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DEFAMATION by Mind Map: DEFAMATION

1. DEFINITION

1.1. The publication of untrue statement of fact which reflects on a person’s reputation and tends to lower him in the estimation of right-thinking members of society generally or tends to make them shun or avoid him.

2. TYPES

2.1. LIBEL

2.1.1. A defamatory statement or representation in permanent form.

2.1.2. Example: picture, statue, writing, type-written, e-mail, broadcasting of words by means of radio communication.

2.1.3. Actionable per se

2.2. SLANDER

2.2.1. A temporary or transient form.

2.2.2. Through spoken words or gestures.

2.2.3. Not actionable per se (prove actual or special damage)

2.2.3.1. Case: Lynch v Knight

2.2.4. There are few exceptions.

2.2.4.1. 1. Slander to women.

2.2.4.2. 2. Slander to a person's professional/business reputation.

2.2.4.3. 3. Slander to title, slander of goods and malicious falsehood.

2.2.4.4. 4. Imputation of contagious disease.

2.2.4.5. 5. Imputation of a crime.

3. ELEMENTS

3.1. THE WORDS MUST ARE DEFAMATORY

3.1.1. Tendency to lower the estimation of the Plaintiff in the minds of right-thinking members of society to hatred avoided.

3.1.1.1. Case: DP Vijandran v Karpal Singh

3.1.2. Natural and ordinary meaning.

3.1.2.1. Case: Hasnul bin Abdul Hadi v Bulat bin Mohamed & Anor

3.1.3. Innuendo

3.1.3.1. False Innuendo

3.1.3.1.1. Case: Syed Husin Ali v Sharikat Penchetakan Utusan Melayu Bhd

3.1.3.2. True/Legal Innuendo

3.1.3.2.1. Case: R Murusagam v The Straits Times Press

3.1.4. Juxtaposition

3.1.4.1. Case: Monsoon v Tussauds

3.2. THE WORDS REFER TO THE PLAINTIFF

3.2.1. Must refer to him.

3.2.2. Test: If reasonable people would think that the language used by the defendant to be defamatory, then the defendant is liable even if the defendant did not intend to refer to the plaintiff.

3.2.2.1. Case: David Syme v Canavan

3.2.3. No name mentioned.

3.2.3.1. Case: Morgan v Odhams Press Ltd

3.2.4. Fictional name

3.2.4.1. Case: Hulton & Co v Jones

3.2.5. Two persons with the same name.

3.2.5.1. Case: Newstead v London Express Newspaper Ltd

3.2.6. Defamation of a class.

3.2.6.1. Case: Knupffer v London Express Newspaper Ltd

3.3. THE WORDS HAVE PUBLISHED

3.3.1. Must be publication to a third party.

3.3.1.1. Case: Dr Jenni Ibrahim v S Pakianathan

4. DEFENCES

4.1. JUSTIFICATION/TRUTH

4.2. FAIR COMMENT

4.3. HONEST OPINION

4.4. PRIVILEGE

4.5. UNINTENTIONAL DEFAMATION

4.6. INNOCENT DISSEMINATION