Rights, Diversity, and Adult Learning

CUR518 Week One

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Rights, Diversity, and Adult Learning by Mind Map: Rights, Diversity, and Adult Learning

1. Major Events/Accomplishments of the Civil Rights Movements

1.1. Brown vs. The Board of Education 1954 (This historic case aligned with the ideas espoused in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). Article 26 states that everyone has a right to a free education (elementary and secondary, at least) and that the parents have the right to choose what type of education their children receive. B vs. BOE of Topeka was a landmark case that argued that state-sanctioned segregation of public education violated the 14th Amendment to the Constitution and thus was ruled unconstitutional. The racial segregation of children in public school systems was unanimously admonished by the U.S. Supreme Court).

1.1.1. Rosa Parks - Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955 (On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested and fined for not giving up her seat to a white passenger. This historic stance sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott where from 12/5/1955 - 12/20/1956, African American and some Whites refused to ride the buses until Alabama desegregated the public transportation system. Her actions galvanized the community. This was the largest protest of segregation to date and created a platform for Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and the beginning of the Civil Rights movement as we know it today. The US Supreme Court ordered Alabama to integrate their buses (History Channel, 2017). Starting with Article 2 and working down through most of the Articles of the UDHR, Rosa Park's rights were violated.

1.1.1.1. March on Washington Speech 1963 (The words of Dr. King reverberate loudly today; if not more so than in 1963. Dr. King cried for equality for all of mankind and shared that unity was possible. He argued that the Negro is not fairly treated and is still enslaved even 100 years after the Emancipation Proclamation. Segregation is weighing down the Negro. He argued that Amercian had given the Negro people a bad check! The speeches that day argued for equality in federal legislation, unemployment, education, and racial and social justice. Everything that Dr. King shared is outlined in the UDHR. Let Freedom ring, because he has a Dream and now is the time! All men are created as outlined in the Bill of Rights!

1.1.1.1.1. Civil Rights Act of 1964 (President Johnson signed in to law the Civil Rights Act of 1964. "The Civil Rights Act of 1964, the most sweeping civil rights legislation since Reconstruction, prohibited racial discrimination in employment and education and outlawed segregation in public facilities" (History Channel, 2017). Johnson argued that men of all races and colors have fought for our freedom and that it is up to us to continue their struggle by ensuring that all men are treated equally though many of color do not enjoy those rights. Many are being denied sweeping justice and rights because of the color of their skin. He argued that it cannot continue and that our constitution prohibits mistreatment of its citizens and that the Civil Right bill that he would sign would prohibit discrimination as well. He argued that the promise of equality for all men will be fulfilled. The right to vote is included in this Act.

2. Civil Rights vs. Political Rights "Civil and political rights are a class of rights and freedoms that protect individuals from unwarranted government action and ensure one's ability to participate in the civil and political life of the state without discrimination or repression" (Singh, 2016, para. 8).

2.1. Civil Rights

2.1.1. Civil Rights and Freedom of expression, association, and participation in the educational process - Deemed some of the most precious rights that we have as Americans. This includes, "The right to life, The right of freedom from torture, The right to a fair the trial, The right to freedom of assembly and association, The Right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion, The right to freedom of expression, The right to an effective remedy, The right to privacy, The right to liberty and security, The right to asylum, The right to freedom from discrimination" (Lincoln University, n.d., para. 2). The last point of mention argues that as a free society, we cannot be discriminated against and this includes the freedom to express ourselves, the freedom to associate, and as the most salient point of this course, the right to participate uninhibited in the educational process. "Everyone has the right to freedom from discrimination, and - according to the international human rights mechanisms - this right can be violated in a variety of ways, including by discriminating against someone because of: sex, race, color, language, religion, political allegiance, opinions, nationality, social background, association with a national minority (Lincoln University, n.d., para. 12). This argues so much and warrants respect.

2.2. Political Rights

2.2.1. Acknowledging that political and civil rights are intertwined makes it easy to argue in favor of and envision the freedom of association, expression, and the freedom to partipcate in the educational process as inalienable rights. "According to the modern concept of political rights, every citizen should have the right and opportunity, without unreasonable restrictions, to take part in the conduct of public affairs, directly or through chosen representatives" (Lincoln University, n.d., para. 13) .

3. Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948

3.1. Universal Declaration of Human Rights

4. Human Rights - According to the United Nations (n.d.), "Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, regardless of race, sex, nationality, ethnicity, language, religion, or any other status. Human rights include the right to life and liberty, freedom from slavery and torture, freedom of opinion and expression, the right to work and education, and many more. Everyone is entitled to these rights, without discrimination" (para. 1).

4.1. ARE HUMAN RIGHTS UNIVERSAL?

4.1.1. By all accounts, they should be as implied in the 30 Articles of The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. "By emphasizing the rights of individuals, the declaration was meant as an attempt to transcend cultural bias in such a way that it became relevant to all, no matter what their upbringing. Nevertheless, some still argue that the declaration represents a neo-colonialist attempt by the West to control the lives of those in the developing world. Such arguments have been used by authoritarian leaders and states to violate human rights (particularly those of women and children) under the guise of enforcing tradition" (O'Connor, 2017, para. 12). Thus, if we believe this than society decides what is right or wrong, good or bad, or is it all relative (AllaboutPhilosophy, 2017)? So, does cultural intersect human rights and if so, I am not certain if human rights are universal but instead driven by the culture that the individual resides or identifies with. Is it Western Imperialism as some argue?

4.1.1.1. IS IT POSSIBLE FOR CULTURAL RELATIVISM AND HUMAN RIGHTS TO COINCIDE?

4.1.1.1.1. Cultural relativism or human rights, but NOT both! Customary laws trump human rights and it is disheartening. Listen! Cultural diversity imposes challenges on universal human rights enforcement and definition.

5. Relationship between Affirmative Action and Diveristy

5.1. Affirmative action "refers to policies and practices intended to provide members of historically underrepresented groups, such as women and ethnic minorities, greater opportunities in several areas of life, particularly education, employment, and housing" (Affirmative Action, 2017, para. 1).

5.1.1. ANALYSIS: Leveling the playing field and shoring up the representation of historically disadvantaged groups/demographics is the central calling of affirmative action. This facilitates diversity. This is the relationship between affirmative action and diversity! "Righting pasts wrongs" (Mor Borak, 2014, p. 59) and ensuring that marginalized folks achieve levels of success and opportunity is the outcome of affirmative action which allows diversity to exist.

5.2. "Diversity encompasses all those differences that make us unique, including but not limited to race, color, ethnicity, language, nationality, sexual orientation, religion, gender, gender, socio-economic status, age and physical and mental ability" (Diversity, 2017, para. 1).

6. Impact on Adult Learning

6.1. The implications of the historical events unpacked in this assessment (including those not highlighted) shaped and continue to shape access and quality of adult education today. The foundational implications of Brown vs. The Board of Education of Topeka hinged on equality and access though it was much more. It improved the educational opportunities of many and it is ongoing; particularly in adult education. "The civil rights laws represent a national commitment to end discrimination in education. The laws mandate bringing the formerly excluded into the mainstream of American education. And these laws also are designed to help deliver the promise that every individual has the right to develop his or her talents to the fullest" (U.S. Department of Education, 2017, para. 2). Multiculturalism and asynchronous learning environments affords opportunities to learn from folks from different walks of life. Moreover, instructors must tailor material that meet the special needs of all learners which widens the opportunities for transformation and hope for the adult learner. While the historical "barriers" tied to access have been removed, the access to prestigious colleges and universities may be hindered due to purposefully oppressive requirements and financial constraints.

7. References