Gamification

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Gamification por Mind Map: Gamification

1. 1. What is Gamification

1.1. 1.1 Introduction

1.1.1. gamification is about learning from games

1.1.1.1. understanding what makes the game successful

1.1.2. Samsung Nation

1.1.2.1. leaderboards

1.1.2.2. badges

1.1.2.3. point systems

1.1.2.4. samsung wants you to spend time on their website so you buy more of their products

1.1.2.4.1. http://www.samsung.com/us/samsungnation/

1.2. 1.2 Course Overview

1.2.1. what you'll get out of the course

1.2.1.1. what is gamification

1.2.1.2. why it might be valuable

1.2.1.3. how to do it effectively

1.2.1.4. some specific applications

1.3. 1.3 Definition of Gamification

1.3.1. the use of game elements and game design technqiues in non-game contextx

1.3.2. game elements

1.3.2.1. toolbox

1.3.2.1.1. points

1.3.2.1.2. leaderboards

1.3.2.1.3. quests

1.3.2.1.4. resource collection

1.3.2.1.5. avatars

1.3.2.1.6. social graph

1.3.2.1.7. progression

1.3.2.1.8. levels

1.3.2.1.9. rewards

1.3.2.1.10. badges

1.3.2.1.11. challenges

1.3.2.1.12. teams and their peer pressure

1.3.2.2. http://keas.com

1.3.3. game design technqiues

1.3.3.1. also artistic, experiential

1.3.4. non-game context

1.3.4.1. some objective other than success in the game

1.3.4.2. you're playing because of business, school, social impact, personal improvement

1.3.4.3. what you're doing may be game-like

1.3.4.4. but the purpose has some validity independently of the experience of the game

1.4. 1.4 Why Study Gamification

1.4.1. make everyday business tasks more engaging

1.5. 1.5 History of Gamification

1.5.1. Serious Games Initiative

1.5.1.1. http://www.seriousgames.org/

1.6. 1.6 Examples and Categories

1.6.1. External

1.6.1.1. Marketing

1.6.1.2. Sales

1.6.1.3. Customer engagement

1.6.2. Internal

1.6.2.1. HR

1.6.2.2. Productivity enhancement

1.6.2.3. Crowdsourcing

1.6.3. Behavior change

1.6.3.1. Health and wellness

1.6.3.2. Sustainability

1.6.3.3. Personal finance

2. 2. Games

2.1. 2.1 Gamification in Context

2.1.1. gamification is not making everything a game or an immersive 3D virtual world

2.1.1.1. you stay in your context, but improve the experience there through game elements and game design techniques

2.1.2. gamification is not any games in the workplace

2.1.2.1. like Windows Solitaire

2.1.2.2. rather find tasks that are boring and make them fun

2.1.3. gamification is not any use of games in business

2.1.3.1. like Monopoly at McDonald's

2.1.4. gamification is not simulations

2.1.4.1. although they may constitute serious games

2.1.5. gamification is not just for marketing or customer engagement, just about PBLs

2.1.5.1. points

2.1.5.2. badges

2.1.5.3. leaderboards

2.1.6. gamification is not game theory

2.1.6.1. set of algorithms, formulas, quantitative techniques for analysing strategic decision making

2.1.6.2. "Prisoner's dilemma"

2.1.6.3. more about defining formal models

2.1.7. gamification IS

2.1.7.1. listening to what games can teach us

2.1.7.2. learning from game design (and psychology, management, marketing, economics)

2.1.7.3. appreciating fun

2.1.8. Sebastian Deterding's classification

2.1.8.1. whold <=> partial

2.1.8.1.1. whole game / artifacts

2.1.8.1.2. partial games / artifacts / parts

2.1.8.2. play <=> game

2.1.8.2.1. play ... pure, exuberant fun, release of energy

2.1.8.2.2. games ... rules, structure, winning or losing

2.1.8.3. play & whole ==> toys

2.1.8.4. play & partial ==> playful design

2.1.8.5. game & whole ==> serious games

2.1.8.6. games & partial ==> gamification

2.2. 2.2 What is a Game?

2.2.1. Wittgenstein: it is impossible to define what a game is

2.2.2. precise, comprehensive definition

2.2.2.1. winning <=> losing

2.2.3. Bernard Suits: Grasshoppers

2.2.3.1. Pre-lusory Goal

2.2.3.1.1. in any game there is some objective

2.2.3.1.2. in a 400m race, the "pre-lusory goal" is simply to get from A to B

2.2.3.2. Constituve Rules

2.2.3.2.1. a set of rules that make the activity to a game <=> just some work objective

2.2.3.3. Lusory Attitude

2.2.3.3.1. a game-like attitude

2.2.3.3.2. the players follow the rules voluntarily

2.2.3.3.3. no cheating

2.2.3.3.4. the game means something to the players, therefore they want to follow the rules

2.2.3.4. a game = voluntarily overcoming unnecessary obstacles

2.2.4. Huizinga: Homo Ludens

2.2.4.1. The Magic Circle

2.2.4.2. in a game there is a virtual boundary

2.2.4.2.1. divides the world of the game from the real world

2.2.4.2.2. the game is different

2.2.4.3. within the magic circle, the game rules matter, not the rules of the real world

2.2.4.3.1. if we think that the game matters

2.2.4.4. the challenge of gamification: put the player as much as possible into the magic circle

2.2.4.4.1. such that the player feels that the game matters

2.2.4.4.2. and therefore he likes to play it and stick to the rules

2.3. 2.3 Games and Play

2.3.1. Roger Callois

2.3.1.1. Paidia

2.3.1.1.1. latin for "play"

2.3.1.1.2. Friedrich Schiller: "Play is the aimless expenditure of exuberant energy"

2.3.1.1.3. George Santayana: "Play is whatever is done spontaneously and for its own sake"

2.3.1.1.4. Lev Yvgotskyy: "play creates a zone of proximal development of the child. In play a child always behaves beyond his average age."

2.3.1.1.5. Katie Salen & Eric Zimmerman: "Play is free movement within a more rigid structure"

2.3.1.1.6. play is freedom, doing whatever you want - within some circle

2.3.1.2. Ludus

2.3.1.2.1. latin for "game"

2.3.1.2.2. Tracy Fullerton, Chris Swain, Steven Hoffman: "A game is a closed, formal system that engages players in a structured conflict, and resolves in an unequal outcome"

2.3.1.2.3. Sid Meier: "A game is a series of meaningful choices"

2.3.1.2.4. Thomas Mallaby: "A game is a ... domain of contrived contingency that generates interpretable outcomes"

2.3.1.2.5. Jesse Schell: "A game is a problem-solving activity, approached with a playful attitude"

2.3.1.3. fundamental difference

2.3.1.3.1. games: choices that lead to outcomes with the goal to get from a start and a finish

2.3.1.3.2. plays: within some boundaries, do whatever you want

2.3.1.4. things from work / school / social life / interaction with government or businesses

2.3.1.4.1. game-like

2.3.1.4.2. play-like

2.3.2. Voluntariness

2.3.2.1. choices are voluntary

2.3.2.1.1. "whoever must play, cannot play"

2.3.3. Learning (= play) or problem solving (= game)

2.3.4. balance of structure (= game) and exploration (= play)

2.4. 2.4 Video Games

2.4.1. games industry has 66 billion USD worldwide

2.4.2. China is now the largest online gaming market

2.4.3. virtual goods: 7.3 billion globally (2 billion in the US)

2.4.4. 44% if US/UK adults have played a mobile game in the last month

2.4.5. Angry Birds: 100 mio unique users per month, 12 billion minutes played per month

2.4.6. 97% of kids 12-17 play videogames

2.4.7. the average game player is 30 years old, 37% are older than 35

2.4.8. 47% of all game players are women

2.5. 2.5 It's Just a Game?

2.5.1. analytics

2.5.1.1. A/B testing all the time

2.5.1.2. change based on gathered data to make it more effective

2.5.2. cloud

2.5.3. mobile

2.5.4. leveraging the social graph

2.5.5. loyalty programs

2.5.6. organizational behaviour

2.5.7. work design

2.5.8. marketing research

2.5.9. reality gets into games

2.5.9.1. first-person shooter from the US army is the most effective recruiting tool

2.5.10. Games get real

2.5.10.1. Julian Dibbell: "Play Money"

2.5.10.1.1. how I quit my day job and struck it rich in virtual loot farming

2.5.10.1.2. 100-400,000 WoW players in China make their living

3. 3. Game Thinking

3.1. 3.1 Why Gamify

3.1.1. to achieve serious results in the real world

3.1.2. example

3.1.2.1. dodgeball

3.1.2.1.1. chicken-and-egg-situation

3.1.2.1.2. bought by Google

3.1.2.2. foursquare

3.1.2.2.1. original founder of dodgeball took same idea

3.1.2.2.2. and gamified

3.1.2.2.3. dodgeball already was social - so no need to improve

3.1.2.2.4. concept of mayorship

3.1.2.2.5. social sharing

3.1.2.2.6. leveling up

3.1.2.2.7. success

3.2. 3.2 Thinking Like a Game Designer

3.2.1. viewing your business problem like a game designer

3.2.1.1. without having to be a game designer

3.2.1.1.1. sound

3.2.1.1.2. story telling

3.2.1.2. without having to be a gamer

3.2.1.2.1. who doesn't think too much about the structure of the game

3.2.1.2.2. => you need to think about which components you have to fit together to bring the experience

3.2.2. Jesse Schell: Book of Lenses

3.2.2.1. five words

3.2.2.1.1. I am a Game Designer

3.2.2.1.2. it's a state of mind

3.2.2.1.3. we all have designed games in our childhood

3.2.3. Your Participants (= users of gamified systems) as Players

3.2.3.1. customers, employees, community, target population

3.2.3.1.1. consumers just consume

3.2.3.1.2. costumers are slightly more active

3.2.3.1.3. guests are "just invited"

3.2.3.2. players are the center of a game

3.2.3.2.1. the game evolves around the player

3.2.3.3. players feel a sense of autonomy / control

3.2.3.3.1. think about how to give them choices that are meaningful that lead to outcomes/results

3.2.3.3.2. their free will is exercised

3.2.3.4. players play

3.2.3.4.1. free-motion within a set of constraints

3.2.4. Goal:

3.2.4.1. 1. get your players playing

3.2.4.2. 2. keep them playing

3.2.4.2.1. not "how do I trick them"

