Individuals too often accept life as is. Unfortunately, progress and fulfillment come not from th...

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Individuals too often accept life as is. Unfortunately, progress and fulfillment come not from the comfort of existing beliefs, but from challenging those same beliefs to overcome the obstacles many don't even realize exist. por Mind Map: Individuals too often accept life as is. Unfortunately, progress and fulfillment come not from the comfort of existing beliefs, but from challenging those same beliefs to overcome the obstacles many don't even realize exist.

1. Classification, according to Durkheim, comes from relationships between people and places which creates hierarchy.

1.1. Creates unified knowledge/social facts

1.1.1. Shared tastes (Bourdieu) What we eat What we wear How we interact/communicate How we interpret the world What we do!

1.1.2. Social facts to Durkheim were beyond consciousness and only known when disobeyed. Social facts of white southerners were that blacks were inherently slaves DuBois, unlike Booker T, thought it was crucial to transcend said social facts, not to submit, but to alter

1.1.3. Unified knowledge can often be a myth - stories used to explain why things are the way they are

1.2. Primitive Classification - Relationship b/n things determine logic; logic does not determine relationship

1.2.1. Able to perceive classes through different similarities/differences Shared taste

1.2.2. Therefore a class is a group of things with shared logic

1.2.3. Example - white vs black view p111 web

1.2.4. "it was because men were grouped and thought of themselves in the form of groups..." People then group others to make sense - ie using relationships to determine logic

2. Religion is a natural manifestation of social reality

2.1. Church was the first social institution, people would go to socialize and develop shared beliefs

2.1.1. Leverages myths to structure understanding of society

2.1.2. Uses shared rituals/experiences to create sense of functionalism Rituals simply further engrain myths into collective consciousness

2.1.3. True to it's believers Few things are objectively true

2.2. "A religion is a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things, that is to say, things set apart and forbidden -- beliefs and practices which unite into one single moral community called a Church, all those who adhere to them" Elementary forms p62

3. Our beliefs come from people and places with which we identify, but what is a belief?

3.1. Profane

3.1.1. Goes against mainstream thought, challenges the sacred It would have been profane to befriend a slave, yet necessary to overcome race/slavery

3.2. Sacred

3.2.1. Anything that gives power in society

3.3. Prohibitions

3.3.1. Things you shouldn't do that threaten the sacred

3.4. Examples

3.4.1. School Sacred belief = study hard, get a good job... be happy Profane belief = Happiness and quest for higher learning can be achieved without school Prohibition = dropping out of school

3.4.2. Lower class attitude towards job Sacred = get a steady paycheck to provide for family Profane = Starting a business or taking an internship that doesn't pay Prohibition = investing in oneself > getting a paycheck

3.5. Deviance is normal and part of a healthy society as its punishment allows us to reinforce what creates right and wrong

4. Mechanical solidarity - social bonds created to conserve power/order before individuality

4.1. Mechanical -Acting in stereotype form

4.1.1. traditional society collective consciousness - shared ideals that bind others together sacred collective type represents views of society to establish values and order - myths if you will restricts innovation as it is meant to reproduce itself

4.1.2. Lives on today in conservative ideals striving to keep power Threatened by outliers In past times, we see outliers drive change, black schools... now more and more integration

4.1.3. VIEW ON TRANSENDENCE Goes against sacred - Screws up order

4.2. Organic - need for work of others that creates social space for individual freedom

4.2.1. Individual consciousness grows

4.2.2. Desperate reciprocal need for each others labor

5. Transcending mechanical solidarity

5.1. One must realize their individual consciousness and see beyond the group

5.1.1. The same deeper calling that DuBois used to justify higher education and calling In order to transcend, people must become familiar with the beliefs of the outliers, and the outliers must be a pulling force of transcending beliefs Cite study of black bachelors students "while it is a great truth to say that the Negro must strive and strive mightily to help himself, it is equally true that unless his striving be not simply seconded, but rather aroused and encouraged, by the initiative of the richer and wiser environing group, he cannot hope for great success" p46 "Only a firm adherence to their higher ideals and aspirations will ever keep those ideals within the realm of possibility" "They already dimly perceive that the paths of peace winding between honest toil and dignified manhood call for the guidance of skilled thinkers, the loving, reverent comradeship between the black lowly and the black men emancipated by training and culture" p 80

5.1.2. foster higher individualism -- there is a "loftier respect for the sovereign human soul that seeks to know itself and the world about it; that seeks a freedom for expansion and self-development; that will love and hate and labor in its own way, untrammeled alike by old and new"p80

5.1.3. "He began to have a dim feeling that, to attain his place in the world, he must be himself, and not another" p12 WEB

5.2. To DuBois this was not freedom from slavery, but realization that one could be freed from the beliefs others bestowed

5.2.1. Done through what Durk would consider deviance and profane beliefs, the pursuit of freedom "Freedom, too, the long-sought, we still seek -- the freedom of life and limb, the freedom to work and think, the freedom to love and aspire"p14

