Lu, Criminal Law
Ling, Institutional regulations
Ge, Administrative rules
Shi, Formulas of Official documents
Gave men from non-rich or aristocratic families a chance to become an officer in court
Written examinations given to candidates for office. These tests tested their literary abilities and understanding of classic Confucianism.
Was hoped to draw the best and most talented men into government
Ideas of Confucius
The idea that China was overrun with rude and dishonest people
Kings should lead by example and inspiration
The idea that people were bad by nature and had to be controlled
The only way to keep peace in a civilization was through strict laws and punishment should fit the crime
Taoist alchemists experimented with sulfer and potassium nitrate.
A book later said that one should not tamper with such materials because it would be too dangerous.
Finally, in the Tang Dynasty, gunpowder was made: it was first used to make fireworks and signal flares.
Medicine emerged in the field of dentistry
Mysterious things like rainbows, echos, and waves got their first definitions.
They were the first to discover the art of casting bronze objects, it was a strong metal and was used for art as well as for war.
The Chinese started to breed mules for more efficient farm work
Acupuncture- the process of sticking needles into skin to relieve the body of stress and cure diseases
Invented about 3,000 years ago by the Chinese
Made from mulberry tree bark mixed with bamboo and water. Then they would drain it on a bamboo frame.
In the the Tang and Song Dynasties they started to use different kinds of barks to make paper.
They used xylography to print on the paper that they made.
Map making emerged and were drawn on bamboo or silk- the first official map was printed in 132 A.D
They were the first to make a compass, using an iron based material that aligned itself with north and south
They marked the calendar year by tracking the patterns of the sun and moon.
Originated in India; spread/introduced to China via the Silk Road
Beliefs, Everyone lives a sad and terrible life., The highest goal anyone can achieve is a good spiritual standing.
Rituals, Reciprocity: Do the things to others that you would want done to yourself., The goal is to be personally free: you must do that by obtaining wisdom through discernment., A person should do as much in his lifetime to reduce suffering in the world by following the Eightfold Path.
Beliefs, Tao (nature) is what makes up the universe and everything that is in it., Nature is God, there is no single deity., All people have inherent kindness in them
Rituals, All people must nurture the air, because it is part of nature., Everyone must think and ponder actions before they do them., The goal in life is to develop virtue, which is defined as compassion, moderation, and humility.
Beliefs, It is necessary to obey all rituals and reject personal wants and desires., Treatment of others is very important: love, kindness, and generosity are essential., A righteous standing is necessary, which you obtain by good treatment of others, as well as honesty and truthfulness.
Rituals, Birth, Marriage, Death
Most Famous Emperors of Tang Dynasty, Li Yuan, Ruled from 618–626 AD, Founded the Tang Dynasty, Li Shimin, Ruled from 627-649 AD, He is known as one of the greatest Chinese emperors in history, His ruling era is know as the "Flourishing Age", Wu Zetian, Rule from 690-704 AD, Only female emperor in Chinese history, Changed the name of the Tang dynasty to the Zhou dynasty during her rein, Mother of Li Zhi, Li Xian, and Li Dang who were all emperors during the Tang Dynasty, Li Xian, First rule as emperor lasted only 54 days, Regained power back from his mother and renamed the dynasty the Tang Dynasty, Second rule was from 705-710 AD, Li Longji, Ruler from 712-755 AD, Emperor during the rebellion by An Lushan (known as the An Shi Rebellion); start to see the decline of the Tang Dynasty, Li Chan, Ruled from 841-846 AD, Was one of only three emperors in Chinese history to ban Buddhism, Li Zuo, Ruled from 904-907 AD, Last emperor of the Tang Dynasty
Mandate from Heaven, Heaven gave power to the king or leader, When the Heavens were unsatisfied with the ruling, it would give its support to another person; that person would then take the place as the new king/emperor
Soldiers were also farmers and had to support themselves.
Soldiers were appointed by a specific commander and followed only him.
no longer farmers; only strict soldiers
easier to from strong military forces against the courts and government
military system during the An Shi Rebellion, decline of Tang Dynasty
The Great Wall, Built to protect the Chinese civilizations from Xiongnu attacks, Most of the wall was built during the Ming Dynasty, The Great Wall stretches 4,160 miles and surrounds a great proportion of present day China
They would use "Dugongs" which were wooden blocks inserted between the top of a column and a cross beam.
