Coaching Approaches and Perspectives by Jim Knight

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Coaching Approaches and Perspectives by Jim Knight by Mind Map: Coaching Approaches and Perspectives by Jim Knight

1. Chapter 1: Joellen Killion

1.1. Roles of a Coach

1.1.1. Data Coach, Resource Provider, Mentor, Curriculum Specialist, Instructional Specialist, Classroom Supporter, Learning Facilitator, School Leader, Catalyst for Change, Learner

1.2. What Coaches Do

1.2.1. Assess the culture, check perceptions, adjust their work depending on the culture in which they work

1.3. Time Allocation

1.3.1. Driven by clear intention to have the greatest impact on improving student learning

1.4. Coaching Light and Coaching Heavy

1.4.1. Coaching Light

1.4.1.1. Coaches want to maintain relationships more than they want to improve teaching and learning

1.4.1.1.1. Coaches act to increase their perceived value to teachers by providing resources and avoiding challenging conversations

1.4.2. Coaching Heavy

1.4.2.1. Focused like a laser

1.4.2.1.1. Requires coaches to work with ALL teachers, not just those who volunteer

2. Chapter 9: Jake Cornett and Jim Knight

2.1. Research On Coaching is Limited

2.1.1. Many forms of coaching are newly developed

2.1.2. Research on professional learning does not have the same outlets for publication as other forms of educational research

2.2. Link between teacher quality and student achievement

2.2.1. Sanders & Rivers, 1996 "the single most dominating factor affecting student academic gain is teacher effect"

2.3. Research

2.3.1. Bush, 1984 Noncoached teachers were much less likely to use new teaching practices presented at professional development sessions compared with coached teachers

2.3.2. Showers, 1982 When coaching was added to staff development, approximately 95% of the teachers implemented the new skills in their classrooms

2.3.2.1. Showers,1982 Coaching is prerequisite to high rates of implementation for some new teaching practices

2.3.2.1.1. Baker, 1983 Six-Month follow-up study of Showers, 1982: Higher rates of implementation and continued use persisted for coached teachers as opposed to those who did not participate in coaching

2.3.3. Showers, 1984 Follow-Up Study: Coached teachers were more likely than noncoached peers to transfer newly acquired teaching practices into classroom use.

2.3.3.1. Showers, 1984 Follow-Up Study: Coaching contributed significantly to higher student achievement scores as measured by a concept attainment measure.

2.3.4. Coaching impacts teachers' attitudes (Edwards, Green, Lyons, et al.,1998)

2.3.5. Coaching impacts teaching practices (Bush, 1984; Joyce & Showers, 1982;Showers, 1982, 1984; Showers, Joyce, & Bennett, 1987) (Knight, 2007)

2.3.6. Coaching impacts teacher efficacy (Edwards & Green, 1999a, 1999b; Edwards, Green, & Lyons, 1998; Edwards, Green, Lyons, et al., 1998; Edwards & Newton, 1995; Hull et al., 1998)

2.3.7. Coaching impacts student achievement (Wenglinsky, 2000), (Sanders & Rivers', 1996)

2.4. "Partnership Approach" of Instructional Coaching (Knight, 2007)

2.4.1. teachers were more likely to be engaged, enjoy the session, remember the content, and plan to implement