3.2.4.2.2. they need to engage for an extended period of time

3.3. 3.3 Design Rules

3.3.1. The Player Journey

3.3.1.1. not just a random walk

3.3.1.2. have a beginning, a middle, and an end, in some sort of progression

3.3.1.2.1. Onboarding

3.3.1.2.2. Scaffolding

3.3.1.2.3. Pathways to Mastery

3.3.1.3. example: Plants vs. Zombies

3.3.1.3.1. level 1

3.3.1.3.2. onboarding and scaffolding makes a quite complex story easy for everyone

3.3.1.4. balance

3.3.1.4.1. not too hard, not too easy

3.3.1.4.2. not too many choices, not too few choices

3.3.1.4.3. not too easy for one, too hard for others

3.3.1.4.4. game needs to be balanced at every stage

3.3.1.4.5. if you want to encourage people to do something

3.3.1.5. example: Monopoly

3.3.1.5.1. numbers / prices need to be properly ordered

3.3.1.5.2. inject just enough money at each round

3.3.1.6. example: turntable.fm

3.3.1.6.1. gamify the experience

3.4. 3.4 Tapping the Emotions

3.4.1. What makes games engaging?

3.4.1.1. => the emotional component of the experience

3.4.1.2. because they are fun

3.4.1.2.1. makes us want to start playing

3.4.1.2.2. makes us want to keep playing

3.4.2. Mary Poppins

3.4.2.1. "In every job that must be done, there is an element of fun. You find the fun and snap! The job's a game."

3.4.2.2. even in things that you have to do

3.4.2.2.1. not just in entertainment

3.4.2.2.2. not just in recreation

3.4.2.3. also in work, social behaviour change, etc.

3.4.3. What things are fun?

3.4.3.1. categories of emotions / experiences that you think of as fun

3.4.3.1.1. when children ask you something

3.4.3.1.2. how children behave

3.4.3.1.3. when something unexpected happens

3.4.3.1.4. when we chat / interact with each other

3.4.3.1.5. when something is out of the norm

3.4.3.1.6. when people act on purpose to highlight some stubbornness

3.4.3.2. winning

3.4.3.3. problem-solving

3.4.3.3.1. overcoming obstacles

3.4.3.4. exploring

3.4.3.4.1. just finding something new

3.4.3.5. chilling

3.4.3.5.1. lying on a beautiful beach, relaxing

3.4.3.6. teamwork

3.4.3.6.1. we enjoy achieving a goal as a team

3.4.3.7. recognition

3.4.3.7.1. like winning

3.4.3.7.2. but someone else tells you that you did a good job

3.4.3.8. triumphing

3.4.3.8.1. similar to winning

3.4.3.8.2. you win, someone else looses

3.4.3.8.3. this feeling may be stronger

3.4.3.9. collecting

3.4.3.9.1. put individual things into collections

3.4.3.9.2. assemble a bunch of things

3.4.3.10. surprise

3.4.3.10.1. some novelty, something that we didn't expect

3.4.3.10.2. => dopamine is released

3.4.3.11. imagination

3.4.3.11.1. daydreaming

3.4.3.11.2. thinking about ideas

3.4.3.12. sharing

3.4.3.12.1. being altruistic

3.4.3.12.2. giving money to charity

3.4.3.13. role playing

3.4.3.13.1. we love trying on roles

3.4.3.13.2. inhabiting another character

3.4.3.14. customization

3.4.3.14.1. to be able to make something individually

3.4.3.15. goofing off

3.4.3.15.1. just letting it all hang out

3.4.3.15.2. exploring the opportunity to just be silly

3.5. 3.5 Anatomy of Fun - Understanding Fun

3.5.1. Nicole Lazzaro's 4 Keys

3.5.1.1. specialized on emotion in games

3.5.1.2. what in games actually produces fun

3.5.1.3. 4 keys

3.5.1.3.1. 4 different kinds of fun, general categories

3.5.1.3.2. 1. easy fun

3.5.1.3.3. 2. hard fun

3.5.1.3.4. 3. people fun

3.5.1.3.5. 4. serious fun

3.5.1.3.6. those categories are not mutually exclusive, a game can fall into more categories

3.5.1.3.7. => don't just make a game casual

3.5.2. Marc Leblanc's 8 Kinds of Fun

3.5.2.1. 1. sensation

3.5.2.2. 2. fantasy

3.5.2.3. 3. narrative

3.5.2.4. 4. challenge

3.5.2.5. 5. fellowship

3.5.2.6. 6. discovery

3.5.2.7. 7. expression

3.5.2.8. 8. submission

3.5.2.8.1. casual kind of fun, pastime

3.5.2.9. http://8kindsoffun.com/

3.5.3. Raph Koster: A Theory of Fun for Game Design

3.5.4. takeaways

3.5.4.1. fun can (and should) be designed

3.5.4.1.1. fun doesn't just happen

3.5.4.1.2. use less electricity

3.5.4.1.3. spend more time on website

3.5.4.1.4. => you need to design expressly for that

3.5.4.2. fun can be challenging!

3.5.4.2.1. not always easy, simple, purely positive

3.5.4.2.2. can be hard, serious

3.5.4.3. appeal to different kinds of fun

3.5.4.3.1. look to exploit as many kinds as possible, don't just focus on one

3.6. 3.6 Finding the Fun

3.6.1. sometimes in unexpected places

3.6.2. speeding competition

3.6.2.1. if you speed, you'll have to pay a fine

3.6.2.2. if you aren't speeding you participate in a lottery where some part of that money is then given away again

3.6.3. example

3.6.3.1. Volkswagen's thefuntheory.com

3.6.3.1.1. http://www.thefuntheory.com/

3.6.3.1.2. piano stairs

3.6.3.2. LinkedIn

3.6.3.2.1. fill out a profile

3.6.3.2.2. if the profile it's filled out completely, it's more valuable to LinkedIn

3.6.3.2.3. how to make it fun?

4. 4. Game Elements

4.1. 4.1 Breaking Games Down

4.1.1. game elements

4.1.1.1. your toolbox

4.1.1.2. regular patterns

4.1.1.3. tools that we can extract from games

4.1.1.4. use in different way to make business practices more game like

4.1.1.5. examples

4.1.1.5.1. points

4.1.1.5.2. quests

4.1.1.5.3. resource collections

4.1.1.5.4. avatars

4.1.1.5.5. social graph

4.1.1.5.6. progression

4.1.1.5.7. levels

4.1.1.6. tic-tac-toe

4.1.1.6.1. what are the regular patterns, the pieces of the game?

4.1.1.6.2. my guess

4.1.1.6.3. his list

4.1.1.7. diagram

4.1.1.7.1. experiences at the top

4.1.1.7.2. game in the middle

4.1.1.7.3. elements at the bottom

4.2. 4.2 The Pyramid of Gamification Elements

4.2.1. pyramid framework (for game elements)

4.2.1.1. dynamics

4.2.1.1.1. the big-picture aspects, the "grammar"

4.2.1.1.2. a few

4.2.1.1.3. examples

4.2.1.2. mechanics

4.2.1.2.1. the processes that drive action forward, the "verbs"

4.2.1.2.2. more

4.2.1.2.3. examples

4.2.1.3. components

4.2.1.3.1. specific instantiations of mechanics and dynamics, the "nouns"

4.2.1.3.2. a lot

4.2.1.3.3. examples

4.2.2. around that pyramid is the experience

4.2.2.1. the whole is greater than the sum of the parts

4.2.2.2. aesthetics

4.2.2.2.1. visual experience

4.2.2.3. sound

4.2.3. MDA framework (from LeBlanc)

4.2.3.1. mechanics

4.2.3.2. dynamics

4.2.3.3. aesthetics

4.2.3.3.1. "fun" in the gamification lecture

4.3. 4.3 The PBL Triad

4.3.1. some game elements are more influential

4.3.1.1. they serve more functions than others

4.3.2. PBL

4.3.2.1. points

4.3.2.1.1. to keep score

4.3.2.1.2. to determine win states

4.3.2.1.3. to connect to rewards

4.3.2.1.4. to provide feedback

4.3.2.1.5. to display progress

4.3.2.1.6. to provide data for the game designer

4.3.2.1.7. they are fungible

4.3.2.2. badges

4.3.2.2.1. are representations of achievement

4.3.2.2.2. they are flexible

4.3.2.2.3. they have a (graphical) style

4.3.2.2.4. they signal importance

4.3.2.2.5. they function as credentials

4.3.2.2.6. they can support collections

4.3.2.2.7. they show social status, they are status symbols

4.3.2.2.8. Mozilla Open Badge Framework

4.3.2.3. leaderboards

4.3.2.3.1. they are about ranking

4.3.2.3.2. ubiquituous in video games

4.3.2.3.3. danger: if you have 555 and the leader has 127,000,000, you'll not feel good or competent about your score

4.3.2.3.4. personalized leaderboard

4.3.2.3.5. real danger: leaderboards have been shown to demotivate

4.3.3. example Samsung Nation

4.4. 4.4 Limitations of Elements

4.4.1. game elements are a starting point for gamification

4.4.2. big problem with gamification

4.4.2.1. just throwing some game elements onto a business problem makes it fun and engaging

4.4.2.2. but there's more hard work

4.4.3. the elements are not the game

4.4.3.1. the game is the thing between the experience and the elements

4.4.3.2. the elements need to all be tied together to make them successful

4.4.4. not all rewards are fun, not all fun is rewarding

4.4.4.1. there's a tendency to over-emphasize rewards

4.4.4.2. rewards can actually de-motivate

4.4.4.2.1. cash prize can make them engage less

4.4.5. if you just put in PBL, it's going to look much like all other gamified apps

4.4.5.1. the cookie-cutter-approach doesn't work

4.4.6. bad example

4.4.6.1. Google News Badges

4.4.6.1.1. as you read news articles, depending on the subject areas, you get badges

4.4.6.1.2. the badges suddenly pop up

4.4.6.1.3. from the user's point of view

4.4.6.1.4. those badges don't drive business value for Google

4.4.7. while the elements are useful and a good starting point, they are not the game itself

4.4.7.1. meaningful choices

4.4.7.1.1. decide 1 time <=> hundreds of times

4.4.7.1.2. what a video over here or do something else at another place

4.4.7.1.3. the more meaningful a choice is, the better

4.4.7.2. puzzles

4.4.7.2.1. challenges are not necessarily puzzles

4.4.7.2.2. clicking 1,000 times is more effort, but it's not challenging, no puzzle, no thought involved

4.4.7.2.3. => if it feels like a puzzle, it's more powerful

4.4.7.3. mastery

4.4.7.3.1. if you can get a bunch of badges, when would you know that you're a master?

