Ancient Egypt

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Ancient Egypt by Mind Map: Ancient Egypt

1. Irragation

2. Religion

2.1. gods and goddesses

2.1.1. origins

2.1.1.1. probably sprang from early Earth-worship

2.1.1.2. Creation myth

2.1.2. myths

2.1.2.1. tended to be violent

2.1.2.2. less based on marriage and love than other cultures' myths

2.1.2.3. Dozens of gods and goddeses

2.2. place in society

2.2.1. worship

2.2.1.1. temples

2.2.1.1.1. placement

2.2.1.1.2. rituals

2.2.1.2. cults

2.2.1.2.1. cults gained and lost favor through time

2.2.1.2.2. cults' power depended on people in it

2.2.1.2.3. mainly popular among the nobility

2.2.1.2.4. often influenced the way other gods were worshipped

2.2.2. priesthood

2.2.2.1. priests were originally trained as scribes

2.2.2.2. rose through power from novice, unless they could pay their way to a higher position

2.2.2.3. appointed to various roles

3. Expression and Technology

3.1. Technology

3.1.1. Tools

3.1.1.1. Metal Work

3.1.1.1.1. Copper

3.1.1.1.2. Bronze

3.1.1.1.3. Iron

3.1.1.2. Pyramid Building Equipment

3.1.1.2.1. Ramp

3.1.1.2.2. Lever

3.1.1.2.3. Roller

3.1.2. Mummification

3.1.2.1. People who took part in the process

3.1.2.1.1. Scribe

3.1.2.1.2. Cutter

3.1.2.1.3. Embalmer

3.1.3. Time

3.1.3.1. Calendars

3.1.3.2. Clocks

3.1.3.2.1. Water Clock

3.1.3.2.2. Sun Dial

3.1.4. Glass Work

3.1.4.1. Beads

3.1.5. Ship Building

3.1.5.1. Sails

3.1.6. Agriculture and Irrigation

3.1.7. Astronomy

3.1.7.1. Religon

3.1.7.2. Architectural

3.1.7.3. Stories

3.1.7.4. Calendar

3.1.8. Agriculture

3.1.9. Furniture

3.1.10. Building Techniques

3.1.10.1. Building Materials

3.1.10.1.1. Stone

3.1.10.1.2. Marble

3.1.10.1.3. Granite

3.1.10.2. Columns

3.1.10.2.1. Obelisks

3.1.10.2.2. Pillars

3.1.10.3. Pyramids

3.1.10.3.1. Mastabas

3.1.10.3.2. Step Pyramids

3.1.10.3.3. Bent Pyramids

3.1.10.3.4. Smooth-Sided Pyramids

3.2. Art

3.2.1. Media

3.2.1.1. materials

3.2.1.1.1. as exotic as possible

3.2.1.2. artisans

3.2.1.2.1. sculptors

3.2.1.2.2. metalsmiths

3.2.1.2.3. other

3.2.2. Uses and Subjects

3.2.2.1. Could be of any subject

3.2.2.1.1. Sacred

3.2.2.1.2. Secular

3.2.2.2. Decoration

3.2.2.2.1. Decorated surfaces showed wealth

3.2.2.2.2. temples and tombs

3.2.2.3. Commission

3.2.2.3.1. most pieces were commission, rather than prospect

3.2.2.3.2. commission pieces usually reflected the day's fashions

3.2.2.3.3. often intended to curry favor with gods or superiors

3.3. Writing

3.3.1. Development

3.3.1.1. grew from crude pictures

3.3.1.1.1. gradually became more stylized

3.3.1.1.2. pictures began to represent sounds

3.3.1.2. eventually morphed into several systems

3.3.1.2.1. most ceremonial reserved for priests

3.3.1.2.2. two less hard to draw used for everyday things

3.3.2. Writers

3.3.2.1. Scribes

3.3.2.1.1. Schools

3.3.2.1.2. Power

3.3.2.2. Nobility

3.3.2.2.1. Poetry and Literature

3.3.2.2.2. Business

