Language Family Tree

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Language Family Tree por Mind Map: Language Family Tree

1. Benue-Congo

1.1. Yoruba

1.2. Shona

1.3. Nyanja

1.4. Rwanda

1.5. Gikuyu

1.6. Luba

1.7. Rundi

1.8. Kongo

1.9. Xhosa

1.10. Sesotho

1.11. Sukuma

1.12. Tswana

1.13. Zulu

1.14. Igbo (Ibo)

2. Nostratic

2.1. Altaic

2.1.1. Uzbek

2.1.2. Turkmen

2.1.3. Kazakh

2.1.4. Tatar

2.1.5. Turkish: This is the most spoken language in the Altaic language family. FUN FACT: Turkish was once written in Arabic, but is now currently written in Roman letters. This is because in 1928, the Turksh government believed that if they switched to Roman letters, then it would help "modernize the economy and culture of Turkey through increased communications with European countries."

2.1.6. Azerbaijani

2.1.7. Uyghur

2.1.8. Mongolian

2.2. Uralic

2.2.1. Urgric

2.2.1.1. Magyar

2.2.2. Finnic

2.2.2.1. Finnish

2.3. Dravidian

2.3.1. Malayalam

2.3.2. Telugu

2.3.3. Tamil

2.3.4. Kannada

2.4. Afro- Asiatic

2.4.1. Semitic

2.4.1.1. Amharic

2.4.1.2. Tigrigna

2.4.1.3. Arabic: This the major language in the Afro-Asiatic family. FUN FACT: Arabic is one of the six official languages spoken in the UN

2.4.1.4. Hebrew

2.4.2. Chadic

2.4.2.1. Hausa

2.4.3. Cushitic

2.4.3.1. Oromo

2.4.3.2. Somali

2.4.4. Berber

2.5. Indo-European

2.5.1. Germanic

2.5.1.1. North Germanic

2.5.1.1.1. Danish

2.5.1.1.2. Norwegian

2.5.1.1.3. Swedish

2.5.1.2. West Germanic

2.5.1.2.1. English: This is the most spoken language in the world! Once spoke in only England, now it is spoken in North America, Austrailia, and other countries! This is thanks to colonization and the help of technology.

2.5.1.2.2. German

2.5.1.2.3. Afrikaans

2.5.1.2.4. Dutch

2.5.2. Romance

2.5.2.1. Sicilian

2.5.2.2. Italian

2.5.2.3. Romanian

2.5.2.4. Neapolitan

2.5.2.5. Spanish: This is the most spoken language in the Romance language group. It is spoken in most of South and Central America and in Spain. Thanks to past colonization, Spanish was spread to the other half of the hemisphere!

2.5.2.6. Catlan

2.5.2.7. French

2.5.2.8. Haitian Creole

2.5.2.9. Portuguese

2.5.2.10. Lombard

2.5.2.11. Venetian

2.5.3. Balto-Slavic

2.5.3.1. East Slavic

2.5.3.1.1. Ukranian

2.5.3.1.2. Belerusan

2.5.3.1.3. Russian: This is the most spoken language in the Balto-Slavic language group. This language was once dispersed because of the Soviet Union.

2.5.3.2. West Slavic

2.5.3.2.1. Czech

2.5.3.2.2. Slovak

2.5.3.2.3. Polish

2.5.3.3. South Slavic

2.5.3.3.1. Serbo-Crotian

2.5.3.3.2. Bulgarian

2.5.4. Indo-Iranian

2.5.4.1. Indo-Aryan

2.5.4.1.1. Maithili

2.5.4.1.2. Nepali

2.5.4.1.3. Lahnda (Panjabi)

2.5.4.1.4. Bhojpuri

2.5.4.1.5. Urdu

2.5.4.1.6. Konkani

2.5.4.1.7. Marathi

2.5.4.1.8. Sinhalese

2.5.4.1.9. Hindi: This is the most spoken language in the Indo-Aryan. This is spoken in India. FUN FACT: Hindi became the official language in India during the British Rule. Currently, English is way to communicate within India.

