Because Ancient Egypt had rainy and dry seasons, people would set aside and preserve water during the rainy seasons and save it to use during the dry seasons.
origins, probably sprang from early Earth-worship, Creation myth
myths, tended to be violent, less based on marriage and love than other cultures' myths, Dozens of gods and goddeses
worship, temples, placement, rituals, temples demanded tribute, often had festivals, sacrifices, omen-reading, dances, cults, cults gained and lost favor through time, Cult of Aten (example), adopted by the parents of Tuthankamun, Aten was the god of the Sun Disk, the worship of old gods was banned during the Amarna period, entirely changed art styles, when old gods were reinstated, as many references to Aten as possible were stricken from record, cults' power depended on people in it, mainly popular among the nobility, peasants had not the time to waste on extra worship nor the money to spend on expensive gifts most cults required., often influenced the way other gods were worshipped
priesthood, priests were originally trained as scribes, rose through power from novice, unless they could pay their way to a higher position, appointed to various roles
Tools, Metal Work, Copper, Bronze, Iron, Pyramid Building Equipment, Ramp, Lever, Roller
Mummification, People who took part in the process, Scribe, Cutter, Embalmer
Time, Calendars, Clocks, Water Clock, Sun Dial
Glass Work, Beads
Ship Building, Sails
Agriculture and Irrigation
Astronomy, Religon, Architectural, Stories, Calendar
Building Techniques, Building Materials, Stone, Marble, Granite, Columns, Obelisks, Pillars, Pyramids, Mastabas, Step Pyramids, Bent Pyramids, Smooth-Sided Pyramids
Media, materials, as exotic as possible, artisans, sculptors, also painters, worked with architects to decorate large buildings like temples, metalsmiths, worked almost exclusively in jewelry, some weaponry in times of war, other
Uses and Subjects, Could be of any subject, Sacred, showed myths and stories, History, Secular, Daily life, life of people who commissioned it, Decoration, Decorated surfaces showed wealth, temples and tombs, decorated to make the gods or their owners happy, Commission, most pieces were commission, rather than prospect, commission pieces usually reflected the day's fashions, often intended to curry favor with gods or superiors
Development, grew from crude pictures, gradually became more stylized, looked less like their original subjects, became easier to draw quickly, pictures began to represent sounds, created need for determinative at end of hieroglyph, eventually morphed into several systems, most ceremonial reserved for priests, two less hard to draw used for everyday things
Writers, Scribes, Schools, Power, Numerous professions availible, Peasants relied on scribes to deal with the government, Nobility, Poetry and Literature, Business
Temples, Hatshepsut's Temple, Temple at Luxor, Temple of Amon, Temple of Horus, Temple of Isis, Temple of Kom Ombo
Pyramids, Mastabas, Step Pyramid of Djoser, Maidum Pyramid, Bent Pyramid, Red Pyramid, Great Pyramid, Pyramid of Khafre, Pyramid of Menkaure, Pyramid of Pepi II
Obelisks, Hatshepsut's Obelisk
Necropolises, Zoser's Necropolis
Tombs, Tomb of Setnakht
Taxes, What was taxed, Mostly agricultural products were taxed because they were the easiest to assess., Some of the agricultural products that were taxed were grain, wheat, barley, lettuce, beans, onions, dates, figs, grapes, melons, and cucumbers., Other things that were taxed were beer, wine, livestock, oil, cattle, gold, and silver., It was harder to tax other people who did not work with the items above because it was hard to see what they earned and how much work they did and how much of a product came out of that work., Later in Egyptian history people had to state their income and they were charged on that., Tax Professions, assistant inspector, This persons job was to make sure that the boundary stones of a farmer's fields were in the right place so that the farmer could be fairly charged in taxes., Scribal, This person calculated all the taxes., Chief treasurer, The tax collector for offices., The pharoah, He was the controller of the jobs and leader of economy., The farmers and construction workers, They were the people who were the most taxed., It always gave the lower class people some way to contribute to the economy which was good for the people and the economy., Tax season happened twice a year, Tax consequences, If the person could not hand over the taxes right way then they could be arrested and taken to court., If the tax collectors do not turn in the right amount for taxes to the royal treasury they would be beaten to death., This was happening more than they wanted it to, so soon tax reciepts became necessary., Also in hard times officials would steal parts of their collected taxes to use as part of their own., Tax breaks, They were sometimes given to farmers if there was a drought or just a really bad season., They were also given to priests and the temple workers.
