Psychology

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Psychology by Mind Map: Psychology

1. Big Influences in Psych

1.1. Wundt "Father of Psychology"- volunteerism and introspection

1.2. Watson "Little Albert-behaviorism

1.3. Maslow-Hierarchy of Needs

2. Research Methods

2.1. Experimental-indep. variable manipulated

2.1.1. Classical Conditioning-CS, US, CR, UR

2.1.1.1. Intrinsic motivation-one's own sake

2.1.1.2. Extrinsic motivation-promised rewards

2.1.2. Reinforcement schedules-

2.1.2.1. fixed-ratio-reienforced after a set number of responses

2.1.2.2. variable-ratio- provide reinforcers after a seemingly unpredictable number of responses

2.1.2.3. fixed-interval-reinforce the 1st response after a fixed period of time

2.1.2.4. variable-interval-reinforce the 1st response after varying time periods

2.1.3. Operant Conditioning-behavior is strengthened or diminished

2.2. Descriptive-observe & record

2.3. Correlational-naturally occurring

3. Biology

3.1. Nervous System

3.1.1. Peripheral

3.1.1.1. Autonomic-self-regulated internal organs and glands

3.1.1.1.1. Sympathetic Nervous System- simulates fight-or-flight response, maintains homeostasis

3.1.1.2. Somatic

3.1.1.2.1. Sensory input

3.1.1.2.2. Motor Output-skeletal muscles

3.1.2. Central (brain and spinal cord)

3.2. The Brain

3.2.1. Association Areas

3.2.1.1. Frontal lobe-personality, emotion and thinking

3.2.1.1.1. Motivation

3.2.1.1.2. Emotion-bodily arousal, expressive behavior, and conscious experience

3.2.1.1.3. Personality

3.2.1.2. Temporal-memory and language

3.2.1.2.1. Hypothalamus-maitnenance functions and emotion

3.2.1.2.2. Hippocampus-emotion, memory, and autonomic NS

3.2.1.2.3. Amygdala-linked to emotion

3.2.1.3. Occipital-vision

3.2.1.3.1. Consciousness-awarness of self and environment

3.2.1.3.2. Sleep

3.2.1.4. Parietal-perception

3.2.1.4.1. Perceptual Set-mental disposition to perceive on thing and not another

3.2.1.4.2. Context effects-given stimulus that triggers radically different perceptions

3.2.1.5. Motor cortex-movement

3.2.1.6. Sensory Cortex-sensations

3.2.1.6.1. Bottom-up=sensory receptors

3.2.1.6.2. Top-down=creates meaning from sensory input

3.3. Plasticity-brain's ability to change especially during childhood from damage or experience

4. Development

4.1. Infancy

4.1.1. Social/emotional-biological attachment to parents through body contact and imprinting

4.1.1.1. Baumrind's 4 parenting styles

4.1.1.1.1. 1. Authoritative-mutual trust and respect, two-way communication

4.1.1.1.2. 2. Authoritarian-control, different perspectives not acceptable, one-way communication

4.1.1.1.3. 3. Permissive-indulgence and entitlement, little control

4.1.1.1.4. 4. Neglectful-nonexistment relationship, no communication

4.1.2. Cognitive-schemas, assimilation and accommodation

4.2. Adolescence

4.2.1. Social/emotional-forming identity vs. role confusion

4.2.1.1. Erickson's Stages of Psychosocial Development

4.2.1.1.1. Infancy (0-1)-trust v. mistrust

4.2.1.1.2. Toddlerhood (1-3)-autonomy v. shame and doubt

4.2.1.1.3. Preschool (3-6)-initiative v. guilt

4.2.1.1.4. Elementary school (6-puberty)-competence v. inferiority

4.2.1.1.5. Adolescence (teens-20s)-identity v. role confusion

4.2.1.1.6. Young Adulthood (20s-early 40s)-intimacy v. isolation

4.2.1.1.7. Middle Adulthood (40s-60s)-generativity v. stagnation

4.2.1.1.8. Late Adulthood (late 60s-death)-integrity v. despair

4.2.2. Cognitive-reasoning power, morality

4.2.2.1. Kohlberg's Moral Development Theory

4.2.2.1.1. Preconventional (age 9 and under)-self-interest obeys rules to avoid punishment

4.2.2.1.2. Conventional (early adolescence)-upholds laws and rules to gain social approval and order

4.2.2.1.3. Postconventional (adolescence and above)-actions reflect belief in basic rights and self-defined ethical principles

4.2.3. Formal Operations: 1)physical development 2)cognitive development 3)social development 4)emerging adulthood

4.3. Adulthood

4.3.1. Generativity-concern for people besides self & family

5. Abormal Psychology

5.1. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-screens for personality and psychosocial disorders in adults