4.4.7.3.2. => if you can truly master a skill, you have stronger emotions

4.4.7.4. community

4.4.7.4.1. social interactions are tremendously powerful

4.4.7.4.2. just go and collect things is less powerful

4.4.7.5. different kinds of users

4.4.7.5.1. if there's just one kind of structure, it won't pull in people with different motivations or conceptions of fun

4.5. 4.5 Bing Gordon

4.5.1. formerly chief creative officer of EA (electronic arts)

4.5.2. major advocat for gamification

4.5.2.1. "every CEO should understand gamification"

4.5.2.1.1. people now see life as games

4.5.2.1.2. game design principles come from communication and motivation theory

4.5.2.1.3. so get more effective with customers and employees

4.5.2.2. positive effect of instant feedback

4.5.2.2.1. instant, tangible feedback (like in a game) is powerful

4.5.2.3. there's no books on game principles

4.5.2.3.1. learn through playing great games

4.5.2.3.2. 1,000 hours on WoW

4.5.2.3.3. hundreds of achievements on xbox live

4.5.2.3.4. game makers tend to borrow breakthroughs from one another

4.5.2.4. two mistakes

4.5.2.4.1. premier motivation of games is winning competition

4.5.2.4.2. put efforts on high score listing/ranking

4.5.2.5. encrease engagement is more important

4.5.2.6. is Zynga just a fad?

4.5.2.6.1. play is a great accelerator of human culture

4.5.2.6.2. gamification is a fun way to apply communication theory

4.5.2.6.3. you have to have great fails

4.5.2.6.4. you have to have great villains

4.5.2.6.5. games are polarizing

4.5.2.6.6. kids now grow up with numbers everywhere, on all surfaces of games and products

4.5.2.7. where's the room for competitive advantage

4.5.2.7.1. innovations grow a whole new market

4.5.2.7.2. the kids that have grown up digital think

4.5.2.7.3. if you can learn more effectively with gamification, they will want it

5. 5. Psychology and Motivation (I)

5.1. 5.1 Gamification as Motivational Design

5.1.1. understand gamification through psychology

5.1.2. motivation - you are moved to do something

5.1.3. people don't know / understand why they do something

5.1.3.1. reasons may not be understood

5.1.3.2. reasons may be counterintuitive

5.1.4. pick some task that you might want someone to do

5.1.4.1. think about 4 different ways to motivate a person to do the task

5.1.4.1.1. ask for help

5.1.4.1.2. offer help in return (barter)

5.1.4.1.3. explain why it's important to me

5.1.4.1.4. explain why it may be important for the other

5.1.4.1.5. explain how it can beneficial for others

5.1.5. Mayor League Baseball

5.1.5.1. collect badges by watching baseball games

5.1.6. "we don't need no stinking badges"

5.1.7. when reflecting on a gamified system

5.1.7.1. what motivates

5.1.7.2. is it the right kind of motivation

5.1.7.3. is it enough

5.1.8. motivation is different

5.1.8.1. we are not all motivated by the same thing

5.1.8.2. we are not motivated by the same thing all time

5.1.9. how to sell more computers

5.1.9.1. Apple Store

5.1.9.2. people shall come in, hang around and browse

5.1.9.3. people shall get familiar with the computers

5.1.9.4. let's create a lounge experience

5.1.9.5. several people are there to help you

5.2. 5.2 Behaviorism

5.2.1. behaviorism <=> cognitivism

5.2.1.1. look at behavior, looking externally what people do

5.2.1.2. mental states, what's internally going on in people's heads

5.2.2. behaviorism

5.2.2.1. emotions, feelings, thoughts in people's brains - are not scientifically testable

5.2.2.2. let's restrict ourselves to the black-box

5.2.2.2.1. whatever is inside cannot be inspected or tested

5.2.2.2.2. what goes in and what goes out can be inspected

5.2.2.3. stimulus

5.2.2.3.1. something gets done from the outside

5.2.2.3.2. something happens externally that creates a reaction in the subject

5.2.2.4. response

5.2.2.4.1. the behavior in response to the stimulus

5.2.2.5. classical conditioning - Pawlow's dog

5.2.2.5.1. instinctive association between stimulus and response

5.2.2.6. operand conditioning - Skinner

5.2.2.6.1. stimulus and response

5.2.2.6.2. with learning through feedback

5.2.2.6.3. subject sees the consequence of the action

5.2.2.6.4. box-experiment with a rat

5.2.2.6.5. when I consciously do something, I experience a consequence of my action

5.2.2.7. severe limitations

5.2.2.7.1. behavioral economics

5.2.2.8. learnings from behaviorism

5.2.2.8.1. observation

5.2.2.8.2. feedback loops

5.2.2.8.3. reinforcement

5.2.3. cognitivism

5.3. 5.3 Behaviorism in Gamification

5.3.1. 1. look at what people actually DO

5.3.1.1. don't try to understand their mental states

5.3.1.2. even more since people don't always behave as you think they should

5.3.1.3. empirical research helps us to understand which biases we actually have (even if we think that we have none)

5.3.1.4. example: speed camera lottery

5.3.1.4.1. people slow down by 10% by just having speed signs

5.3.2. 2. focus on feedback

5.3.2.1. example: profile completion on XING with progress bar

5.3.2.2. immediate reaction on what you're doing, without having to wait for the end of the process

5.3.3. 3, consequences can create results because they condition people

5.3.3.1. people learn to associate certain results from what happens

5.3.3.2. example: crops wither if you don't water them

5.3.3.2.1. FarmVille created an appointment mechanic

5.3.3.2.2. people know that they have to come back at a certain time interval

5.3.3.2.3. that creates this "draw"

5.3.4. 4. reinforcement through rewards

5.3.4.1. example: MLB.com badges

5.3.4.1.1. people see that they get the badge after the action

5.3.4.1.2. at least some people come back for more and more

5.3.4.2. give some benefit (even if it's not tangible or worth any money)

5.3.4.3. but in the pyramid of elements

5.3.4.3.1. rewards are just one game mechanic

5.3.4.3.2. achievements, badges, boss fights, collections, content unlocking, leaderboards, levels, points, quests, virtual goods

5.3.4.3.3. all those game elements tie in to rewards

5.3.5. The Dopamine System

5.3.5.1. example: Samsung Nation

5.3.5.2. dopamine is associated with pleasure

5.3.5.3. and it's important for learning

5.3.5.4. valuable, surprising things give you dopamine

5.3.5.4.1. e.g. if you get a badge by surprise

5.3.6. behaviorism in gamification is focused on creating rewards that maximize the engagement based on dopamine release and the addictive quality

5.4. 5.4 Reward Structures

5.4.1. many different things can be rewarded

5.4.1.1. see FourSquare

5.4.1.1.1. first check in

5.4.1.1.2. 10 / 25 / 50 check ins

5.4.1.1.3. checking in every day

5.4.1.1.4. being part of a swarm

5.4.1.2. think

5.4.1.2.1. about what can be rewarded

5.4.1.2.2. what behavior shall be incentiviced

5.4.1.2.3. what options shall there be to make it more engaging

5.4.2. different categories of rewards

5.4.2.1. cognitive evaluation theory

5.4.2.1.1. typology of rewards

5.4.2.1.2. example: Samsung Nation

5.4.2.1.3. example: WoW

5.5. 5.5 Reward Schedules

5.5.1. when a reward is offered

5.5.1.1. structure of reward schedule is important for psychological reaction

5.5.2. continuous reward

5.5.2.1. you get a reward each time, automatically, for every incident of an action

5.5.2.2. => least interesting to the user

5.5.3. fixed ratio reward

5.5.3.1. if the activity happens a certain number of times, every n number of times, you get a reward

5.5.3.2. => the brain picks up on the pattern => less psychological effect

5.5.4. fixed interval reward

5.5.4.1. based on time, not based on number of activities

5.5.4.2. => the brain picks up on the pattern => less psychological effect

5.5.5. variable

5.5.5.1. i.e. on no fixed schedule

5.5.5.2. => most interesting, since our brains love surprises

5.5.5.3. identify movement

5.5.5.4. take a closer look at something that is slightly different

5.5.6. example:

5.5.6.1. Samsung Nation quest badge as a reward

5.5.6.1.1. fixed interval

5.5.6.2. badge for number of visits

5.5.6.2.1. fixed ratio, since it happens every x times

5.5.7. variability

5.5.7.1. competitive <=> non-competitive

5.5.7.1.1. winning a contest

5.5.7.1.2. beating someone head to head in a virtual duel

5.5.7.2. certain <=> uncertain

5.5.7.2.1. depending on how certain the reward is

5.5.7.2.2. once the trigger happens, you're still not sure to get the reward

5.5.8. examples:

5.5.8.1. one-arm bandit / slot machine

5.5.8.1.1. variable reward schedule makes it addictive

5.5.8.1.2. it's important that the reward comes just often enough

5.5.8.1.3. => the person holds out that hope

5.5.9. beware: addiction may be harmful to people

5.5.9.1. since they cannot make good judgements any more

6. 6. Psychology and Motivation (II)

6.1. 6.1 Limits of Behaviorism

6.1.1. be systematic and scientific!

6.1.2. feedback loops can systematically modify people's behavior

6.1.3. behaviorism leaves out a lot

6.1.3.1. example: speeding camera lottery

6.1.3.1.1. why do people slow down when they see the speed sign?

6.1.3.1.2. what does the lottery change?

