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Contract Law by Mind Map: Contract Law

1. Formation:

1.1. Offer

1.1.1. Define

1.1.2. Communication of an Offer

1.1.3. Written Offer

1.1.4. Terms

1.1.5. Rejection & Counter- Offer

1.2. Acceptance

1.2.1. Elements

1.2.2. Communication

1.2.3. Lapse vs. Revocation

1.2.4. Moment of Acceptance

1.2.5. Method of Acceptance

1.2.6. Jurisdiction

1.2.7. Unilateral & Bilateral

1.2.8. Formation/ Wording of Offers

1.2.9. Legal Risk

1.3. Consideration

1.3.1. Definition

1.3.2. Gratuitous Promises

1.3.3. Past Consideration

1.3.4. Relation Between Existing Legal Duty and Consideration

1.3.5. Gratuitous Reduction of a Debt

1.3.6. Equitable Estoppel

1.3.6.1. Estoppel Based on Fact

1.3.7. Effect of Request for Goods and Services

1.3.8. Use of a Seal

1.3.9. Intention to Create Legal Relations

1.3.9.1. Manage Legal Risks

1.4. Capacity

1.4.1. Definition- Legal Capacity

1.5. Intention

1.6. Legality

1.7. Certainty

2. Impeachments/ Recission

2.1. Mistake

2.1.1. About the terms

2.1.1.1. errors in recording an agreement

2.1.1.2. word use

2.1.1.3. meaning of words

2.1.1.4. *TEST: would a reasonable bystander recognzie the mistake?*

2.1.1.4.1. If yes- K would not be enforceable- would be voidable at option of the party that made mistake

2.1.2. Subject Matter

2.1.2.1. mistake in assumption

2.1.2.1.1. therefore K = void

2.1.2.2. Value

2.1.2.3. Mistake in 3rd Party

2.1.2.3.1. K = void, K never existed and goods or money returned back to A

2.1.2.3.2. K= voidable, there was a K and therefore money and goods stay with last party to get them

2.1.3. Nature of a Signed Document

2.1.3.1. Non Est Factum

2.2. Misrepresentation

2.2.1. Contract

2.2.2. Tort

2.2.3. Silence/ Omission

2.2.3.1. Insurance

2.2.3.2. Sale of Corporate Security

2.2.3.3. Sale of Goods

2.2.3.4. Consumers

2.2.3.5. Partners

2.2.3.6. Directors

2.2.4. Elements

2.2.4.1. Statement Made

2.2.4.2. Statement = False

2.2.4.3. Intent (if fraudulent), Duty of Care Owed/ Standard Breached (if negligent)

2.2.4.4. Reliance on Statement caused injured party to enter K

2.2.4.5. Caused Harm

2.2.5. Experts

2.3. Undue Influence

2.3.1. Define

2.3.2. Burden of Proof

2.3.2.1. 1) Domination by other party in circumstances

2.3.2.2. 2) K is unfair to weaker party

2.3.3. Consumer Protection

2.3.3.1. legislation

2.3.4. Special Relationships

2.3.4.1. Fiduciary

2.3.4.2. Husband and Wife

2.3.4.3. Need for ILA

2.3.5. Dire Circumstances

2.3.5.1. party is desperate= agree to any terms

2.3.6. Unconscionable K

2.3.6.1. = inequality of bargaining power

2.3.7. Threat of Prosecution

2.3.7.1. agreeing to terms due to prosecution of family member

2.4. Duress

2.4.1. threat of violence to a party

3. Requirement of Writing

3.1. Statutes

3.1.1. Statute of Frauds

3.1.1.1. Marriage contracts

3.1.1.1.1. must be enforceable and in writing

3.1.1.2. Land

3.1.1.2.1. must be in writing and enforceable

3.1.1.2.2. Exceptions

3.1.1.3. Guarantees

3.1.1.3.1. Indemnity

3.1.1.4. Ratification of Infant's K

3.1.1.4.1. Must be in writing and ratified upon minor reaching age of majority to be enforceable

3.2. Memorandum

3.2.1. Essential Terms

3.2.1.1. Name

3.2.1.2. Subject Matter

3.2.1.3. Consideration (exception of guarantee)

3.2.1.4. Payment Details

3.2.1.5. Signature of Paying Party