Trade, Egypt traded with countries around the Mediterranean Sea, Aegean Sea, and the Red Sea., The people who transported the products were paid in grain., They traded for silver, iron, cedar logs, horses, ivory, copper, cattle, leopard skins, and spices., The oversea trades were taxed 10%
Egyptian money, The Egyptian money was called debens., it weighed about .5 pounds, It was made out of copper, Egyptians haggled for most things, They also traded amongst themselves and used things besides money to pay for things.
military leaders, General Weni, He was the commander in chief of the military when Pepi II was ruling., He created an organization system that was used all the way up to the New Kingdom., Herakleopolis, he stabilizes power over foreign regions and seized control of the delta., He tried to take over upper Egypt but he faced resistance from the princes of Thebes., Military leaders were first trained as scribes, so they could read messages from each other., Ramses II, Even though it was after the Old Kingdom, he had the largest army in Egyptian history., It was broken up into four divisions all named after gods.
Weapons and Armor, Horse and chariot, They were invented when The Hyskos were occupying Egypt., War chariots, Helped with the creation of more casualties for the enemy., They held two people. One to steer and one to fight. and protect the other., Chariots were improved by moving the rider closer to the fulcrum making it lighter and faster., The soldiers riding in the chariots also sometimes crashed them into the enemy to injure them and throw them off guard. Then they could have a better chance of killing them, Private chariots, These were smaller and lighter than war chariots. They were more open and decorative., Composite bow, It was a bow and arrow that was stronger and it was able to go farther., Head gear, The Hyskos introduced skull caps and metal helmets., Armor, The Hyskos also showed the Egyptians heavier leather body armor that was better at protecting them., Weapons that were more commonly used were stone- headed maces, clubs, daggers, and spearheads
Battles and Military Activity, Unification of Egypt, It began with the death of Pepi II who was ruling Egypt in the 2nd dynasty., With the combination of a bad harvest season and the new political trouble, Egypt collapsed., There was a major rebellion in Lower Egypt., It was led by Khasekhemwy and it was against Hetepsekhemsy., There were 47,000 casualties recorded., The unification was possible because the army was led by Egypt's own people., The peasants were drafted, and the noblemen led them., The First Intermediate Period, Happened in the 9th and 10th dynasty., Thebes split off and managed to create their own kingdom., Northern Egypt's leader was Herakleopolis. Southern Egypt's leader was Nebhetepre Mentuhotep I., Herakleopolis tried to get control of the delta and of foreign regions as well as southern Egypt, but he only succeeded in controlling the delta and foreign regions., A civil war got started to see who could get control of Egypt., Thebes won the war and this started the middle kingdom.
Geography, Egypt's geographical location made it very hard to attack, so for most of their history the military action was in civil wars., It was surrounded by deserts., The Western Libyan Desert was to the west., The Eastern Arabian Desert was to the east., It also had the Mediterranean Sea to the north.
Army, Life of a military officer, It was not a favored position because it was unreliable on when the men would be home., School teachers even told students not to join the army., Most men would rather stay with their family and stay home a farm., Recruitments for war, The army was not kept on call in the old kingdom., When there was trouble the government called on older, not trained men to come and fight., Methods for creating the Egyptian army, Egypt hired people from Nubia to come and fight for them, Each member of the pharaohs court controlled a little part of Egypt and when there was a war they were responsible to have a number of soldiers from their area to add to the Egyptian army.