3.4. Architecture

3.4.1. Temples

3.4.1.1. Hatshepsut's Temple

3.4.1.2. Temple at Luxor

3.4.1.3. Temple of Amon

3.4.1.4. Temple of Horus

3.4.1.5. Temple of Isis

3.4.1.6. Temple of Kom Ombo

3.4.2. Pyramids

3.4.2.1. Mastabas

3.4.2.2. Step Pyramid of Djoser

3.4.2.3. Maidum Pyramid

3.4.2.4. Bent Pyramid

3.4.2.5. Red Pyramid

3.4.2.6. Great Pyramid

3.4.2.7. Pyramid of Khafre

3.4.2.8. Pyramid of Menkaure

3.4.2.9. Pyramid of Pepi II

3.4.3. Obelisks

3.4.3.1. Hatshepsut's Obelisk

3.4.4. Necropolises

3.4.4.1. Zoser's Necropolis

3.4.5. Tombs

3.4.5.1. Tomb of Setnakht

4. Military and Economy

4.1. Economy

4.1.1. Taxes

4.1.1.1. What was taxed

4.1.1.1.1. Mostly agricultural products were taxed because they were the easiest to assess.

4.1.1.1.2. Some of the agricultural products that were taxed were grain, wheat, barley, lettuce, beans, onions, dates, figs, grapes, melons, and cucumbers.

4.1.1.1.3. Other things that were taxed were beer, wine, livestock, oil, cattle, gold, and silver.

4.1.1.1.4. It was harder to tax other people who did not work with the items above because it was hard to see what they earned and how much work they did and how much of a product came out of that work.

4.1.1.2. Tax Professions

4.1.1.2.1. assistant inspector

4.1.1.2.2. Scribal

4.1.1.2.3. Chief treasurer

4.1.1.2.4. The pharoah

4.1.1.2.5. The farmers and construction workers

4.1.1.3. Tax season happened twice a year

4.1.1.4. Tax consequences

4.1.1.4.1. If the person could not hand over the taxes right way then they could be arrested and taken to court.

4.1.1.4.2. If the tax collectors do not turn in the right amount for taxes to the royal treasury they would be beaten to death.

4.1.1.4.3. Also in hard times officials would steal parts of their collected taxes to use as part of their own.

4.1.1.5. Tax breaks

4.1.1.5.1. They were sometimes given to farmers if there was a drought or just a really bad season.

4.1.1.5.2. They were also given to priests and the temple workers.

4.1.2. Trade

4.1.2.1. Egypt traded with countries around the Mediterranean Sea, Aegean Sea, and the Red Sea.

4.1.2.1.1. The people who transported the products were paid in grain.

4.1.2.2. They traded for silver, iron, cedar logs, horses, ivory, copper, cattle, leopard skins, and spices.

4.1.2.3. The oversea trades were taxed 10%

4.1.3. Egyptian money

4.1.3.1. The Egyptian money was called debens.

4.1.3.1.1. it weighed about .5 pounds

4.1.3.1.2. It was made out of copper

4.1.3.2. Egyptians haggled for most things

4.1.3.3. They also traded amongst themselves and used things besides money to pay for things.

4.2. Military

4.2.1. military leaders

4.2.1.1. General Weni

4.2.1.1.1. He was the commander in chief of the military when Pepi II was ruling.

4.2.1.1.2. He created an organization system that was used all the way up to the New Kingdom.

4.2.1.2. Herakleopolis

4.2.1.2.1. he stabilizes power over foreign regions and seized control of the delta.