3.2.1.6. NB signature of D

3.3. Sale of Goods Act

3.3.1. Goods

3.3.2. Threshold Amounts

3.3.3. Evidence

3.3.4. Avoiding the Act

3.3.4.1. Acceptance and actual receipt of buyer

3.3.4.2. Part Payment by buyer and accepted by seller

3.3.4.3. Earnest

3.4. Exceptions

3.4.1. When Both Acts apply

3.5. Unenforceable vs. Void

3.5.1. Statue of Frauds

3.5.2. Define Unenforcable

3.5.3. Define Void

3.5.4. Situations:

3.5.4.1. Recovery of Money Paid Under a Contract

3.5.4.2. Recovery for Goods and Services

3.5.4.3. Effect of a Subsequent Written Memorandum

3.5.4.4. Defendant must expressly plead the statute

3.6. Doctrine of Past Performance

3.6.1. Necessary Criteria

3.6.1.1. K concerning land

3.6.1.2. acts of performance clearly indicate existence of K

3.6.1.3. acts must be performed by Plaintiff NOT Defendant

4. Interpretation

4.1. Interpretation of Contracts

4.1.1. Trade Customs

4.1.2. Express Terms

4.1.2.1. Liberal Approach

4.1.2.2. Strict Approach

4.2. Ambiguity in Language

4.2.1. Multiple Meanings

4.2.2. Special Usage of Words

4.3. Parol Evidence Rule

4.3.1. Meaning

4.4. Credibility

4.4.1. Define

5. Privity

5.1. Exceptions

5.1.1. Trusts

5.1.2. Insurance

5.1.3. Undisclosed Principal

5.1.4. Contracts Concerning Land

5.1.5. Principled Exception

5.1.6. Enurement Clause

5.2. Assignment of Contractual Rights

5.2.1. Statutory

5.2.1.1. Need for Reform

5.2.1.2. Meeting for Requirements

5.2.2. Equitable

5.2.2.1. assignment of a Part of a Debt

5.2.3. The Assigment

5.2.3.1. Nature

5.2.3.2. Importance

5.2.3.3. Role

5.2.4. Notice to the Promiser

5.2.4.1. Effect

5.2.4.2. Notice from Multiple Assignees

5.2.5. Assignee's Title

5.2.5.1. Takes Subject to the Equities

5.2.5.2. The Right to Set Off

5.2.5.3. Assignments by Operation of Law

5.2.5.3.1. Upon Death of a Party

5.2.5.3.2. Bankruptcy

5.3. Privity of Contract

5.3.1. Limited Scope- Rights & Duties

5.3.2. Liabilities

5.3.2.1. Manufactureres

5.3.2.2. Sellers of Goods

6. Discharge

6.1. Performance

6.1.1. Types of Failure

6.1.2. Substantial Failure

6.1.3. Doctrine of Frusteration

6.1.3.1. Self-Induced Frustration

6.1.3.2. Effects of Frusteration

6.1.3.3. Sale of Goods

6.1.4. Mistakes

6.1.4.1. Quasi-Contract

6.1.5. Contract Provides for its Own Dissolution

6.2. Waiver

6.2.1. Define

6.2.2. Discharge by Operation of Law

7. Breach of Contract

7.1. Type

7.1.1. Express Rapudiation

7.1.2. Rendering Profession Impossible

7.1.3. Failure to Perform

7.1.3.1. Partial

7.1.3.2. Full

7.1.3.3. Inadequate

7.2. Nature

7.2.1. Major

7.2.2. Minor

7.3. Effect

7.3.1. Major Effect

7.3.2. Minor Effect

8. Remedies

8.1. Damages

8.1.1. Prerequisites for an Award of Damages

8.1.2. Purpose of an Award of Damages

8.1.3. Measurement of Damages

8.1.3.1. Liquidated

8.1.3.2. Nominal

8.1.3.3. Challenges of Measuring

8.1.4. Types of Damages

8.1.4.1. Expectation

8.1.4.2. Conseuquential

8.1.4.3. General

8.1.4.4. Reliance

8.1.4.5. Punitive

8.2. Quantum Merit

8.2.1. Claimed

8.2.2. Define

8.3. Equitable Remedies

8.3.1. Prerequisites

8.3.2. Reasons for Intervention

8.3.3. Injunction

8.3.4. Specific Performance

8.3.5. Recission

9. Negotiable Instruments

9.1. Nature and Use

9.2. Negotiability vs. Assignability

9.3. Notice to Promiser

9.4. Defences to Promiser

9.5. Form of Action

9.6. Currency