They also used "pillars" and "grinders" to build homes
At the time, they used "Tang's ministry of rites" which ment that the color of a building would determine the people's social ranking
For instance, the royal family's home would be painted yellow or red
residential buildings and government buildings were painted in red
and ordinary building would be painted in gray, white, or black.
cities were layed out on a rectangular plan surrounded by walls
The buiders would put up the roofs before the put up walls when building home
therefore, the walls were not holding any of the home's weight because they installed crossbeams
This allowed the architects to have freedom in the shape of roof they wanted to use
Foreign merchants from Southeast Asia, India, Arabia, came by sea to the port of Canton. Then travel north to a large trading city at the southern end of the Grand Canal, and then proceeded along the canal to Chang’an.
Canal systems, In northern China, roads were the main traffic routs, while in southern China, waterways were used to transport goods from the country sides to the cities., canal systems were used to transport goods
Foreign Trade, The Tang Empire traded with, India, Middle East, and Byzantium in the west., This was possible because the Tang maintained peace with all the different races they traded with.
Trade in Chang'an, The capitals and big cities of Tang China were important trade centers with their markets., Chang'an was a grand capital and was the largest metropolis at that time. it was filled with tens of thousands of traders, tourists, and scholars.
The Silk Road, linked central Asian kingdoms with major Chinese cities (such as the Tang Dynasty's capital- Chang'an), Increased trade and communication between people from different lands, Diffusion of new ideas and beliefs, Introduced China to Buddhism (originally from India), Transported goods, foreign ideas, foreign cultures, and foreign religions.
Money/Currency, The Tang money was Kaiyuan tongbao, and the Qianfeng yuanbao coins., Although coins were very widespread in the Tang empire, silk and hemp cloth still served as currency unit.
The period of the Tang Dynasty had four sources of Tax income called "grain-labor-kind tax"
The Buddhist Monasteries played many important roles in the Chinese society. Many held amounts of tax-free lands, which led it to be the most important economic institution in a local community.
there was a major climate change when the glaciers in the western part of china were advancing foward
there was a shortage of food for the number of people in certain areas, people moved to the central parts of china, they moved from a high altitude to a low altitude resulting in more comfortable living
religion, people started to pray to the gods for good weather, that sparked religion, the first worshiping of a god
there was a major flood in all of china
this made the yellow and the yangtze rivers over flow
618 AD to 907 AD
Capital, Chang'an- present day Xi'an
Boundaries, Tarim Basin to the Korean Peninsula, and from Mongolia to what is now Vietnam
Climate, Mostly dry climate, Dry winter and hot summer, Had fertile soil excellent for growing crops
most famous painters, Yan Liben 閻立本, Wu Daozi 吳道子, Han Gan 韓幹, Guan Tong 關同, Zhou Wenduan 周文短, Zhao Yan 趙巖
most famous type of paining was the landscape, landscape was called shanshui, uses a brush and ink, famous landscapes to paint, waterfalls, rivers, mountains
tried to find the meaning and rhythm of nature
usual shapes were, horses, camels, riders on animals
typically made out of a brownish clay
when people were sculpted, they payed particular attention to details, things like skin color, clothing, and facial expressions were all taken into consideration to show their acceptance of other cultures
inspired by Persian and Arabian influences, gold and silver both very popular
calligraphers, Huaisu 僧懷素, Yu Shinan 虞世南, Yan Zhenqing 顏真卿, Chu Suiliang 褚遂良
style of writing, was studied in schools
people were evaluated by their skill, then found special talents based on their skill
was the main type of writing at this time
when poetry was originally created, it was written in a form called "regular style", it had five to seven syllables in a verse
at the end of the Tang Dynasty, free verse evolved, they were sung and instruments played with them, this created opera
poetry was considered a "must" for the upper-class and well-mannered people
Li Bai 李白
Du Fu 杜甫
Du Mu 杜牧
Meng Haoran 孟浩然,
Wang Wei 王維
Bai Juyi 白居易
Li Shangyin 李商隱
Yuan Zhen 元稹
told about the unknown, mythical tales, natural phenomenons, and much more.
often were short story and fiction tales