4.2.1.2.2. He tried to take over upper Egypt but he faced resistance from the princes of Thebes.

4.2.1.3. Military leaders were first trained as scribes, so they could read messages from each other.

4.2.1.4. Ramses II

4.2.1.4.1. Even though it was after the Old Kingdom, he had the largest army in Egyptian history.

4.2.1.4.2. It was broken up into four divisions all named after gods.

4.2.2. Weapons and Armor

4.2.2.1. Horse and chariot

4.2.2.1.1. They were invented when The Hyskos were occupying Egypt.

4.2.2.1.2. War chariots

4.2.2.1.3. Private chariots

4.2.2.2. Composite bow

4.2.2.2.1. It was a bow and arrow that was stronger and it was able to go farther.

4.2.2.3. Head gear

4.2.2.3.1. The Hyskos introduced skull caps and metal helmets.

4.2.2.4. Armor

4.2.2.4.1. The Hyskos also showed the Egyptians heavier leather body armor that was better at protecting them.

4.2.2.5. Weapons that were more commonly used were stone- headed maces, clubs, daggers, and spearheads

4.2.3. Battles and Military Activity

4.2.3.1. Unification of Egypt

4.2.3.1.1. It began with the death of Pepi II who was ruling Egypt in the 2nd dynasty.

4.2.3.1.2. There was a major rebellion in Lower Egypt.

4.2.3.1.3. The unification was possible because the army was led by Egypt's own people.

4.2.3.2. The First Intermediate Period

4.2.3.2.1. Happened in the 9th and 10th dynasty.

4.2.3.2.2. Thebes split off and managed to create their own kingdom.

4.2.3.2.3. Northern Egypt's leader was Herakleopolis. Southern Egypt's leader was Nebhetepre Mentuhotep I.

4.2.4. Geography

4.2.4.1. Egypt's geographical location made it very hard to attack, so for most of their history the military action was in civil wars.

4.2.4.2. It was surrounded by deserts.

4.2.4.2.1. The Western Libyan Desert was to the west.

4.2.4.2.2. The Eastern Arabian Desert was to the east.

4.2.4.3. It also had the Mediterranean Sea to the north.

4.2.5. Army

4.2.5.1. Life of a military officer

4.2.5.1.1. It was not a favored position because it was unreliable on when the men would be home.

4.2.5.1.2. School teachers even told students not to join the army.

4.2.5.1.3. Most men would rather stay with their family and stay home a farm.

4.2.5.2. Recruitments for war

4.2.5.2.1. The army was not kept on call in the old kingdom.

4.2.5.2.2. Methods for creating the Egyptian army

5. Judicial System

5.1. Law

5.1.1. Criminal Law

5.1.1.1. Criminal law includes tomb robery, stealing, killing,

5.1.1.1.1. punishment was extemely harsh

5.1.1.2. The pharoh would often decide the outcome of a particular case, depending on the severity

5.1.1.2.1. his decision mattered above all others

5.1.2. General Law

5.1.2.1. laws were esssentially based upon right and wrong

5.1.2.1.1. when a law was broken, there was a cruel punishment

5.1.2.2. Ma'at

5.1.2.2.1. Ma'at was seen as being in charge with regulating the stars, seasons, and the actions of both mortals and the deities

5.1.2.2.2. Ma'at as a principle

5.1.2.2.3. the personification of moral law, justice order and truth

5.1.2.3. often the judges were the king's viziers

5.1.2.3.1. they could also be led by the Overseer of the Six Great Mansions

5.1.3. Civil Law

5.1.3.1. Although males had the most freedom, women also had an exceptional number of rights

5.1.3.1.1. civil law gave the Egyptians a feeling of balance and order

5.1.3.2. A plantiff was the leader of civil law cases

5.1.3.2.1. Prior to the 7th century BC most contracts and deeds were oral, many legal transactions were required to be written

5.2. Courts

5.2.1. who ran the courts

5.2.1.1. the king had control over courts, he had the deciding decision of cases

5.2.1.1.1. his opinion mattered above everyone elses

5.2.1.2. occasionaly the distinguished leader of a city would be the decider of the case

5.2.2. bulidings

5.2.2.1. there were no courts

5.2.2.1.1. Courts were mansions

5.2.2.2. smaller cases were held in front of elders in that particular city

5.2.2.3. Some cases took place outside, with certain rituals

6. Government

6.1. dominated by the Pharoh

6.1.1. some roles of authority were vizier, or the prime minister...

6.1.1.1. the King's priests also had big roles in the government

6.1.1.2. people believed the pharoh was more than man, that he was a god

6.1.1.3. vizier was second in comand after Pharoh

6.1.2. Pharoh had control over the people, government, control, and the economy

6.1.3. The Pharoh would images as the representatives of the gods they were often depicted as warriors who single-handedly defeated their enemies.