6.1.4. modifying people's behavior through reward/punishment systems scares people

6.1.4.1. see socialism and fascism

6.1.5. if you take a purely behaviorism approach, you consider the person as a black box, not as a human being, as a player

6.2. 6.2 Dangers of Behaviorism

6.2.1. potential for abuse / manipulation

6.2.1.1. systems that are designed to make people to do things (even if they don't want to do those things)

6.2.1.2. => see the slot-machine and how addictive it is

6.2.1.3. users shall not feel pushed

6.2.1.3.1. pushing <=> delighting customers

6.2.2. hedonic treadmill

6.2.2.1. hedonism = pleasure based on fun

6.2.2.2. once you start focusing on giving rewards to people, people expect you to keep doing it

6.2.2.3. people will only respond if the reward is there

6.2.2.3.1. and you won't change people's behavior in general

6.2.2.4. certain rewards may become boring => continuous burden on game designer

6.2.2.5. monkey example

6.2.2.5.1. monkey love the grape juice

6.2.2.5.2. the monkey also learnt to hear some tone 2 seconds before the grape juice

6.2.2.5.3. the monkeys got the dopamine when the tone went off, no longer when the got the grape juice

6.2.2.6. brains are good at recognizing patterns

6.2.2.6.1. the signal that tells you "the reward is coming", triggers the dopamine

6.2.2.6.2. the brains are always trying to figure out the system

6.2.2.6.3. one the pattern is clear, it's no longer fun, since it's then expected and no surprise any more

6.2.3. overemphasis on status

6.2.3.1. status is powerful, even if it's not tangible

6.2.3.2. example: mileage plus (or other frequent flyer or royalty programs)

6.2.3.2.1. better seats

6.2.3.2.2. board first

6.2.3.2.3. special card

6.2.3.2.4. special access to the lounge

6.2.3.3. but people don't chase status all the time

6.2.3.3.1. also social reasons

6.2.3.3.2. also altruism reasons

6.3. 6.3 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

6.3.1. opening the black box - "what is going on in there?"

6.3.2. if we start to think in a cognitivist way, we start to distinguish different kinds of motivations and rewards

6.3.3. intrinsic motivation

6.3.3.1. you do a thing for its own sake

6.3.3.2. not for an external stimulus

6.3.3.3. you find it fun, exciting, rewarding

6.3.3.4. I want the thing, I'm not going for the consequences, the rewards

6.3.4. extrinsic motivation

6.3.4.1. you do something for some reasons other than the thing itself

6.3.4.2. money, fame and fortune, value you put in a person

6.3.4.3. it's about the reward, not the thing itself

6.3.5. extrinsic rewards - SAPS (Zichermann)

6.3.5.1. Status

6.3.5.1.1. we'll get value and respect from other people

6.3.5.1.2. leaderboards

6.3.5.2. Access

6.3.5.2.1. we'll get access to something other people don't have

6.3.5.2.2. answering a lot of questions on a forum will give access to a room just for moderators

6.3.5.2.3. also content unlocking in games

6.3.5.3. Power

6.3.5.3.1. we'll be enabled to do something that others can't do

6.3.5.3.2. with a certain number of posts, you'll get the moderator right to edit posts in a forum

6.3.5.4. Stuff

6.3.5.4.1. tangible rewards

6.3.5.5. => it's more advantageous to do higher-up rewards, since they are more powerful

6.3.5.5.1. rather give status than tangible rewards

6.3.5.6. => status is more powerful than others (but is it always that case?)

6.3.6. for any gamification elements ask yourself

6.3.6.1. where do they fit?

6.3.6.2. are they intrinsic or extrinsic?

6.4. 6.4 How Rewards Can De-Motivate

6.4.1. you don't want to give out rewards that leaves people less motivated than they were before

6.4.2. extrinsic motivators can crowd out the intrinsic motivation that was already there

6.4.2.1. you focus more on chasing extrinsic rewards

6.4.2.2. the reward substitutes for the intrinsic motivation

6.4.2.2.1. "over-justification effect"

6.4.2.3. studies confirm

6.4.2.3.1. drawing

6.4.2.3.2. day care picking

6.4.2.3.3. blood donation

6.4.2.3.4. teacher salaries

6.4.2.4. Studies are generally limited to "interesting" tasks

6.4.2.4.1. interest in a task is individual and contextual

6.4.2.4.2. tasks that require creativity, thought, etc. - are considered interesting

6.4.2.4.3. reward types do matter

6.5. 6.5 Self-Determination Theory

6.5.1. comrehensive study of human motivation

6.5.2. motivational spectrum

6.5.2.1. A motiation

6.5.2.1.1. you have no motivation

6.5.2.1.2. you're indifferent to an activity

6.5.2.2. extrinsic motivators

6.5.2.2.1. from external regulation

6.5.2.2.2. from introjection

6.5.2.2.3. from identification

6.5.2.2.4. from integration

6.5.2.3. intrinsic motivation

6.5.2.3.1. you simply love the activity

6.5.2.3.2. you don't need something external to want to do it, you do it because it's fun

6.5.2.3.3. the activitiy is worthwhile in and of itself

6.5.3. push more towards approaches that utilize intrinsic motivators

6.5.3.1. => find the fun in the activity

6.5.4. what does it take for intrinsic motivation

6.5.4.1. competence

6.5.4.1.1. the person's sense of ability

6.5.4.1.2. accomplishing something

6.5.4.1.3. solving problems

6.5.4.1.4. surmounting obstacles

6.5.4.1.5. achieving something

6.5.4.2. autonomy

6.5.4.2.1. the person feels he's in control

6.5.4.2.2. it's me doing it by my meaningful choice

6.5.4.3. relatedness

6.5.4.3.1. your activity is connected to something beyond yourself

6.5.4.3.2. meaning and purpose

6.5.4.3.3. "using less energy which is good for the planet"

6.5.4.3.4. social interaction, doing something with friends

6.5.5. example: game elements can be one or the other (intrinsic or extrinsic)

6.5.5.1. Fitocracy

6.5.5.1.1. work out and get in shape

6.5.5.1.2. PBL elements

6.5.5.1.3. activity is achieving something / you're mastering something

6.5.5.1.4. several choices

6.5.5.1.5. strong social element

6.5.6. books

6.5.6.1. Daniel Pink: Drive

6.5.6.2. Rigby, Ryan: Glued to Games

6.5.6.2.1. applying self-determination theory to video games

6.5.6.2.2. how video games can activate the three motivators (competence, autonomy, relatedness)

6.6. 6.6 First Half Wrap-Up

6.6.1. first half

6.6.1.1. frameworks and concepts

6.6.1.1.1. what gamification is

6.6.1.1.2. what games are

6.6.1.1.3. game thinking (intersection of the two)

6.6.1.1.4. psychology and motivation

6.6.1.1.5. => as fundamental building blocks

6.6.2. second half

6.6.2.1. applications

6.6.2.1.1. how to put the concepts into practice

6.6.2.1.2. design (frameworks and processes)

6.6.2.1.3. application in specific domains

6.6.2.2. risks and dangers

6.6.2.3. evolution of gamification

7. 7. Gamification Design Framework

7.1. 7.1 Design Process Framework

7.1.1. design is

7.1.1.1. a general approach to addressing challenges

7.1.1.2. a process of attacking problems

7.1.2. design thinking

7.1.2.1. see IDEO company

7.1.2.2. purposive, i.e. it has a goal

7.1.2.2.1. trying to achieve some objective

7.1.2.3. human-centered

7.1.2.3.1. it's designed around people

7.1.2.3.2. everything is based upon the person

7.1.2.3.3. you always have to think about the experience

7.1.2.3.4. it's real people

7.1.2.3.5. the experience of the player is not the experience of the designer

7.1.2.4. balance of analytical and creative

7.1.2.4.1. abductive reasoning: intference from best availalbe explanation

7.1.2.4.2. not just numbers, analytical formulas

7.1.2.4.3. but also creativity and innovation

7.1.2.4.4. vaguer kinds of frameworks

7.1.2.4.5. or just individual examples to find patterns

7.1.2.5. iterative

7.1.2.5.1. prototyping and playtesting

7.1.2.5.2. we're not going to be right the first time

7.1.2.5.3. trying, failing, learning, trying again

7.1.2.5.4. doing the same thing mulsiple times, but improving from iteration to iteration

7.1.2.5.5. you start with a rough version, a rough prototype

7.1.2.5.6. imrprove based on real experience from real users

7.1.2.6. Gamification Design Framework

7.1.2.6.1. D6

7.2. 7.2 Define Business Objectives and Delineate Target Behaviors

7.2.1. 1. Business objectives

7.2.1.1. what is it for?

7.2.1.2. e.g. get people to accumulate points and badges

7.2.1.3. but the badges are only valuable to the company if it gets the people to buy more products or to post positive feedback on the website

7.2.1.4. => stepping stones to something else

7.2.1.4.1. revenue

7.2.1.4.2. behavior change

7.2.1.5. e.g. goals of FourSquare

7.2.1.5.1. goals

7.2.1.5.2. social sharing

7.2.1.5.3. influencer marketing

7.2.1.6. how to catalog the goals?

7.2.1.6.1. 1. list them (as specificly as possible) and rank possible objectives

7.2.1.6.2. 2. eliminate the stepping stones (like collecting badges), the means to ends

7.2.1.6.3. 3. justify the objectives (short explanation), start to see the relationships among the objectives

7.2.2. 2. Target behaviors

7.2.2.1. the things you want the users to do

7.2.2.2. advice

7.2.2.2.1. be specific

7.2.2.2.2. figure out the success metrics ("win states" in gamer terms) for achieving the goals of the gamified systems

7.2.2.2.3. what are the analytics

7.3. 7.3 Describe Your Players

7.3.1. demographics

7.3.1.1. age

7.3.1.2. income level

7.3.2. psychographics

7.3.2.1. what do you know about their behavior

7.3.2.2. what do they like to buy

7.3.2.3. what do they like to do

7.3.3. starting points is general things that you know about your players

7.3.4. more interesting: what motivates them

7.3.5. Bartle MMOG Player Type Model

7.3.5.1. by Richard Bartle (University of Essex)

7.3.5.2. MMOG ... massivly multiplayer online game

7.3.5.3. two-by-two matrix

7.3.5.3.1. players <=> world

7.3.5.3.2. acting <=> interacting with those things

7.3.5.4. Achievers

7.3.5.4.1. want to act on the world

7.3.5.4.2. reach some achievement

7.3.5.4.3. overcome some obstacle

7.3.5.4.4. get some recognition of their achievement

7.3.5.5. Explorers

7.3.5.5.1. want to interact with the world

7.3.5.5.2. go, try and see

7.3.5.5.3. push on the limits of the world just because it's there

7.3.5.5.4. try out every piece

7.3.5.5.5. figure out new things with the game

7.3.5.6. Socializers

7.3.5.6.1. want to interact with other players

7.3.5.6.2. being on teams

7.3.5.6.3. talking and chatting

7.3.5.6.4. being part of a community

7.3.5.6.5. social experience is more important than the achievements that come out of this social interaction

