THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH

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THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH por Mind Map: THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH

1. Although this first invasion had a profound effect on the culture, religion, geography, architecture and social behaviour of Britain, the linguistic legacy of the Romans’ time in Britain was, like that of the Celts, surprisingly limited.

2. INDO-EUROPEAN

2.1. one of the language families, or proto-languages, from which the world's modern languages are descended

2.2. it is by far the largest family, accounting for the languages of almost half of the modern world’s population

2.3. between 3500 BC and 2500 BC, the Indo-Europeans began to fan out across Europe and Asia

2.4. the original Indo-European language had split into a dozen or more major language groups or families

2.4.1. Hellenic Italic Indo-Iranian Celtic Germanic Armenian Balto-Slavic Albanian

2.4.2. In addition, several more groups (including Anatolian, Tocharian, Phrygian, Thracian, Illyrian)_

2.5. cognates (similar words in different languages)

2.5.1. attributed to the amateur linguist Sir William Jones in 1786

2.6. Lithuanian may be the closest to

3. GERMANIC

3.1. region between the Elbe river in modern Germany and southern Sweden some 3,000 years ago.

3.2. Jacob Grimm:consonants

3.3. North Germanic, which evolved into Old Norse and then into the various Scandinavian languages, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian and Icelandic (but not Finnish or Estonian, which are Uralic and not Indo-European languages);

3.4. The branch of Indo-European

4. THE CELTS

4.1. known as Britons

4.2. y around 300 BC, the Celts had become the most widespread branch of Indo-Europeans in Iron Age Europe, inhabiting much of modern-day Spain, Italy, France, Germany, Austria, the Balkans, Eastern Europe and also Britain.

4.3. the Celts have actually had very little impact on the English language,

4.4. here is some speculation that Celtic had some influence over the grammatical development of English

5. THE ROMANS

5.1. The Romans first entered Britain in 55 BC under Julius Caesar, although they did not begin a permanent occupation until 43 AD, when Emperor Claudius sent a much better prepared force to subjugate the fierce British Celts

5.2. Latin did not replace the Celtic language in Britain as it had done in Gaul, and the use of Latin by native Britons during the peiod of Roman rule was probably confined to members of the upper classes and the inhabitants of the cities and towns.