3. Chapter 3: Cathy A. Toll

3.1. Coaches Role

3.1.1. partners with teachers

3.1.1.1. works alongside as coequal

3.1.1.1.1. assists in goal setting and planning for action

3.2. Client is teacher

3.3. Duties

3.3.1. One-to-one conferences with teachers

3.3.2. Facilitation of small-group discussions among teachers

3.3.3. Demonstrates lessons in teachers' classrooms

3.3.4. Observes upon request

3.4. Fresh Alternative Approach

3.4.1. Rooted in the needs, interests, and concerns of the teachers being coached

3.4.2. Based on ongoing coaching conversations

3.4.3. Adapted to the style and pace of the caoch's teaching partners

3.4.4. Focused on increasing student success by supporting teachers to build capacity

4. Chapter 4: Jane Ellison and Carolee Hayes

4.1. Cognitive Coaching

4.1.1. Aims at giving teachers choice and control

4.1.2. Values reflection, complex thinking, and transformational learning

4.1.3. Develops thoughtful professionals who are self-directed, self-managing, self-monitoring, and self-modifying

4.1.4. Draws on the concept of holonomy (the study of wholeness)

4.1.5. A means for high performance independently and in community

4.1.6. Focus

4.1.6.1. To develop an individual's ability to engage in higher levels of cognitive functioning (evaluating, analyzing, inferring)

4.1.7. Intention

4.1.7.1. Assist the learner in clarifying, developing, and modifying his or her internal schema (Costa & Garmston, 2002)

4.1.7.1.1. Model of Four Functions for Professional Support: Cognitive Coaching, collaborating, consulting, and evaluation (Costa & Garmston, 2002)

4.2. State of Mind

4.2.1. Efficacy

4.2.2. Flexibility

4.2.3. Consciousness

4.2.4. Craftmanship

4.2.5. Interdependence

5. Chapter 6: Lucy West

5.1. Content Coaching

5.1.1. Goal

5.1.1.1. Cultivate teachers' aademic habits of reasoning and discourse associated with their particular discipline

5.1.1.2. To help teachers develop a specific skill set that will enable them to cultivate those habits in their students

5.1.2. Says educational models should be more effort based and less ability based

5.1.3. Says teaching is complex and learnable

5.1.3.1. Improved instruction significantly improves learning

5.1.4. Collaborative learning environments

5.1.5. Work of:

5.1.5.1. Lesson design

5.1.5.2. Enactment

5.1.5.3. Diagnosis

5.1.5.4. Enhancement of student learning

5.1.6. Is mindful

5.2. Coaches

5.2.1. Are partners in exploring with teachers authentic concerns, issues, and hypotheses about teaching and learning

5.2.2. Take inquiry stances

5.2.3. Dialogue

5.2.3.1. Focuses on planning and implementation of lessons, reflecting, and designing interventions

5.2.4. Work to ensure that academic content is worthwhile, important, relevant, and focused on "big ideas"

5.2.5. Measure success throught the evidence of student learning

5.2.6. Give specific feedback

5.2.7. Usually don't work directly with the students when the teacher is not present

6. Chapter 7: Jane A.G. Kise

6.1. Says coaches will reach more teachers if they differentiate their services based on personality type

6.2. Differentiated Coaching

6.2.1. Goal

6.2.1.1. To identify what information an individual teacher needs during change

6.2.2. Provides teachers with freedom to recognize, embrace, and move toward their full potential as educators

6.2.3. Personality Types

6.2.3.1. Extraversion and Introversion (source of energy)

6.2.3.2. Sensing and Intuition (kinds of information people pay attention to first)

6.2.3.3. Thinking and Feeling (how we make decisions)

6.2.3.4. Judging and Perceiving (how we approach life and work)

7. Chapter 8: Karla Reiss

7.1. Leadership Coaching

7.1.1. Benefits

7.1.1.1. Achievement of the organization's objectives

7.1.1.2. Leader retention

7.1.1.3. Increase in job satisfaction

7.1.1.4. Increase in decision making

7.1.1.5. Improvement in working relationships

7.1.1.6. Reduction in stress

7.1.1.7. Increase in motivation

7.1.2. Focus

7.1.2.1. Success, flexibility, and respect for the individual

7.1.3. Provides a methodology and skills for confronting resistance

7.1.4. A specific skill set, a possibility-thinking mindset, a highly supportive and result-focused relationship

7.2. Coach

7.2.1. Empowers others

7.2.2. Brings out others' strengths and aligns them with their work

7.2.3. Uses coaching skills, techniques, and processes to develop awareness and creative choices in forwarding action toward the individual's and school's professional goals