7.3.5.7. Killers

7.3.5.7.1. want to act on other players

7.3.5.7.2. don't just go out and win the game, but stomp on other people

7.3.5.7.3. vanquish and destroy them

7.3.5.7.4. impose themselves on other people

7.3.5.7.5. a small but important part

7.3.5.7.6. most people are not killers all of the time

7.3.5.7.7. they care a LOT about the game

7.3.5.8. Caveat

7.3.5.8.1. we are not always in the same quadrant

7.3.5.8.2. we switch between them

7.4. 7.4 Devise Activity Loops

7.4.1. loop ... what is repeated forever

7.4.1.1. repetitive, recursive structures

7.4.1.2. but also branching off into different directions

7.4.2. engagement loops

7.4.2.1. at the micro level

7.4.2.2. individual user actions

7.4.2.3. the constant process of

7.4.2.3.1. motivators appear, the game gives the user to do something, to take an action, to overcome a challenge, to go and do something

7.4.2.3.2. if the motivation is strong enough, it will lead to an action (otherwise the loop dies)

7.4.2.3.3. if there's an action, the user gets clear, immediate feedback, seeing the level of performance

7.4.2.3.4. which then again becomes a motivator

7.4.2.4. each piece shall reinforce each other piece

7.4.3. progression loops

7.4.3.1. at the macro level

7.4.3.1.1. how the game moves forward

7.4.3.2. broader structures of activity throughout the course of the game

7.4.3.3. series of fairly small challenges

7.4.3.3.1. part of a larger challenge

7.4.3.3.2. specific steps lead to achievement of sub-challenges

7.4.3.3.3. several sub-challenges lead to the overall goal of the game

7.4.3.3.4. all immediate steps are balanced effectively

7.4.3.4. player's evolution in the game from a novice to a master

7.4.3.4.1. initially onboarding

7.4.3.4.2. people get exhausted if it always gets up

7.4.3.4.3. at some point in time "Boss Fights"

7.4.3.4.4. making tremendous gain towards mastery

7.5. 7.5 Don't Forget the Fun and Apploy the Appropriate Tools

7.5.1. if it's "just a PBL system", it's easy to forget the fun

7.5.2. keep asking "why would you want to do this?"

7.5.2.1. how to bring more engagement, more puzzles, more fight?

7.5.3. PBLs can be fun

7.5.3.1. but you have to make sure that they actually unleash the different versions of fun

7.5.3.2. e.g. Samsung Nation

7.5.3.2.1. is it exciting just because Samsung writes so?

7.5.3.2.2. do you have fun by looking around on their website?

7.5.3.3. fun can be anywhere

7.5.3.4. e.g. Fitocracy

7.5.3.4.1. overall experience is more fun-like

7.5.3.4.2. you feel awesome just by using the site

7.5.3.5. e.g. LinkedIn progress bar

7.5.3.5.1. getting feedback, knowing that you're already done

7.5.3.5.2. knowing the next step to get ahead

7.5.3.5.3. => there's just a lightweight bit of fun in it

7.5.3.6. e.g. FoldIt

7.5.3.6.1. proteine folding

7.5.3.6.2. computing all possible folding (3d shapes) takes a lot of computing power

7.5.3.6.3. but folding them manually can be fun

7.5.3.6.4. => it has been made easy to participate

7.5.3.6.5. => while having a good reason (help to fight AIDS)

7.5.4. The Right Tools

7.5.4.1. pyramid of components, mechanics, dynamics

7.5.4.2. game design techniques

7.5.5. then

7.5.5.1. iterate and playtest and iterate again

7.5.5.2. keep improving the system so that it works for the players

8. 8. Design Choices

8.1. 8.1 Taking Stock: Two approaches to gamification

8.1.1. what are some conceptual issues around gamificaiton

8.1.2. what are big deep questions about the future

8.1.3. two different kinds of gamification

8.1.3.1. both are true examples to gamification

8.1.3.2. with some overlaps

8.1.4. ask yourself "is it a game?"

8.1.4.1. game-like / play-like attitude

8.1.4.2. meaningful choices

8.1.4.3. e.g. slot-machine

8.1.4.3.1. just random

8.1.4.3.2. gives you money or not, at random, not based on your skills

8.1.4.3.3. => not really a game

8.1.4.3.4. rather a game of chance, since there is some engagement

8.1.5. Untitled

8.1.6. Doing

8.1.6.1. get inspiration from disciplines like marketing and economics

8.1.6.2. incentives that pull someone to an activity

8.1.6.3. satisfying needs

8.1.6.4. game elements, building up from the bottom

8.1.6.5. think more about status

8.1.6.6. PBLs

8.1.6.7. rewards

8.1.6.8. making users do things

8.1.6.8.1. that they want to do on their own

8.1.6.8.2. player needs some motivational help to push him along the path

8.1.7. Feeling

8.1.7.1. more "what you feel about something" than "what you do"

8.1.7.2. get inspiration more from game design and cognitive psychology

8.1.7.2.1. what's going on that makes someone interested in something

8.1.7.3. experiences - something inside the player's head

8.1.7.4. fun

8.1.7.5. game thinking, starting with general principles and then go down to the specifics

8.1.7.6. think more about meaning

8.1.7.7. puzzles, learning, challenges

8.1.7.7.1. at the center rather than the structural and visible elements of PBL

8.1.7.8. progresison, mastery, competence, more about the journey than the rewards

8.1.7.9. making players awesome

8.1.7.9.1. figuring out in the first instance what it is to achieve one's full potential

8.1.7.9.2. focusing more on the user's goal than on the company's goals

8.1.7.10. => this approach is more "game-based"

8.2. 8.2 Is Gamification right for me?

8.2.1. Four Questions

8.2.1.1. 1. Motivation

8.2.1.1.1. where would you derive value from encouraging behavior?

8.2.1.1.2. what are the situations where motivation is important

8.2.1.2. 2. Meaningful Choices

8.2.1.2.1. Are your target activities sufficiently interesting?

8.2.1.2.2. competence and autonomy

8.2.1.2.3. are there options for the user

8.2.1.2.4. do they connect up with things that are meaningful for the user

8.2.1.2.5. does the gamified system do things in a way that seem interesting

8.2.1.2.6. e.g. Google News Badges

8.2.1.3. 3. Structure

8.2.1.3.1. can the desired behaviors be modeled through algorithms?

8.2.1.3.2. so they need to be clear enough, not vague

8.2.1.3.3. can we use rules / algorithms to implement a gamified system

8.2.1.4. 4. Potential Conflicts

8.2.1.4.1. can the game avoid tension with other motivational structures?

8.2.1.4.2. what other motivation structures are there out there

8.2.1.4.3. e.g. grades in schools

8.3. 8.3 Case Study: Designing for collective good

8.3.1. StackOverflow

8.3.1.1. Co-Founder Jeff Atwood

8.3.1.2. http://www.codinghorror.com/blog/2011/10/the-gamification.html

8.3.2. Q & A site for programmers

8.3.2.1. how do you encourage a group to do what's best for the world rather than their own, specific

8.3.2.2. you ask questions

8.3.2.3. other answer questions

8.3.2.4. how do you get people to spend their own volunteer time?

8.3.2.4.1. > 2 mio registered users

8.3.2.4.2. > 5,000 new questions per day

8.3.2.4.3. > 10,000 new answers per day

8.3.2.5. think about the problem in the right way

8.3.2.5.1. what is programming?

8.3.2.5.2. => make people want to do it voluntarily

8.3.2.6. implement a system that reflects the community

8.3.2.6.1. know your players!

8.3.2.6.2. meaning is socially constructive

8.3.2.6.3. what is meaningful is specific to the community

8.3.2.7. question

8.3.2.7.1. answer

8.3.2.7.2. another answer

8.3.2.8. "StackOverflow makes helping your fellow programmers the most effective way to 'win'..."

8.3.2.8.1. you have to work as a team to become productive

8.3.2.8.2. to win the game you have to be effective as a teammate

8.3.2.8.3. you don't win by being awesome on yourself, you win as a team

8.3.2.9. points

8.3.2.9.1. are called reputation

8.3.2.9.2. you earn them when your fellow users vote up your questions and answers

8.3.2.10. bounties

8.3.2.10.1. you can give reputation to people for good answers or good questions

8.3.2.10.2. => notion of exchange and gifting

8.3.2.11. => reward not individual achievement but actions that serve the collective good

8.3.2.11.1. rather than their own specific, selfish needs

8.3.2.11.2. => groups tend to fall apart

8.3.2.11.3. the game elements work against destructive forces

8.3.2.12. reputation gives you certain powers

8.3.2.12.1. abilities that make you a moderator

8.3.2.13. badges in stackoverflow are different

8.3.2.13.1. they are about "doing things"

8.3.2.13.2. some are about "being good for others"

8.3.2.13.3. especially the gold badges are geared towards social behavior

8.4. 8.4 Designing for happiness

8.4.1. how to apply gamification in a way that makes people happy and fulfilled

8.4.2. positive psychology

8.4.2.1. psychology in general is about pathology (if something is wrong)

8.4.2.2. positive psychology looks at what makes people happy and fulfilled

8.4.2.2.1. what things it takes to make them feel better about themselves

8.4.2.3. Martin Seligman

8.4.2.3.1. book "Flourish"

8.4.2.3.2. PERMA

8.4.2.4. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi

8.4.2.4.1. Flow

8.5. 8.5 Amy Jo Kim interview

8.5.1. game design professional

8.5.1.1. expert on social architectures

8.5.1.2. author and workshop organizer

8.5.2. gamification as a word will go away

8.5.2.1. but the ideas and techniques will be integrated in many kinds of design

8.5.2.2. now we see the awakening of a longer-lasting trend

8.5.3. player types

8.5.3.1. according to Bartles (1996)

8.5.3.1.1. players <=> world

8.5.3.1.2. acting <=> interacting

8.5.3.1.3. Killers

8.5.3.1.4. Achievers

8.5.3.1.5. Explorers

8.5.3.1.6. Socializers

8.5.3.2. Kim's Social Engagement Verbs (2010)

8.5.3.2.1. content <=> players

8.5.3.2.2. acting <=> interacting

8.5.3.2.3. Express

8.5.3.2.4. Compete

8.5.3.2.5. Collaborate

8.5.3.2.6. Explore

8.5.3.2.7. Untitled

8.5.3.2.8. map out the core actions of the game or gamified system against that chart and see where they lie

8.5.3.2.9. Untitled

8.5.3.2.10. does it match to who you're trying to reach?