5.1.1. 3 Ds of Abnormal Psych

5.1.1.1. 1. Deviance-outside of social norms and expectations

5.1.1.2. 2. Distress-divorce from reality

5.1.1.3. 3. Disfunction-disrupts flow of normal social situations

5.1.2. Medical Model

5.1.2.1. Biological: evolution, individual genes, brain structures and chemistry

5.1.2.2. Social-cultural: roles, expectations, definitions of normality of disorder

5.1.2.3. Psychological: stress, trauma, learned helplessness, mood-related perception and memories

5.1.2.3.1. Transference-innappropriate repetition in the present of a relationship that was important in a person's childhood

5.1.2.3.2. Rumination-tendency to repetitively think about the causes, situational factors, and consequences of one's negative emotional experience

5.1.3. Labeling

5.1.3.1. Predicts course of the disorder

5.1.3.2. Suggests appropriate treatment

5.1.3.3. Prompts search into a disorder's cause

5.2. Types of Disorders

5.2.1. Learning

5.2.1.1. ADHD-extrmem in attention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity

5.2.2. Anxiety

5.2.2.1. Panic disorder-sudden episodes of intense dread

5.2.2.2. Phobias-person is intensely and irrational afraid of a specific object, activity or situation

5.2.2.2.1. Agoraphobia-fear of places and situations that might cause panic, helplessness or embarrassment

5.2.2.3. PTSD-haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, numbness of feeling and/or insomnia that lingers for 4 weeks after a dramatic experience

5.2.3. Depressive/Personality

5.2.3.1. Major depressive disorder-experiences in absence of drugs or another medical condition, 2+ weeks with symptoms of at least 1 of 2 : 1) depressive mood 2) loss of interest of pleasure

5.2.3.1.1. Women's risk of depressive disorder is 2xs higher than men's

5.2.3.2. Bi-Polar-alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and overexcited state of mania

5.2.4. Schizophrenia and other

5.2.4.1. Antisocial personality disorder-person has a long-term pattern of manipulating, exploiting, or violating the rights of others

5.2.4.2. Schizophrenia-delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and/or inappropriate emotional expression

5.2.4.2.1. Hallucinations- experience involving apparent perception of something not present

5.2.4.2.2. Delusions-idiosyncratic belief or impression that is firmly maintained despite being contradicted by what is generally accepted as reality or rational argument, typically a symptom of mental disorder

5.3. Treatment

5.3.1. Counter Conditioning-conditioning a motivated behavior or response to a stimulus into a wanted behavior or response by the association of positive actions with stimulus

5.3.2. Biopsychosocial therapy-patient and provider's perspective

5.3.3. Anti-depressents-drugs used to treat major depressive disorder

5.3.4. Antipsychotics-major tranquilizers used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar

5.3.5. Lithium-sodium treatment used to treat the manic episodes of bipolar disorder

5.3.6. Electrocompulsive (ECT)- manipulates brain through shock waves

6. Social Psychology

6.1. Attribution-process by which individuals explain the causes of behavior and events

6.1.1. Dispositional-the explanation of individual behavior as a result caused by internal characteristics that reside within the individual

6.1.2. Situational-influences that stem from the environment or culture in which that individual is found

6.1.3. Fundamental attribution error (FAE)-the claim that in contrast to interpretations of their own behavior, people place undue emphasis on internal characteristics of the agent (character or intention) rather than external factors

6.2. Attitudes-an affective feelings of liking or disliking toward and object that has an influence of behavior

6.3. Central Route to Persuasion-person is persuaded by the content of the message

6.4. Cognitive Dissonance-mental discomfort experienced by a person who simultaneously holds 2 or more contradictory beliefs, ideas, or values

6.5. Norms-accepted standards of behavior for any given group

6.5.1. Descriptive norm-based on your perception of the behavior of the people around you

6.5.1.1. Mood linkage- human tendency to absorb and participate in the prevailing mood of the other people around

6.5.1.2. Group polarization-tendency for a group to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclination of its members

6.5.1.3. Just-world phenomenon-tendency to believe that the world is just and that people get what they deserve

6.5.1.4. Ingroup bias-tendency to favor one's own group

6.5.1.4.1. Mere-exposure effect-people tend to develop

6.5.1.5. Two-factor theory of attraction- based on physiological arousal and cognitive label

6.5.2. Injunctive norm-involves you perception of whether a behavior will be approved or disapproved by a given group

6.5.2.1. Stereotype-widley adopted thought about specific types of individuals or certain ways of behaving intended to represent the entire group of those individuals or behaviors as a whole