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Psychology by Mind Map: Psychology

1. Big Influences in Psych

1.1. Wundt "Father of Psychology"- volunteerism and introspection

1.2. Watson "Little Albert-behaviorism

1.3. Maslow-Hierarchy of Needs

2. Research Methods

2.1. Experimental-indep. variable manipulated

2.1.1. Classical Conditioning-CS, US, CR, UR Intrinsic motivation-one's own sake Extrinsic motivation-promised rewards

2.1.2. Reinforcement schedules- fixed-ratio-reienforced after a set number of responses variable-ratio- provide reinforcers after a seemingly unpredictable number of responses fixed-interval-reinforce the 1st response after a fixed period of time variable-interval-reinforce the 1st response after varying time periods

2.1.3. Operant Conditioning-behavior is strengthened or diminished

2.2. Descriptive-observe & record

2.3. Correlational-naturally occurring

3. Biology

3.1. Nervous System

3.1.1. Peripheral Autonomic-self-regulated internal organs and glands Sympathetic Nervous System- simulates fight-or-flight response, maintains homeostasis Somatic Sensory input Motor Output-skeletal muscles

3.1.2. Central (brain and spinal cord)

3.2. The Brain

3.2.1. Association Areas Frontal lobe-personality, emotion and thinking Motivation Emotion-bodily arousal, expressive behavior, and conscious experience Personality Temporal-memory and language Hypothalamus-maitnenance functions and emotion Hippocampus-emotion, memory, and autonomic NS Amygdala-linked to emotion Occipital-vision Consciousness-awarness of self and environment Sleep Parietal-perception Perceptual Set-mental disposition to perceive on thing and not another Context effects-given stimulus that triggers radically different perceptions Motor cortex-movement Sensory Cortex-sensations Bottom-up=sensory receptors Top-down=creates meaning from sensory input

3.3. Plasticity-brain's ability to change especially during childhood from damage or experience

4. Development

4.1. Infancy

4.1.1. Social/emotional-biological attachment to parents through body contact and imprinting Baumrind's 4 parenting styles 1. Authoritative-mutual trust and respect, two-way communication 2. Authoritarian-control, different perspectives not acceptable, one-way communication 3. Permissive-indulgence and entitlement, little control 4. Neglectful-nonexistment relationship, no communication

4.1.2. Cognitive-schemas, assimilation and accommodation

4.2. Adolescence

4.2.1. Social/emotional-forming identity vs. role confusion Erickson's Stages of Psychosocial Development Infancy (0-1)-trust v. mistrust Toddlerhood (1-3)-autonomy v. shame and doubt Preschool (3-6)-initiative v. guilt Elementary school (6-puberty)-competence v. inferiority Adolescence (teens-20s)-identity v. role confusion Young Adulthood (20s-early 40s)-intimacy v. isolation Middle Adulthood (40s-60s)-generativity v. stagnation Late Adulthood (late 60s-death)-integrity v. despair

4.2.2. Cognitive-reasoning power, morality Kohlberg's Moral Development Theory Preconventional (age 9 and under)-self-interest obeys rules to avoid punishment Conventional (early adolescence)-upholds laws and rules to gain social approval and order Postconventional (adolescence and above)-actions reflect belief in basic rights and self-defined ethical principles

4.2.3. Formal Operations: 1)physical development 2)cognitive development 3)social development 4)emerging adulthood

4.3. Adulthood

4.3.1. Generativity-concern for people besides self & family

5. Abormal Psychology

5.1. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-screens for personality and psychosocial disorders in adults

5.1.1. 3 Ds of Abnormal Psych 1. Deviance-outside of social norms and expectations 2. Distress-divorce from reality 3. Disfunction-disrupts flow of normal social situations

5.1.2. Medical Model Biological: evolution, individual genes, brain structures and chemistry Social-cultural: roles, expectations, definitions of normality of disorder Psychological: stress, trauma, learned helplessness, mood-related perception and memories Transference-innappropriate repetition in the present of a relationship that was important in a person's childhood Rumination-tendency to repetitively think about the causes, situational factors, and consequences of one's negative emotional experience

5.1.3. Labeling Predicts course of the disorder Suggests appropriate treatment Prompts search into a disorder's cause

5.2. Types of Disorders

5.2.1. Learning ADHD-extrmem in attention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity

5.2.2. Anxiety Panic disorder-sudden episodes of intense dread Phobias-person is intensely and irrational afraid of a specific object, activity or situation Agoraphobia-fear of places and situations that might cause panic, helplessness or embarrassment PTSD-haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, numbness of feeling and/or insomnia that lingers for 4 weeks after a dramatic experience

5.2.3. Depressive/Personality Major depressive disorder-experiences in absence of drugs or another medical condition, 2+ weeks with symptoms of at least 1 of 2 : 1) depressive mood 2) loss of interest of pleasure Women's risk of depressive disorder is 2xs higher than men's Bi-Polar-alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and overexcited state of mania

5.2.4. Schizophrenia and other Antisocial personality disorder-person has a long-term pattern of manipulating, exploiting, or violating the rights of others Schizophrenia-delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and/or inappropriate emotional expression Hallucinations- experience involving apparent perception of something not present Delusions-idiosyncratic belief or impression that is firmly maintained despite being contradicted by what is generally accepted as reality or rational argument, typically a symptom of mental disorder

5.3. Treatment

5.3.1. Counter Conditioning-conditioning a motivated behavior or response to a stimulus into a wanted behavior or response by the association of positive actions with stimulus

5.3.2. Biopsychosocial therapy-patient and provider's perspective

5.3.3. Anti-depressents-drugs used to treat major depressive disorder

5.3.4. Antipsychotics-major tranquilizers used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar

5.3.5. Lithium-sodium treatment used to treat the manic episodes of bipolar disorder

5.3.6. Electrocompulsive (ECT)- manipulates brain through shock waves

6. Social Psychology

6.1. Attribution-process by which individuals explain the causes of behavior and events

6.1.1. Dispositional-the explanation of individual behavior as a result caused by internal characteristics that reside within the individual

6.1.2. Situational-influences that stem from the environment or culture in which that individual is found

6.1.3. Fundamental attribution error (FAE)-the claim that in contrast to interpretations of their own behavior, people place undue emphasis on internal characteristics of the agent (character or intention) rather than external factors

6.2. Attitudes-an affective feelings of liking or disliking toward and object that has an influence of behavior

6.3. Central Route to Persuasion-person is persuaded by the content of the message

6.4. Cognitive Dissonance-mental discomfort experienced by a person who simultaneously holds 2 or more contradictory beliefs, ideas, or values

6.5. Norms-accepted standards of behavior for any given group

6.5.1. Descriptive norm-based on your perception of the behavior of the people around you Mood linkage- human tendency to absorb and participate in the prevailing mood of the other people around Group polarization-tendency for a group to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclination of its members Just-world phenomenon-tendency to believe that the world is just and that people get what they deserve Ingroup bias-tendency to favor one's own group Mere-exposure effect-people tend to develop Two-factor theory of attraction- based on physiological arousal and cognitive label

6.5.2. Injunctive norm-involves you perception of whether a behavior will be approved or disapproved by a given group Stereotype-widley adopted thought about specific types of individuals or certain ways of behaving intended to represent the entire group of those individuals or behaviors as a whole