8.5.4. types of games

8.5.4.1. a game is a system in which

8.5.4.1.1. players engage in an artificial conflice

8.5.4.1.2. defined by rules

8.5.4.1.3. that results in a quantifiable outcome

8.5.4.1.4. Zero-Sum games

8.5.4.2. a game is a

8.5.4.2.1. structured experience with rules and goals that's fun to play

8.5.4.2.2. no quantifiable outcome, you just keep playing

8.5.4.2.3. examples

8.5.4.2.4. Non-Zero-Sum-Games

8.5.5. web and games

8.5.5.1. from web design / social media into gamification

8.5.5.2. people in the web world

8.5.5.2.1. understand

8.5.5.2.2. don't understand

9. 9. Enterprise Gamification

9.1. 9.1 Enterprise applications

9.1.1. internal gamification - in a large business organization

9.1.2. gamify a proces or a system

9.1.3. wide range of differend kinds of usage

9.1.4. major areas

9.1.4.1. intranet or extranet engagement

9.1.4.1.1. online collaboration for employees or extended network

9.1.4.1.2. compare StackOverflow

9.1.4.1.3. e.g. SAP

9.1.4.2. productivity enhancement

9.1.4.2.1. helping or encouraging employees to do their core job better

9.1.4.2.2. sales person is different to accountant, than a customer-service agent

9.1.4.2.3. gamification can profide information and feedback

9.1.4.3. efficiency enhancement

9.1.4.3.1. productivity is in someone's core job responsibility

9.1.4.3.2. efficiency is about making them better by doing everything in work efficiently

9.1.4.4. knowledge management

9.1.4.4.1. e.g. Deloitte's WhoWhatWhere

9.1.4.5. human resources

9.1.4.5.1. hiring

9.1.4.5.2. onboarding

9.1.4.5.3. acculturation

9.1.4.5.4. corporate training

9.1.4.5.5. performance review

9.1.4.5.6. employee recognition

9.1.4.5.7. travel and entertainment reimbursement

9.1.4.6. innovation

9.1.4.6.1. Idea Street

9.1.4.7. serious games

9.1.4.7.1. Siemens PlantVille

9.2. 9.2 Workplace motivations

9.2.1. what motivates people at work

9.2.1.1. rewards

9.2.1.1.1. pay

9.2.1.1.2. bonuses

9.2.1.1.3. stock options

9.2.1.1.4. verbal praise

9.2.1.1.5. promotions

9.2.1.1.6. responsibility

9.2.1.1.7. => almost entirely extrinsic motivators

9.2.1.2. skill development

9.2.1.2.1. http://www.bunchball.com/mywork-community

9.2.1.2.2. learning for part-timers and people in the homeoffice

9.2.1.3. information

9.2.1.3.1. employees don't always know how they are doing

9.2.1.4. corporate citizenship

9.2.1.4.1. Microsoft's language qualtiy game

9.2.1.5. fun

9.2.1.5.1. http://www.zappified.com/face/index.html

9.2.1.5.2. The Face Game

9.2.1.5.3. to get to know their co-workers

9.3. 9.3 The game vs. the job

9.3.1. game <=> job

9.3.1.1. the game is the thing that engages them

9.3.1.2. the game may push in one way while the job may push in another way

9.3.1.3. e.g. call center

9.3.1.3.1. game rules incentivize short calls

9.3.1.3.2. company may lose money by shorter calls

9.3.2. citizenship behaviors

9.3.2.1. altruism

9.3.2.1.1. be good to other people

9.3.2.2. conscientousness

9.3.2.2.1. take pride in what you do

9.3.2.3. civic virtue

9.3.2.3.1. care about doing your part for the community

9.3.2.4. courtesy

9.3.2.5. sportsmanship

9.3.2.5.1. be fair to others

9.3.3. Ross Smith's Framework (Microsoft)

9.3.3.1. in-role behavior

9.3.3.1.1. according to your job description

9.3.3.1.2. core skills

9.3.3.1.3. unique skills

9.3.3.1.4. future skills

9.3.3.2. citizenship behaviors

9.3.3.2.1. core skills

9.3.3.2.2. unique skills

9.3.3.2.3. future skills

9.3.3.3. there are two big categories of gamification application in the workplace

9.3.3.3.1. => get groups involved in collaboration

9.3.3.3.2. => get individual people involved

9.3.3.4. in other fields gamification does not have the same potential

9.4. 9.4 Playbor

9.4.1. is the game truly voluntary?

9.4.2. play + labor = playbor

9.4.2.1. a game has to be voluntary

9.4.2.1.1. you choose to play

9.4.2.1.2. you choose to take the rules seriously

9.4.2.2. forced to play a game a work

9.4.2.3. forced to use a gamified system

9.4.2.3.1. http://www.flickr.com/photos/dpstyles/4141140976/

9.4.2.3.2. isn't it more about the company monetaring the people?

9.4.2.3.3. it's not so much about fun for the employee

9.4.2.3.4. are those mandatory systems ethical?

9.4.2.3.5. http://articles.latimes.com/2011/oct/19/local/la-me-1019-lopez-disney-20111018

9.4.2.3.6. the "electronic whip"

9.4.2.3.7. Steve Lopez: Disneyland workers answer to 'electronic whip' Anaheim laundry workers monitored by giant big screens aim to keep productivity high as they worry about paying more for healthcare. In the basements of the Disneyland and Paradise Pier hotels in Anaheim, big flat-screen monitors hang from the walls in rooms where uniformed crews do laundry. The monitors are like scoreboards, with employees' work speeds compared to one another. Workers are listed by name, so their colleagues can see who is quickest at loading pillow cases, sheets and other items into a laundry machine.

9.4.2.3.8. "I was nervous ... and felt that I was being controlled even more"

9.4.2.4. how can gamified systems be designed

9.4.2.4.1. to promote the beneficial aspects of gamificaton

9.4.2.4.2. not to lead to competition that demoralizes the workforce and will lead to worse performance

9.4.2.5. => system must be perceived as voluntary

9.4.2.6. => system must be perceived as transparent

9.4.2.6.1. is it just informational to help me do a better job

9.4.2.6.2. or is it used to control me

9.5. 9.5 Daniel Debow interview

9.5.1. Rypple - acquired by SalesForce

9.5.1.1. http://www.salesforce.com/company/news-press/press-releases/2012/03/120315.jsp

9.5.1.2. amplify behavior by

9.5.1.2.1. goal setting

9.5.1.2.2. coaching

9.5.1.2.3. gathering feedback

9.5.1.3. social performance management instead of quarterly or yearly

9.5.2. use of gamification and game designers was not intended

9.5.2.1. they just wanted to design a great experience

9.5.2.2. most games fail - so it's not just throwing game mechanics onto something to make it successful

9.5.2.3. use gamification only for things that were already good

9.5.2.3.1. because they are already intrinsically rewarding

9.5.2.3.2. => look at the data

9.5.2.3.3. => look at behavior

9.5.3. approach with Rypple

9.5.3.1. ask for feedback

9.5.3.2. give feedback

9.5.3.3. add little symbolism

9.5.3.4. look at the data

9.5.3.5. make the most intrinsically rewarding thing the core

9.5.3.6. experiment

9.5.4. internal systems

9.5.4.1. be aware of the social construct that the people exist in

9.5.4.2. incentivized social sharing like Dropbox

9.5.4.2.1. bring your friends

9.5.4.2.2. within a company that may lead to people inviting less friends

9.5.4.2.3. they feld bad about doing it for money

9.5.4.2.4. it has to be good in and of itself

9.5.4.3. participating in (possibly) frivolous behavior is dictated by the culture of the organization

9.5.4.4. people moderate their behavior because they know they are at work and are controlled to some extent

9.5.5. will gamification work for tradiaitonal companies as well

9.5.5.1. people play games at work already

9.5.5.2. badges, status symbols, job titles

9.5.5.3. corner office

9.5.5.4. language in literature, "blame game", "career game", etc.

9.5.6. how do you avoid that game mechanics make it just more competitive or cut-throat

9.5.6.1. => look at the data how people behave

9.5.6.2. => get people involved who have actually designed games

9.5.6.2.1. what does the literature say about it

9.5.6.3. => think about them as amplification tools

9.5.6.3.1. what do you want to have more of

10. 10. Social Good and Behavior Change

10.1. 10.1 Gamification for good?

10.1.1. things that have some societal benefit

10.1.2. things that involve helping the person become better, happier, more fulfilled, healthier

10.1.3. games bring

10.1.3.1. positive emotions

10.1.3.1.1. being involved

10.1.3.2. socialability

10.1.3.3. engagement

10.1.4. what's different about gamification in a context with a focus on social or personal impact

10.1.4.1. inherent relatedness

10.1.4.1.1. see self-determination theory

10.1.4.1.2. interacting with friends

10.1.4.1.3. or when the activity has some greater meaning or purpose

10.1.4.1.4. => it's not always simple to unlock that power of relatedness

10.1.4.1.5. => gamification is about activating that sense of relatedness, making it meaningful and real so that people act on their latent desire to engage in that activities

10.1.4.2. but: should there be rewards for doing good?