Criminal Law, Criminal law includes tomb robery, stealing, killing,, punishment was extemely harsh, the guilty had also violated Ma'at, violating Ma'at was seen as a terrible sin, The pharoh would often decide the outcome of a particular case, depending on the severity, his decision mattered above all others
General Law, laws were esssentially based upon right and wrong, when a law was broken, there was a cruel punishment, laws allowed everyone to be viewed as equals, excluding slaves, police and local officials were enforcers of the law, Ma'at, Ma'at was seen as being in charge with regulating the stars, seasons, and the actions of both mortals and the deities, Ma'at as a principle, seen as a divine order, this divine order was modeled in various environmental, agricultural, and social relationships, the personification of moral law, justice order and truth, almost all ancient Egyptians worshiped Ma'at above all other gods, Egyptians believed she was the one who held everything together, Ma'at is also perceived as a goddess, often the judges were the king's viziers, they could also be led by the Overseer of the Six Great Mansions, general law was thought to be self explanatory
Civil Law, Although males had the most freedom, women also had an exceptional number of rights, civil law gave the Egyptians a feeling of balance and order, A plantiff was the leader of civil law cases, Prior to the 7th century BC most contracts and deeds were oral, many legal transactions were required to be written
who ran the courts, the king had control over courts, he had the deciding decision of cases, his opinion mattered above everyone elses, occasionaly the distinguished leader of a city would be the decider of the case
bulidings, there were no courts, Courts were mansions, they were no judges in the mansions, on people of authority, smaller cases were held in front of elders in that particular city, Some cases took place outside, with certain rituals
some roles of authority were vizier, or the prime minister..., the King's priests also had big roles in the government, people believed the pharoh was more than man, that he was a god, vizier was second in comand after Pharoh
Pharoh had control over the people, government, control, and the economy
The Pharoh would images as the representatives of the gods they were often depicted as warriors who single-handedly defeated their enemies.
the Pharoh and the era in which he ruled is called a dynasty, there was 31 dynasties
a form of government in which God or a deity is recognized as the supreme civil ruler, the God's or deity's laws being interpreted by the ecclesiastical authorities.
controlled by clergy
each nome had a governor, governor kept control over the province
there were 42 of these provinces
taxes were sometimes paid in work and labor, citizens were drafted in the army to pay labor taxes, slave, mercenaries, and draftees were often used in the army, peasents had no say in government
money in Egypt was a deben
every person in Egypt had to pay different taxes based on the work they did, craftsmen paid with food, hunters paid with food, etc., every single household in the country had to pay a labor tax every year, some rich people paid the poor to do this for them
among other things, the vizier was also the head tax collecter, every tax collector in Egypt had to tell him every day how many taxes they had collected
in a pattern from highest to lowest
scribes, kept and wrote official documents
crafts people/ artisans, farmers, weavers, etc.
peasents, also beggers
Altitudes, The lowest alitude is from 436 feet below sea level, This is in the Libyan Desert, The highest is 8, 625 feet above sea level, Located in the Sinai Peninsula
Elevation, From Alexandria to Port Sa'id there is a slope 250 miles., South of Cairo there is an upward incline of 1, 500 feet, The highest point in the southern Sinai peninsula and if reaches over 8530 feet high.
Desert depressions, The Western Desert there are a lot of low-lying sand dunes., Some of them are Kharijah, Siwah, Farafirah, Bahariyah, and the Qattara Depression., The Qattara depression is located in an area with large saline lakes and soil that covers 8, 900 square miles.
Egypt is located in the northeast corner of Africa
The Nile is the most significant geographical Egypt has
The Nile has cataracts, meaning a barrier that stops the water from movement upstream., The first cataract is the only cataract that still is in Egypt
The Nile is unique because of the way it twists in the Sahara desert., It bent in the Sahara and most Rivers would have formed to go straight to the Sea., Scientists have discovered that it is because of tectonic plate movement.
The Nile is fed by two rivers., The Blue Nile and the White Nile, At one time there was about six tributaries that fed the Nile, but they dried up., They dried up because of slow water and silt accumulation.
Nile's silt, When the snow from the mountains dried up and it flowed to the Nile, It left moist fertile soil on the banks of Egypt making the fertile soil that Egypt's civilization was built on.
Flooding, The floods began in June, They ended at the end of October, Any change in the flood pattern could be damaging or fatal for the Egyptian farmers and their crops.
Very dry there was almost no rainfall, The people in Egypt got their water from the Nile's annual flood
Egypt is approximately 997,740 kilometers
It was the fertile land on the banks of the Nile.
This was the only area in Egypt that could be farmed.
There were rich layers of black silt here., The Nile left the silt there in its annual flood.
This land was the desert that was on either side of Egypt.
These deserts protected Egypt from neighboring countries
The land also provided the people with precious metals and some rare stones.