THE BODY IN MOTION

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THE BODY IN MOTION por Mind Map: THE BODY IN MOTION

1. Respiratory system

1.1. Respiratory system series of organs responsible for the oxygen getting in to the blood, and for the disposal waste expelling carbon dioxide. The lungs is the primary organs of the respiratory system which carry out the exchange of gases we breath.

1.2. Respiratory system is a various structures that makes the exchanges of gases both within and outside the body. Supplying the body cells with oxygen and wasting the carbon dioxide is the overall function of the respiratory.

1.3. Pulmonary ventilation is known as the act of breathing. Two phases is involved in pulmonary ventilation., inspiration and expiration. Inspiration known as inhaling is the process of breathing air into the lungs this increases the lung size lowers the air pressure in the alveoli, resulting air high pressure region such as outside the body,quickly flows through the repiratory tract and into the lungs Expiration known as exhaling is the process of breathing air out of the lungs, during normal expiration, no muscular effort is require as the walls are elastic and return to their normal position.

1.4. External respiration when the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air and the blood occurs in the lungs. Internal respiration when carbon dioxide in the blood vessels returns to the lungs for external respiration.

2. The musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory system

2.1. Skeletal system

2.1.1. The adult human skeleton averages 206 bones joined to ligaments and tendons to form protection and supporting framework for the attached muscles and soft tissues to the body to underlie it.

2.1.2. The main types of the skeletal system are long,short and flat bones. Long bones feature is longer than wider, absorb shock and does the movement. Short bones features are mostly made out of spongy bone and this layer of compact bone providing the shapes. The flat bones features are flat broad surface and limited movement. Flat bones provide protections for the body's vital organs.

2.1.3. The skeletal has two main parts: axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. Axial skeleton consists the skull, spines, ribs and sterum and including 80 bones. Appendicular skeleton includes two limb girdles the shoulders and pelvis and the attached limb bones

2.1.4. Joints can find when two or more bones meet and those bones form a joint. Joints allow the body to move and make sure that the skeleton stays as it moves. Joints is the weakest point of the skeletal system, and there is a high chance of getting injury on the joint with restricted movement. There are three ways to classify joints. Fibrous joints are connection between the bones, fibres joining the ends or parts of bones together using various fibres. Examples short, long and ligaments fibres. Cartilaginous joints re connected entirely by cartilage. It allows movement between the bones than the fibrous but it has less movement.

2.2. Muscular system

2.2.1. Skeletal muscle-preliminary attach to bone and it moves the skeleton, construction is under our direct control, therefore the movement of the muscle is voluntary. Cardiac muscle-forms of the heart,construction occur without knowing. Smooth muscle-located on the walls of our internal structures, such as the stomach,blood vessels and intestines,

2.2.2. Agonist- A muscle or muscle group that contacts to cause movements. Antagonist-This muscle must relax and lengthen to allow the agonist to contract. Stabilizer-muscles work at a joint to help, this allows other muscles to work more effectively.

2.2.3. Isometric contraction-where the muscle contracts and no movement is produced. The length of the muscle stays the same. Isotonic contraction-where the muscle contracts, producing enough force to move an object. it tension throughout the whole movement. Isotonic has two types of constractions, concentric and eccentric contraction. Concentric the muscle shortens as it contracts. Eccentric muscle lengthens as it contracts.

3. Circulatory system

3.1. The heart is a muscular pump that rhythmically, providing the force to keep the blood circulating throughout the body. A muscle wall divides the heart into two parts. Atria the upper, thin-walled chambers that receive blood coming to the heart. Ventricles the lower thick-walled chamber that pump blood from the heart going to the body.

3.2. Components of blood are plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Plasma enables the transportation of essential substances around the body. Red blood cells formed in the bone marrow. White blood cells are formed in bone marrow and help to fight infection in the body. Platelets are a clothing agent that help to repair damaged blood vessels.

3.3. Both sides of the heart work together like two pumps.The closed circuit of blood to and from the lungs is the pulmonary circulation. The left side of the heart receives blood high in oxygen content from the lungs and pumps it around the body and its called systemic circulation.

4. Fitness

4.1. Health- Related components of physical fitness

4.1.1. Cardiorespiratory endurance supply and give nutrients efficiently to working muscles and remove waste products functioning by the heart,lungs and circulatory system.

4.1.2. Muscular strength the maximum of the muscle can exert against some sort of resistance in one single effort.

4.1.3. Muscular endurance ability to repeat a muscular effort on a long period of time.

4.1.4. Flexibility the range of movement around the joint.

4.1.5. Body composition is the various body tissues and refer to body mass.

4.2. Skill-related

4.2.1. Power The strength and speed of the human body.

4.2.2. Speed rate of change in position.

4.2.3. Agility to change direction or position of body or the whole body rapidly and efficiently.

4.2.4. Coordination is a smooth flow movement when performing a physical task, when the nervous and muscular system work together.

4.2.5. Balance when the body is in a stable position.

4.2.6. Reaction time how quickly your body respond to a stimulus.

4.3. Aerobic and anaerobic training

4.3.1. Aerobic is a continuous activity and low moderate intensity for a long duration. Anaerobic is a intense and short duration, fast absence of oxygen.

4.4. Immediate physiological responses to training

4.4.1. Heart rate the number of the heart beat that makes in set time.

4.4.2. Ventilation the number of inhalation in a set of time

4.4.3. Stroke volume the bloody pumped in any construction.

4.4.4. Cardiac output rate of blood pumped by the heart in a period of time.

4.4.5. Lactate levels is a muscle when they are in insufficient oxygen available to produce aerobic energy.

5. Biomechanical

5.1. Motion

5.1.1. Linear motion motion of a straight line moving through the air under its own influence and does not have any kind of propulsion system.

5.1.2. Velocity is displacement of the body divided by the time, it's similar to speed but also considers the direction.

5.1.3. Speed is the distance covered divided by the time how quickly moved by the body.

5.1.4. Acceleration is the increase of the velocity change over time.

5.1.5. Momentum is the quantity of motion of the body.

5.2. Balance and stability

5.2.1. Centre of gravity is a point from which the weight of a body or system may be considered to act.

5.2.2. Line of gravity represents the directions acts perpendicular to the earth surface to the body at the centre of gravity.

5.2.3. Base support is when a person is standing on two feet it has a better support and more stable than standing on one.

5.3. Fluid mechanics

5.3.1. Flotation forces operate on a body in fluid environment determine its ability to float. Centre of buoyancy is at the centre of gravity of the water that the swimmer displaces.

5.3.2. Fluid resistance is the force applied by gas or liquid resisting the motion of a body through it.

5.4. Force can be defined as a pushing or pulling action. Any force exerted by one part of the body on another is knows as an internal force, whereas all other forces are external.