10.1.4.3. behavior change - getting people over the hump

10.2. 10.2 Social good applications

10.2.1. four categories

10.2.1.1. health and wellness

10.2.1.1.1. Zamzee

10.2.1.1.2. Kia System

10.2.1.1.3. Fitocracy

10.2.1.1.4. Superbetter (by Jane McGonigal's company)

10.2.1.2. energy and environment

10.2.1.2.1. Opower

10.2.1.2.2. Recycle Bank

10.2.1.3. education

10.2.1.3.1. the challenge is to make the system better and not worse

10.2.1.3.2. Quest to Learn (led by Katie Salen)

10.2.1.3.3. Lee Sheldon - experience points instead of standard grades

10.2.1.3.4. credentialing function

10.2.1.4. government

10.2.1.4.1. to promote its policies

10.3. 10.3 Social good techniques

10.3.1. CAPRI (Congestion and Parking Relief Incentives)

10.3.1.1. https://stanfordcapri.org/

10.3.1.2. by prof. BAlaji Prabahkar

10.3.1.3. feedback & rewards

10.3.1.4. monitoring

10.3.1.4.1. automatically done

10.3.1.4.2. no need for manual input

10.3.1.5. communal pressure

10.3.1.5.1. see what friends are doing (regarding their parking behavior)

10.3.1.5.2. social norms - you don't want to be too much out of norm

10.3.2. Competition

10.3.2.1. Kukui Cup

10.3.2.2. do better than your peers

10.3.2.3. if there's no existing system that could be lessened, then competition is probably good

10.3.3. Chance

10.3.3.1. dollars or credits as a reward

10.3.3.1.1. credits can be used for games

10.3.3.1.2. depending on your status level, you get a better chance to win a prize

10.4. 10.4 Behavior change

10.4.1. what's the secret to sustainable behavior change?

10.4.2. habit formation

10.4.2.1. if you know objectively that something is good for you, you will not automatically do it

10.4.2.2. => you need help to get from conscious mode to the automatic mode of thinking

10.4.3. Fogg Behavior Model

10.4.3.1. Untitled

10.4.3.2. B ... Behavior

10.4.3.3. B = m.a.t

10.4.3.3.1. motivation

10.4.3.3.2. ability

10.4.3.3.3. trigger

10.4.3.3.4. => all three need to be present at the same moment, then we take action

10.4.3.4. the more motivated you are, the more likely you're going to do them

10.4.3.5. the easier it is, the more likely you're going to do it

10.4.3.6. triggers only work above the activation threshold

10.4.3.6.1. if both motivation and ability are high, a trigger is more likely to work

10.4.3.7. Motivation and ability can trade off against each other

10.4.3.8. Trigger timing

10.4.3.8.1. => if the person is prepared to take action, it works better

10.4.3.8.2. => not too many triggers, otherwise people are overwhelmed

10.4.3.9. Trigger types

10.4.3.9.1. Spark

10.4.3.9.2. Facilitator

10.4.3.9.3. Signal

10.4.3.10. Magic Potion of Game Dynamics

10.4.3.10.1. http://lithosphere.lithium.com/t5/Science-of-Social-blog/The-Magic-Potion-of-Game-Dynamics/ba-p/19260

10.4.3.10.2. engagement loops

10.4.3.10.3. progression loops

10.4.3.10.4. good games trigger effectively

10.5. 10.5 Susan Hunt Stevens interview

10.5.1. Susan Hunt Stevens, founder of Practically Green

10.5.2. Using Gamification for Social Good

10.5.2.1. bringing transparency to social norms

10.5.2.1.1. we can see what the other is doing (among friends or colleagues)

10.5.2.1.2. => then either compete, collaborate, learn, share,...

10.5.2.2. get behavior on a scale

10.5.2.2.1. => level system

10.5.2.2.2. so people know where they are

10.5.2.3. get people to act

10.5.2.3.1. => point system

10.5.2.4. how to give recognition of an accomplishment

10.5.2.5. => bring in FUN through gamification

10.5.3. what does it take to get people engaged in long term change?

10.5.3.1. most games have a short shelf-life

10.5.3.2. you have to design differently for long-term play

10.5.3.2.1. keep people motivated and inspired

10.5.3.2.2. need to provide contents

10.5.3.2.3. => most important it's the community

10.5.4. trusted groups <=> groups of strangers

10.5.4.1. existing communities as a jump start

10.5.4.2. playing with colleagues you're more engaged

10.5.4.3. then playing with family members

10.5.4.4. than with neighbors

10.5.4.5. then with people you don't know

10.5.5. loops

10.5.5.1. feedback, badge or award

10.5.5.2. next step

10.5.5.3. how to provide reinforcement and rewards to people

10.5.5.3.1. status

10.5.5.3.2. access

10.5.5.3.3. power

10.5.5.3.4. more information

10.5.5.3.5. more capability

10.5.5.4. how to get the feedback loop going

10.5.5.4.1. that gets them doing the next thing

10.5.5.4.2. that provides them the positive feedback

10.5.5.5. how to get them to provide positive feedback to others

10.5.5.5.1. to become a contributor

10.5.5.5.2. and finally a loyalist

10.5.6. how to avoid being too focused on the awards

10.5.6.1. => don't have redeemable points

10.5.6.2. the more tangible the reward is and the more valuable it is, the more incentive there is to cheat the system

10.5.6.3. => really think what creates the intrinsic rewards

10.5.6.3.1. e.g. really positive feedback from someone else

10.5.6.3.2. => stuff leads to cheating

10.5.6.3.3. => you cheat a lot among people that you don't know, much less among colleagues

10.5.6.3.4. => there are too much social downsides in trusted groups to be dishonest

10.5.7. will gamification become a norm for behavior change

10.5.7.1. yes, but offline and online are both important

11. 11. Critiques and Risks

11.1. 11.1 Pointsification

11.1.1. term coined by Margaret Robertson

11.1.1.1. hideandseek.net > 2010 > 10 > 06 > Cant-play-wont-play

11.1.1.2. http://www.hideandseek.net/2010/10/06/cant-play-wont-play/

11.1.1.3. "taking the thing that is least essential to games and representing it as the core of the experience"

11.1.1.4. "Points and badges have no closer a relationship to games than they do to websites and fitness apps and loyalty cards"

11.1.1.5. => just the surface aspects (the game mechanics)

11.1.1.5.1. which won't lead to true engagement

11.1.1.6. => the powerful motivational aspects are [often] not at the core of gamification

11.1.1.7. if you stay on the behavioral side (as Robertson criticizes), you may not get the value of gamification

11.1.2. Does gamification actually work?

11.1.2.1. to get to sustained, important, deep engagement?

11.1.2.2. => empirical research on effectiveness is still lacking

11.1.2.2.1. e.g. Ethan Mollick (at Wharton School)

11.1.2.3. if gamification is reduced to pointsification, engagement may decay over time

11.1.2.3.1. after initial boost from surprise, engagement loops

11.1.2.4. crowding out - extrinsic rewards crowd out intrinsic motivation

11.1.2.5. Kathy Sierra: "gamification is the high fructose corn syrup of engagement"

11.1.2.5.1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kathy_Sierra

11.1.2.5.2. => don't rely too much on simplistic, external reward systems

11.1.2.5.3. => goal must be: true intrinsic motivation, love of the activity, love of the task, love of the process

11.1.3. e.g. FourSquare

11.1.3.1. applying PBL on social location sytsem

11.1.3.2. redesign in early 2012

11.1.3.2.1. deemphasize game elements

11.1.3.2.2. only on third, detail screen you see the game elements, not any more on home screen or on the map

11.1.3.2.3. => gamification seemingly didn't work - on a sustained basis

11.1.3.2.4. => or game elements were more important in the growth phase

11.1.4. => keep questioning whether the techniques is still worthwile and working / driving business results

11.1.5. implications

11.1.5.1. names are powerful

11.1.5.1.1. the word "gamification" seems to focus on games

11.1.5.2. bad gamification is bad

11.1.5.2.1. behaviorist gamification is subject to the limits / dangers of rewards

11.1.5.3. there's more to games than gamification

11.1.5.3.1. there's more to gamification than games

11.2. 11.2 Exploitationware

11.2.1. exploitationware = gamification is potentially too effective

11.2.1.1. => can be used to get people to do things that aren't necessarily in their interest

11.2.2. e.g. "electronic whip" for Disneyland workers

11.2.2.1. leaderboard for housekeeping staff

11.2.2.2. => play board or coerced play

11.2.2.3. => exploitative <=> supportive

11.2.3. Ian Bogost: Exploitationware

11.2.3.1. www.bogost.com/writing/exploitationware.shtml

11.2.3.2. http://www.gamasutra.com/view/feature/6366/persuasive_games_exploitationware.php

11.2.3.3. gamification is a way to make people think that their job doesn't suck although it actually does

11.2.3.3.1. => make them ignore the real conditions of their workplace

11.2.3.4. it fundamentally undermines the nature of economic and social exchange between workers and their employers

11.2.3.4.1. "gamification proposes to replace real incentives with fictional ones"

11.2.3.4.2. "Real incentives come at a cost but provide value for both parties based on a relationship of trust"

11.2.3.4.3. "By contrast, pretend incentives reduce or eliminate costs, but in so doing they strip away both value and trust"

11.2.4. monitor the employees ever more closely <=> encourage to learn and feel more meaning

11.2.4.1. => it's how you use the tools, not the tools that are bad / dangerous

11.2.5. Cow Clicker

11.2.5.1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cow_Clicker

11.2.5.2. virtual goods and virtual currency and appointment dynamcis

11.2.5.3. => there was no point other than clicking on a cow

11.2.5.4. but there are different kinds of cows

11.2.5.5. => the game is designed to show the fundamental emptiness of these kinds of systems that rely purely on these engagement loops

11.2.5.5.1. more than 50k people played the game

11.2.5.5.2. people with 100k clicks on the leaderboard

11.2.6. first thing

11.2.6.1. focus on the business objectives

11.2.7. second thing

11.2.7.1. who are the players, don't just treat them as automata

11.3. 11.3 Gaming the game

11.3.1. don't forget about the player

11.3.1.1. you may be able to anticipate how they behave

11.3.1.2. but you can never be sure what they are going to do

11.3.1.3. => players may game the system

11.3.1.3.1. do something that you never intended

11.3.1.3.2. Gamification Can Kill (by Nicole Lazarro)

11.3.1.4. => people may react differently

11.3.1.5. => people may react stronger

11.3.2. cheating

11.3.2.1. e.g. a flaw allows them to accumulate points

11.3.2.2. => the players have to accept the rules of the game voluntarily

11.3.2.3. if people just interact with computer-based systems, it's easy for the people to feel it's okay to bend the rules

11.3.2.4. games with social elements tend to see this effect less

11.3.3. => iteration and play-testing is criticial to find out what people actually do