6.1.4. the Pharoh and the era in which he ruled is called a dynasty

6.1.4.1. there was 31 dynasties

6.2. Ancient Egypt was also a theocracy

6.2.1. controlled by clergy

6.3. Egypt was split into provinces called nomes

6.3.1. each nome had a governor

6.3.1.1. governor kept control over the province

6.3.2. there were 42 of these provinces

6.4. Taxes

6.4.1. taxes were sometimes paid in work and labor

6.4.1.1. citizens were drafted in the army to pay labor taxes

6.4.1.1.1. slave, mercenaries, and draftees were often used in the army

6.4.2. money in Egypt was a deben

6.4.3. every person in Egypt had to pay different taxes based on the work they did

6.4.3.1. craftsmen paid with food, hunters paid with food, etc.

6.4.3.1.1. every single household in the country had to pay a labor tax every year

6.4.4. among other things, the vizier was also the head tax collecter

6.4.4.1. every tax collector in Egypt had to tell him every day how many taxes they had collected

6.5. Social classes

6.5.1. in a pattern from highest to lowest

6.5.2. Pharoh

6.5.3. Vizier

6.5.4. Royal Family

6.5.5. Priests

6.5.6. officials

6.5.7. scribes

6.5.7.1. kept and wrote official documents

6.5.8. crafts people/ artisans

6.5.8.1. farmers, weavers, etc.

6.5.9. peasents

6.5.9.1. also beggers

7. Geography

7.1. Topography

7.1.1. Altitudes

7.1.1.1. The lowest alitude is from 436 feet below sea level

7.1.1.1.1. This is in the Libyan Desert

7.1.1.2. The highest is 8, 625 feet above sea level

7.1.1.2.1. Located in the Sinai Peninsula

7.1.2. Elevation

7.1.2.1. From Alexandria to Port Sa'id there is a slope 250 miles.

7.1.2.2. South of Cairo there is an upward incline of 1, 500 feet

7.1.2.3. The highest point in the southern Sinai peninsula and if reaches over 8530 feet high.

7.1.3. Desert depressions

7.1.3.1. The Western Desert there are a lot of low-lying sand dunes.

7.1.3.1.1. Some of them are Kharijah, Siwah, Farafirah, Bahariyah, and the Qattara Depression.

7.2. Location

7.2.1. Egypt is located in the northeast corner of Africa

7.3. The Nile's signifigance

7.3.1. The Nile is the most significant geographical Egypt has

7.3.2. The Nile has cataracts

7.3.2.1. meaning a barrier that stops the water from movement upstream.

7.3.2.2. The first cataract is the only cataract that still is in Egypt

7.3.3. The Nile is unique because of the way it twists in the Sahara desert.

7.3.3.1. It bent in the Sahara and most Rivers would have formed to go straight to the Sea.

7.3.3.2. Scientists have discovered that it is because of tectonic plate movement.

7.3.4. The Nile is fed by two rivers.

7.3.4.1. The Blue Nile and the White Nile

7.3.4.2. At one time there was about six tributaries that fed the Nile, but they dried up.

7.3.4.2.1. They dried up because of slow water and silt accumulation.

7.3.5. Nile's silt

7.3.5.1. When the snow from the mountains dried up and it flowed to the Nile

7.3.5.2. It left moist fertile soil on the banks of Egypt making the fertile soil that Egypt's civilization was built on.

7.3.6. Flooding

7.3.6.1. The floods began in June

7.3.6.2. They ended at the end of October

7.3.6.3. Any change in the flood pattern could be damaging or fatal for the Egyptian farmers and their crops.

7.4. Climate

7.4.1. Very dry there was almost no rainfall

7.4.1.1. The people in Egypt got their water from the Nile's annual flood

7.5. Size

7.5.1. Egypt is approximately 997,740 kilometers

7.6. Black land

7.6.1. It was the fertile land on the banks of the Nile.

7.6.2. This was the only area in Egypt that could be farmed.

7.6.3. There were rich layers of black silt here.

7.6.3.1. The Nile left the silt there in its annual flood.

7.7. Red land

7.7.1. This land was the desert that was on either side of Egypt.

7.7.2. These deserts protected Egypt from neighboring countries

7.7.3. The land also provided the people with precious metals and some rare stones.

8. Creators

8.1. Palmer Coleman

8.2. Nora Shoemaker

8.3. Anne Meeker

8.4. Katie Gilkeson

9. Katies Bibiliography

9.1. Anne Bibliography

9.2. palmers bibliography

9.3. Nora's Bibliography