7.2.4. Roles

7.2.4.1. Mentor

7.2.4.2. Data Gatherer

7.2.4.3. Facilitator

7.2.4.4. Consultant

7.2.5. Holds the goal of the client as achievable and helps the client design a plan to achieve it

8. Chapter 2: Jim Knight

8.1. Instructional Coach

8.1.1. Partners with teachers to help them incorporate research-based instructional practices into their teaching

8.1.2. Skilled communicators

8.1.3. Encourage and support teachers' reflections about their classroom practices

8.1.4. Deeply understand many scientifically proven instructional practices

8.1.5. Focus on a broad range of instructional issues

8.1.6. Help teachers choose appropriate approaches to teaching

8.1.7. Model practices in classrooms

8.1.8. Observe teachers

8.1.9. Engage in supportive, dialogical conversations

8.2. Partnership Principles

8.2.1. Equality

8.2.2. Choice

8.2.3. Voice

8.2.4. Dialogue

8.2.5. Reflection

8.2.6. Praxis

8.2.7. Reciprocity

8.3. Knight's "Big Four"

8.3.1. Classroom Management

8.3.2. Content

8.3.3. Instruction

8.3.4. Assessment for Learning

8.4. Components of Instructional Coaching

8.4.1. Enroll

8.4.1.1. Obtain commitment from teachers to the coaching process, "contracting"

8.4.2. Identify

8.4.2.1. Reply promptly to every teacher expressing an interest

8.4.3. Explain

8.4.3.1. Clarify, Synthesize, Break it down, See it through teachers' and students' eyes, Simplify

8.4.4. Model

8.4.4.1. "You watch me; I watch you."

8.4.5. Observe

8.4.5.1. "second set of eyes" as opposed to evaluator

8.4.6. Explore

8.4.6.1. a learning conversation using data, direct and specific feedback

8.4.7. Refine

8.4.7.1. Tailored to unique needs of each teacher

8.4.8. Reflect

8.4.8.1. What was supposed to happen, what really happened, why there is a difference between those things, and what should be done differently next time

8.5. Factors that Increase Success

8.5.1. Time

8.5.2. Research-based interventions

8.5.3. Professional development for coaches

8.5.4. Protecting the coaching relationship

8.5.5. Ensuring that principals and coaches work together

8.5.6. Hiring the right coaches

8.5.7. Evaluating coaches

9. Chapter 5: Wendy M. Reinke, Randy Sprick, and Jim Knight

9.1. Good Classroom Management Model Addresses

9.1.1. Prevention

9.1.2. Teaching Expectations

9.1.3. Encouragement

9.1.4. Correction

9.2. Classroom Management Practices

9.2.1. Proactive

9.2.2. Positive

9.2.3. Research-based

9.3. Five Areas of Behavior Intervention

9.3.1. Prevention

9.3.2. Expectations

9.3.3. Monitoring

9.3.4. Encouragement

9.3.5. Correction

9.4. Fluent Correction

9.4.1. Responding to undesired behavior calmly, consistently, briefly, and immediately

9.5. Role of Coach

9.5.1. Enroll the teacher

9.5.2. Identify interventions

9.5.3. Explain the process

9.5.4. Model techniques

9.5.5. Observe the teacher

9.5.6. Explore data

9.5.7. Review results

9.6. Critical Classroom Management Variables

9.6.1. Opportunities to respond

9.6.2. Correct academic response

9.6.3. Praise

9.6.3.1. Specific versus General

9.6.4. Reprimands

9.6.5. Student disruptive behavior

9.7. Teacher, Coach, Administrator

9.7.1. must know who reports to whom and what the coach will be required to report

9.7.2. should have a shared understanding of what constitutes effective classroom management, why it's important, what it looks and sounds like, and how it should be implemented