11.3.4. beneficial cheating

11.3.4.1. James Gardner, an innovation designer

11.3.4.1.1. maker of Spigot

11.3.4.1.2. gamified prediction market system

11.3.4.1.3. to develop innovations by creating contests

11.3.4.2. innovation market at Lloyd's bank

11.3.4.2.1. people could sell their innovations

11.3.4.2.2. => people found out that they could find out good ideas

11.3.5. => recognize that people will react in unpredictable ways to the signals that the system produces

11.3.5.1. take care that the player's behavior

11.3.5.1.1. doesn't destroy the game

11.3.5.1.2. doesn't create imbalances

11.3.5.1.3. doesn't make the game unplayable for many players

11.3.5.2. but let the players exercise autonomy to feel more intrinsically motivated

11.4. 11.4 Legal issues

11.4.1. five issues

11.4.1.1. privacy

11.4.1.1.1. lots of information about your players

11.4.1.1.2. profile

11.4.1.1.3. what they are doing

11.4.1.1.4. => necessary for optimizing the experience

11.4.1.1.5. => but players may not like that

11.4.1.2. employment or labor law may be infringed

11.4.1.2.1. see "electronic whip"

11.4.1.2.2. if game elements effect people's work performance

11.4.1.2.3. => is that properly disclosed

11.4.1.2.4. => is it consistent with the law requirements

11.4.1.3. deceptive marketing

11.4.1.3.1. stealth marketing

11.4.1.4. intellectual property

11.4.1.4.1. structure of badges

11.4.1.4.2. badges

11.4.1.4.3. => don't just copy, but respect the holders of the intellectual properties

11.4.1.5. virtual property rights

11.4.1.5.1. what happens if a user spends a lot of time and money to get something virtual

11.4.1.5.2. => can there be legal claims from the players towards the game operators

11.4.1.5.3. => so far it's more a license than an ownership

11.4.1.5.4. "CARD Act" regulates gift cards (and what happens after expiration)

11.5. 11.5 Regulatory issues

11.5.1. paid endorsements

11.5.1.1. when you market or endorse a product for money

11.5.1.2. e.g. bloggers who receive money or free products

11.5.1.3. Federal Trade Commission requires disclosure

11.5.1.3.1. you have to disclose the fact that you received money or free products

11.5.1.4. examples

11.5.1.4.1. unlock badges by liking a post on facebook

11.5.1.4.2. earn something by tweeting

11.5.1.5. => some virtual value may be earned

11.5.1.5.1. => disclosure might become necessary

11.5.2. banking regulation

11.5.2.1. record-keeping

11.5.2.2. reserve requirements

11.5.2.3. currency manipulation

11.5.2.4. anti-fraud

11.5.2.5. money laundering

11.5.2.6. consumer protection

11.5.2.7. taxation and accounting

11.5.2.8. => if a virtual currency is freely tradable back and forth (real money <=> virtual money)

11.5.2.8.1. then all those banking regulation applies to the gamified system

11.5.2.8.2. => and possibly one may not even engage in operating such a gamified system

11.5.2.9. => beware if there is real money involved

11.5.2.10. => if there is some tradable structure

11.5.3. sweepstakes and gambling

11.5.3.1. in the US there is a state regulation of sweepstakes

11.5.3.1.1. => regulations different in different states

11.5.3.1.2. if the gamified system has some kind of random drawing

11.5.3.2. in the US there is a national regulation of gambling

11.5.3.2.1. games of skill vs. chance

11.5.3.2.2. interstate gambling is prohibited

11.5.3.2.3. gambling is only allowed in restricted areas

11.5.3.2.4. access to children may be regulated / prohibited

11.5.3.2.5. if the gamified system has some kind of gambling, it may be subject to gambling rules and prohibition

12. 12. Beyond the Basics

12.1. 12.1 Going beyond the basics

12.1.1. learning goals at the beginning

12.1.1.1. 1. what is gamification

12.1.1.1.1. vs. serious games

12.1.1.1.2. vs. play

12.1.1.2. 2. why it might be valuable

12.1.1.2.1. to achieve real business value

12.1.1.2.2. to achieve real legitimate goals

12.1.1.2.3. vs. regulations and limitations

12.1.1.3. 3. how to do it effectively

12.1.1.3.1. with the proper structure

12.1.1.3.2. with the 6-steps game design framework

12.1.1.4. 4. specific applications

12.2. 12.2 Inducement prizes

12.2.1. inducement prizes are a motivational technique

12.2.1.1. competitive - the winner is the one who does best

12.2.1.2. to encourage people to do something

12.2.1.3. an inducement prize is a contest to motivate a result

12.2.1.4. it is an alternative to direct funding

12.2.1.4.1. internal R&D

12.2.1.4.2. outsourcing and grants

12.2.1.5. benefits

12.2.1.5.1. efficiency

12.2.1.5.2. creativity and flexibility

12.2.2. prizes and gamification

12.2.2.1. a contest to MOTIVATE a result

12.2.2.2. it's an extrinsic reward

12.2.2.2.1. but can it also be fun?

12.2.2.2.2. the factors of self-determination theory

12.2.2.2.3. => all are present in a well-designed inducement prize

12.2.2.3. initiatives

12.2.2.3.1. private sector

12.2.2.3.2. Governmental (US)

12.2.2.4. attributes of effective prize competitions

12.2.2.4.1. multiple individuals / teams capable of competing

12.2.2.4.2. costs sufficiently small

12.2.2.4.3. balance scale vs. incentives (Karim Lakhani)

12.2.2.4.4. opportunities to leverage results

12.2.2.4.5. examples

12.3. 12.3 Virtual economies

12.3.1. economic pressures and techniques

12.3.2. dynamism and benefits from real economies in games

12.3.3. persistent virtual rewards

12.3.3.1. like badges

12.3.3.2. if they are persistent

12.3.3.2.1. i.e. they remain if the player goes and comes ba

12.3.3.2.2. they may function as a virtual good

12.3.3.3. if they are scarce

12.3.3.3.1. those virtual goods may appear to have value to players

12.3.4. tradable / redeemable points

12.3.4.1. may act as virtual currency

12.3.4.2. redeem virtual points for a coupon or money in the real world

12.3.4.3. the point then just becomes an accounting mechanism that is tradable against real money

12.3.5. in-game transactions / markets

12.3.5.1. may become a functioning virtual economy

12.3.6. examples

12.3.6.1. virtual goods are widespread in social games

12.3.6.1.1. FarmVille

12.3.6.1.2. worldwide virtual asset market

12.3.6.1.3. loyalty programs as virtual currency

12.3.7. => often those systems are not built with a focus on fun

12.3.7.1. there are serious limitations of tangible, extrinsic rewards

12.3.7.2. => so you'd rather focus on fun rather than the extrinsic rewards

12.3.8. how to design a successful, virtual economy

12.3.8.1. balance is key

12.3.8.1.1. not too hard, too easy, too slow

12.3.8.1.2. economic dynamics are driven more by scarcity than money

12.3.8.1.3. faucets and drains

12.3.9. dangers

12.3.9.1. real money costs real money

12.3.9.1.1. and obligations come with them

12.3.9.2. like with all other tangible, extrinsic rewards

12.3.9.2.1. hedonic treadmill effect

12.3.9.2.2. crowding-out effect

12.3.9.3. intrinsic value comes from rarity and surprise

12.3.9.3.1. something feels cool because it's difficult to achieve

12.3.9.3.2. because it's really interesting

12.4. 12.4 Collective action

12.4.1. collaborative - collective action, crowd sourcing, to get people to work together on problems even if not part of the same organization

12.4.2. Stackoverflow

12.4.2.1. pro-social and collaborative behavior is incentivized

12.4.2.2. but there's no specific objective

12.4.3. if you want to solve some specific task

12.4.3.1. with the energy and enthusiasm of a large number of people

12.4.4. families of work

12.4.4.1. competitive (against each other) <=> collaborative (together)

12.4.4.2. top down <=> bottom up

12.4.4.3. competitive top-down

12.4.4.3.1. grants

12.4.4.4. competitive bottom-up

12.4.4.4.1. inducement prizes

12.4.4.5. collaborative top-down

12.4.4.5.1. employees

12.4.4.6. collaborative bottom-up

12.4.4.6.1. crowd sourcing

12.4.4.6.2. microwork

12.4.4.7. Untitled

12.4.5. Microwork Exchanges

12.4.5.1. Amazon's mechanical turk

12.4.5.1.1. https://www.mturk.com/mturk/welcome

12.4.5.1.2. for tasks that require human intelligence

12.4.5.1.3. 200k tasks available

12.4.6. money motivates

12.4.7. but what else motivates?

12.4.7.1. if you use gamification like

12.4.7.1.1. Fold.it

12.4.7.1.2. Microtask in Finland

12.4.7.1.3. ESP Game

12.4.8. what kinds of tasks can easily be done by collective action?

12.4.8.1. nature of the task

12.4.8.1.1. can it be split up easily?

12.4.8.1.2. are humans better than computers?

12.4.8.2. how to motivate

12.4.8.2.1. for money

12.4.8.2.2. for love

12.4.8.2.3. for fun

12.4.8.2.4. or for all three

12.5. 12.5 The future of gamification

12.5.1. what if gamification really becomes pervasive in society

12.5.1.1. what would it be like

12.5.1.2. short film "Sight"

12.5.1.2.1. by Eran May-raz and Daniel Lazo

12.5.1.2.2. https://vimeo.com/46304267

12.5.1.2.3. as their graduation project from Bezaleal Academy of Arts

12.5.1.2.4. physical excercise

12.5.1.2.5. lenses

12.5.1.2.6. fridge - look and see what's where

12.5.1.2.7. chopping cucumbers - get points for cutting them right

12.5.1.2.8. egg in the pan - points for right place

12.5.1.2.9. eat something and see a game "snail zombie"

12.5.1.2.10. wall filled with screen

12.5.1.2.11. buttons on shelf

12.5.1.2.12. badges on the wall

12.5.1.2.13. date reminder

12.5.1.2.14. star constellation rehearsal game

12.5.1.2.15. date

12.5.1.2.16. both see walls decorated

12.6. 12.6 Course review and wrap-up

12.6.1. questions / choices

12.6.1.1. gamification to empower <=> or to manipulate

12.6.1.2. shallow <=> thoughtful

12.6.2. secret message was

12.6.2.1. FOR THE WIN

12.6.2.2. once in every unit, there would be one or two playing cards in the middle left shelf

12.6.2.2.1. letters were coded