleic acid polymers&polypeptides on clay surfaces

7.2.3. cant form in aquatic solutions bc hydrolysis competes with polymerization

7.3. Boundaries (Stage 3)

7.3.1. Protobiont- precursors to prokaryotic cells 1) boundary separates ext env from int contents 2)Polymers inside protobiont contains info (RNA) 3) polymers had enzymatic function, proteins have more functions 4)maintain homeostasis replication needed

7.3.2. living cells evolved from..? coacervates-droplets from charged polymers organisms needs this to have metabolic function liposomes- vesicles around phospholipid bilayer..closest to humans, on smooth ERs enclose RNA to replicate

7.3.3. central Dogma RNA (came first) 1) stores info prone to mutations

7.4. RNA World Hypothesis (Stage 4)

7.5. Chemical Selection (mixture of a chemical, has properties that makes it increase)

7.5.1. DNA takes over RNA info storage DNA has less mutations

7.5.2. Protein takes over metabolism has greater catalytic potential can transport, etc

7.5.3. doesnt rely on reprouction

7.5.4. Bartel experiments that RNA doesnt need its enzymatic functions to make DNA

7.6. you can tell where and when they are located and what organisms evolved from

7.7. Fossils

7.7.1. once living, decomposed&compacted into earths surface time, anatomy, size, number, geo, location

7.7.2. most rocks are sedimentary cant find DNA sequence bc of soft tissues

7.8. History of Life on Earth

7.8.1. Earth 4.55 bya

7.8.2. Hadean Eon (no life)

7.8.3. Archaean Eon (prokaryotes) fossils-3.5 bya stromalites-layerd CaCO3 organisms anaerobic 1st cells heterotrophic cyanbacteria produce O2

7.8.4. Proterozoic (Eukaryotes) euk-1.5 bya went through endosymbiosis archae invaginates membrane membrane takes in bacteruim cyanbacteria event first diploblaastic first multicellular

7.8.5. Phanerozoic Eon (after Precambrian, animals appear) Cambrian Explosion (animals and plants) happened animals (first) sponge-like/Jelly fish (radial symmetry) Paleozoic Era 1st animals/land plants Era dinosaurs, birds, flowers Cenozoic Era hominids

7.8.6. came from Prebiotic soup

7.8.7. first made cell was a prokayote, then... formed into eukaryote

7.8.8. universe 13.7 bya

7.8.9. solar system 4.6 bya

7.8.10. life 3.5 bya

7.9. Env changes that influence macroevo

7.9.1. climate

7.9.2. atm

7.9.3. continental drift

7.9.4. volcanoes

7.9.5. meteros

8. Natural Selection

8.1. the change in heritable characteristics of a population/time

8.1.1. explains wide observations supported by a large body of evidence cannot create diverse traits, acts on variation

8.2. Charles Darwin

8.2.1. "The Origin of Species"

8.2.2. challenged views of earth origin

8.2.3. descent with modification=diversity

8.2.4. artificial selection modify traits and breed breeders determine what traits to have

8.2.5. traits inherited from parents-offspring

8.2.6. 13 finish species

8.2.7. natural selection happens because of natural variation

8.3. Misconceptions

8.4. homology-similar to each other, from common ancestor

8.4.1. set of bones in forearms structure

8.5. analogy-convergence, arises independently

8.5.1. function

8.6. MRSA

8.6.1. resitant to antibacteria, especially penicillum vanocomycin worked in MRSA, vanomycin was the only one that had a mutation that could survive, until plate 3 when MRSA started resisting that, too.

8.6.2. a bacteria that causes infections on the body resistant to penicillin derivatives will become resistant to more antibacterial over evolvement

8.6.3. dev a mutation that outcompetes others due to N.S. and its abilityto resist dying from antibacteria, so its the only to survive s it reporduces and is more resistant to other antbacterias over time

8.7. N.S. doesnt create new traits, but selects.

8.8. vestical structure

8.8.1. structures you get from common ancestor but aren't relevent evidence of evolutionary change

8.9. molecular structure that involves the gene sequences of RNA,DNA and proteins over generations over a period of time

9. Taxonomy & Systematics

9.1. Taxonmy

9.1.1. describing and naming categories based on taxons Bacteria Archaea Eukarya 5 scientific names Cannis familiaris Felis cactus Capra hircus Canis lupus Homo sapiens

9.1.2. history of taxons Plants or animals 5 kingdom system kingdom monero Kingdom Protista Kingdom Animalia Kingdom Fungi 3 Domain System Bacteria Archae Eukarya

9.2. Systematics

9.2.1. bio diversity and evo relationships

9.2.2. phylogenetic trees cladogenesis (divergence) monophyletic paraphyletic polyphyletic anagenesis (rare) (one species into another)

9.2.3. cladistics cladograms two character states they are grouped by horizontal gene transfer

9.2.4. clade-one

10. Bacteria and Achaea

10.1. Norman Pace

10.1.1. doesn't like the word "prokaryote" bc it is defined as a precursor of eukaryotes and means it doesnt have membrane bound organelles or a nucleus and he says words shouldnt be define as to what they arent. to get rid of the word one might have to make a new word and make it popular, change it in textbooks,etc.

10.2. Bacteria (here 1st)

10.2.1. moderate condition, some extreme actinmycetes colonies with branched chains of cells decomposed organic matter causes strep throat used for antibiotics cyanobacteria o2 producing bacteria, only one to release o2 from photosynthesis chloropyll a and phycoblins-green pigment produces blooms that are toxic chloroplast evolved from it proteobacteria gram-negative aerobic/anaerobic splits into 5 subgroups

10.2.2. defined by shapes rod-shaped comma shaped spiral shaped sphere shaped

10.2.3. Peptidoglycan thick cell wall on the plasma membrane that contains amino acids and sugars that makes bacteria pos/meg staining. also called murein Gram positive pink, thick layer Gram negative violet, thin layer

10.3. archaea

10.3.1. closer to eukaryotes bc of histone proteins, RNA polymerases and ribosomal proteins

10.3.2. ether bonds

10.3.3. lives in extreme conditions