2.5.4.1.10. Sindhi

2.5.4.1.11. Oriya

2.5.4.1.12. Bengali

2.5.4.1.13. Gujarati

2.5.4.1.14. Gujarati

2.5.4.1.15. Assamese

2.5.4.1.16. Kasmiri

2.5.4.2. Iranian

2.5.4.2.1. Balochi

2.5.4.2.2. Tajik

2.5.4.2.3. Pashto

2.5.4.2.4. Farsi (Persian)

2.5.4.2.5. Kurdish

2.5.5. Origin and Diffusion of Indo-European

2.5.5.1. Nomadic Warrior Thesis

2.5.5.1.1. Marija Gimbutas: The first Proto-Indo-European speakers were the Kurgan people. The kurgans were nomadic herders. With the help of domesticated horses and cattle, they migrated to search for grasslands for their animals. This resulted in a movement westward to Europe, eastward to Siberia, and south-eastward to South Asia. Between 3500-2500 BC, Kurgan warriors conquered much of Europe and South Asia with their domesticated horses as weapons.

2.5.5.2. Sedentary Farmer Thesis

2.5.5.2.1. Colin Renfrew: The first Proto-Indo-European speakers lived 2,000 years before Kurgans, in eastern Anatolia. The farmers in Anatolia traded food and produced food. This resulted in people migrating to other places to grow more food. Along with them, they took their language.

3. Austric

3.1. Austronesian

3.1.1. Tagalog

3.1.2. Filipino

3.1.3. Madurese

3.1.4. Malay

3.1.5. Bikol

3.1.6. Sunda

3.1.7. Minangkabau

3.1.8. Malagasy

3.1.9. Indonesian

3.1.10. Llocano

3.1.11. Javanese: This the most spoken language in the Austronesian language family. It is spoken mostly in Indonesia in the Java Islands.

3.1.12. Hilgaynon

3.1.13. Cebuano

3.2. Austro-Asiatic

3.2.1. Khmer

3.2.2. Santali

3.2.3. Vietnamese: This is the most spoken language in the Austro-Asiatic language family. This spoken in Vietnam. Fun fact: Vietnamese is written in Roman alphabet. This is because of Roman Catholic missionaries.

4. Sino-Caucasian

4.1. Sino-Tibetan

4.1.1. Sinitic

4.1.1.1. Wu

4.1.1.2. Min

4.1.1.3. Yue (Cantonese)

4.1.1.4. Hakka

4.1.1.5. Mandarin: The most spoken language in the Sino-Tibetan language family. It is spoken in China and Taiwan. Fun fact: Most of the Chinese language are ideograms ("represents ideas or concepts, not specific pronunciations)

4.1.1.6. Jinyu

4.1.1.7. Xiang

4.1.1.8. Gan

4.1.2. Tibeto-Burman

4.1.2.1. Burmese

5. Tai-Kadai

5.1. Zhuang

5.2. Tai

6. Nilo-Saharan

7. Hmong

8. Niger-Congo

8.1. Mande

8.1.1. Mandingo

8.2. Gur

8.2.1. Moore

8.3. Kwa

8.3.1. Akan

8.4. Atlantic

8.4.1. Fula

9. Quechan

10. Guarani

11. Japanese

11.1. Japanese: This is spoken in Japan. Like Chinese it is written in part of Chinese ideograms. But it also uses two systems of phonetic symbols. Fun fact: "Chinese cultural traits have diffused into Japanese society, including the original form of writing the Japanese language." This is because of influences from China.

12. Korean

12.1. Korean: This is spoken in North Korea and South Korea. Korean is written in hankul. "In this system, each letter represents a sound, as in Western languages." FUN FACT: Majority of Korean words derived from Chinese and some from Japanese. This is because of past invasions (Japan occupation) and influence from China.

13. How Languages Come to Be

13.1. 1. Isolation

13.1.1. Isolation results in lack of interaction with speakers of other languages. This can be caused by intervening obstacles: the environment & (possibility) pressure and/or influence by people within the group

13.1.1.1. Ex.: One good example is Basque. It is the only language currently spoken in Europe "that survives from the period before the arrival of the Indo-European."

13.1.1.2. Ex.: Another good example is Iceland. After Norwegian settlers colonized Iceland in 874 AD, there was lack of communication with Europe. While Icelandic stayed the same, Norwegian added new words and pronunciations.

13.2. 2. Colonization

13.2.1. Colonization results in the end of the native language or a mixing of both native and colonized groups (also known as creole).

13.2.1.1. Ex.: One example is French and Haitian Creole spoken in Haiti.

13.3. 3. Power

13.3.1. Power results in the elimination of the languages spoken by minority or 'weaker' groups.

13.3.1.1. Ex.: An example is the Chinese government. Because the official language in China is Mandarin Chinese, the government has been trying to eliminate languages spoken by minority groups. This is because the Chinese government believes that China should be unified in a language.