5.2.2. "Internal problems of social advance must inevitably come,--problems of work and wages, of families and homes, of morals and the true valuing of things of life; and all these and other inevitable problems of civilization the Negro must meet and solve largely for himself, by realization of his isolation; and can there be any possible solution other than by study and thought and an appeal to the rich experience of the past?"p. 80

5.3. Organic solidarity - our culture and diverse needs become dependent on the individual contributions of others

5.3.1. Division of labor required individuality to divide specialized behavior

5.3.2. Still challenge to truly act upon individual consciousness as it is limited to the beliefs imposed by surrounding class

5.4. Leveraging the double-conscioussness

5.5. Unpunished Sacrilege - gives birth to modernity and progress ----

5.5.1. DuBois - Outliers drive change. Universities, then schools. This sacrilege went unpunished, and became a model. As Freedmen grew in numbers, some were thrifty and began to save

6. Mechanical solidarity corroborates to a large extent why even despite the 13th amendment, freedom was still not attained,

6.1. Collective consciousness - what we accept as true comes from shared sentiments and emotion

6.2. The collective conscious of the white folk down south had their place, and the slaves helped serve that. Even once slavery itself was disrupted, the same social facts that enslaved generations of blacks, lived on and suppressed the freedman

6.2.1. Sacred beliefs - View towards slaves/freedman Conserved their power by not even creating structure of opportunity "Their great defect as laborers lies in their lack of incentive to work beyond the mere pleasure of physical exertion."p111 "They are careless because they have not found that it pays to be careful; they are improvident because the improvident ones of their acquaintance get on about as well as the provident."p111

6.2.2. Gave birth to putting off problems against the other race - i work my ass off and white man reaps, white man doesn't teach me to read

6.3. Sacred beliefs of Slaves themselves

6.3.1. "Be content to be servants, and nothing more; what need of higher culture for half-men?"p14

6.3.2. Why strive for greater thought when the place in society was so engrained?

6.3.3. When freedmen were being released, some had opportunities for jobs, but "if perchance they received pay, squandered the new thing thoughtlessly"p19

6.3.4. To Durkheim everything served a function, to DuBois there were greater functions to be served Double-consciousness bestowed 2 beliefs upon blacks - Negro + American but their place made it hard to achieve the true american ideal

6.4. Anomie emerged as freedmen were gaining force

6.4.1. Weak stab at setting up infrastrucutre Bank failed No belief in saving Some schools emerged

7. Proof that mechanical solidarity is still present in modern society and the time of DuBois

7.1. Tyrant and the Idler

7.1.1. Then: Tyrant = slaveholder determined to perpetuate slavery under another name // Idler - freedman who regarded freedom as perpetual rest

7.1.2. Today: Tyrant = Corporations leveraing lowly jobs for unskilled individuals // Idler = unemployed cashing out on checks, or simply the individual who's downtime is not spent on growth but in "comfortable" non=fulfilling positions The, "oh, it's a job trap"

7.1.3. Corporations for example still thrive off the shared thought that a wage itself is the end goal Those who overcome are still the outlier (problem to provoke thought and hook reader) "We hear daily that an education that encourages aspiration, that sets the loftiest of ideals and seeks as an end culture and character rather than breadwinning, is the privilege of white men and the danger and delusion of black"p71 Pull vs Push Same belief as Booker T - Accept and submit to a wage - 'Mr. Washington's program me practically accepts the alleged inferiority of the negro races"p41

7.2. The veil is the collective consciousness of blacks, who perceive the world a different way then their counterparts.

7.2.1. Homes in Dougherty county "They are ignorant of the world about them, of the modern economic organization, of the function of government, of individual worth and possibilities,--of nearly all those thing which slavery in self-defense had to keep them from learning."p103

7.2.2. Opportunity and american dream restricted due to own beliefs

8. Education as a vehicle to transcend collective consciousness

8.1. "[Education] always will have an element of danger and revolution, of dissatisfaction and discontentment"p29

8.1.1. Higher education empowered revolutionary thinkers to inspire the whole

8.1.2. Industrial education, although promoted jobs, retrofit freedmen into mechanical solidarity instead of promoting the development of individual consciousness

9. Booker T, whether he realized or not, was a proponent of conservative mechanical solidarity for he wanted people to accept the oppressing beliefs instead of challenging them. EXAMPLE OF WHY THESIS IS RIGHT and HE WAS WRONG

9.1. He opposed the "higher training of ambition and our brighter minds"p46

9.1.1. This is the same reason the lower class is still lower, for these very ideals he opposed, are the values of fulfillment and transcendence. This is the nourishment of the individual consciousness

9.1.2. Fails to realize double-consciousness - American and Negro, and is focused on optimizing just one consciousness

9.2. Claimed that one's future rise depends solely on his own efforts

9.2.1. Subverts the collective consciousness they were up against


10.1. ANOMIE

10.2. VEIL