Linking clauses

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Linking clauses por Mind Map: Linking clauses

1. ALTHOUGH / EVEN THOUGH / THOUGH + CLAUSE Although he didn’t have money, he bought the most expensive car.

1.1. IN SPITE OF / DESPITE + NOUN / -ING FORM In spite of not having money, he bought the most expensive car. Despite the rain, we went out for a walk.

2. CLAUSULAS SUBORDINADAS

2.1. Las clausulas subordinadas son aquellas formadas por una clausula principal, una conjunción subordinada y una clausula dependiente. En inglés hay diferentes conjunciones y adverbios que indican razón, propósito, resultado de algo, tiempo, contraste.

3. Although / even though / though = aunque In spite of / Despite = a pesar de La diferencia entre ambos nexos es que los primeros van seguidos de una oración (con sujeto y verbo) y los segundos van seguidos de nombre o un verbo sustantivado (en – ing).

4. e) De contraste.- Los nexos que introducen este tipo de oraciones concesivas son los siguientes.

5. - As I was walking down the street, I saw When / as = cuando my ex-boyfriend. - I’ll phone you when I know the answer

5.1. While = mientras (que) - While I was watching TV, the telephone rang. As soon as = tan - I’ll phone you as soon as I know the answer. pronto como - As soon as he had finished studying, he left.

5.1.1. - The train had left before they got to the Before / after = antes de (que) station / después de (que) - She went to the gym after she had done her homework. Until = hasta (que) - We were waiting until she arrived

6. d) De tiempo (Time).- Los nexos más usuales que introducen este tipo de oraciones son los siguientes:

7. c) Resultado (Result).- podemos expresar la consecuencia mediante los siguientes nexos:

8. b)Purpose (Propósito).- Con este tipo de oraciones expresamos la finalidad, el por qué alguien hace algo. La traducción de todos los nexos va a ser siempre ‘para’. Los nexos y sus usos son:

8.1. We moved to another city because of my father’s new job.

9. Because = porque Because of = por, debido a La diferencia entre ambos nexos es que el primero va seguido de una oración (con sujeto y verbo) y el segundo va seguido de nombre.

9.1. BECAUSE + CLAUSE

9.2. We moved to another city because my father got a new job.

9.3. BECAUSE OF + NOUN

9.4. As /since = como, puesto que. - As it is your birthday, I’ll lend you my best clothes.

9.5. Normalmente van al principio de la frase

9.6. Otros nexos causales: due to, owing to = debido a

10. a) Reason (Razón).- Podemos expresar la causa mediante los siguientes nexos:

11. To + infinitivo - I went to the university to talk to one of my teachers.

11.1. In order to / - I went to the university in order to talk to one of my so as to teachers. (more formal)

11.1.1. So that + can(n’t) /will (won’t) → para referirnos al presente o futuro + would(n’t) / could(n’t) → para referirnos al pasado Ejemplo: - I’ll buy a ball so that we can play football. = Compraré un balón para que podamos jugar al fútbol.

12. For + noun / -ing form - A knife is used for cutting In case significa por si acaso In case + present → para referirse al presente + past → para referirse al pasado

12.1. Ejemplos: - I will take an umbrella in case it rains. - We bought an extra ticket in case Martin wanted to join us.

13. So = así que - She was ill so she couldn’t take the exam. - I failed my English test and therefore I took it As a result / therefore = again in September. por tanto, como consecuencia - I failed my English test. Therefore, I took it again in September.

13.1. So / such....that = tan........que SO + ADJECTIVE / ADVERB + THAT The ticket for the concert was so expensive (that) we couldn’t buy it. SUCH + (ADJECTIVE) + NOUN THAT

13.1.1. It is such a big city (that) I always get lost.