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Computer Programs and Programming Languages by Mind Map: Computer Programs and
Programming Languages
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Computer Programs and Programming Languages

Low‐Level Languages

• Machine languageis the first generation of programming languages

• Only language the computer directly recognizes

• Programmer writes instructions using symbolic instruction codes

• Assembly languageis the second generation of programming languages

• A source programcontains the code to be converted to machine language

Computer Programs and Programming Languages

computer program

A computer programis a series of instructions that directs a computer to perform tasks – Created by a programmerusing a programming language

Object‐Oriented Programming Languages and Program Development Tools

• An object‐oriented programming (OOP) languageallows programmers the ability to reuse and modify existing objects

• Other advantages include:

• Javais an object‐oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems

• The Just‐in‐time (JIT) compiler to convert the bytecodeinto machine‐dependent code

• The Microsoft .NETFramework allows almost any type of program to run on the Internet or an internal business network, as well as computers and mobile devices

• C++is an extension of the C programming language – Additional features for working with objects, classes, events, and other object‐oriented concepts

• C#is based on C++ and was developed by Microsoft

• PowerBuilderis a powerful program development RAD tool

• Best suited for Web‐based, .NET, and large‐scale enterprise object‐oriented applications

Procedural Languages

• In a procedural language, the programmer writes instructions that tell the computer what to accomplish and how to do it – Third‐generation language(3GL)

• COBOL(COmmonBusiness‐Oriented Language) is designed for business applications, but easy to read because of the English‐like statements

Program Development

Program developmentconsists of a series of steps programmers use to build computer programs

Step 1 –Analyze Requirements

Step 2 –Design Solution

Step 3 –Validate Design

Step 4 –Implement Design

Step 5 –Test Solution

Step 6 –Document Solution

Multimedia Program Development

• Multimedia authoring software allows programmers to combine text, graphics, animation, audio, and video in an interactive presentation

Other Programming Languages and Development Tools

• A 4GL(fourth‐generation language) is a nonprocedural languagethat enables users and programmers to access data in a database – One popular 4GL is SQL

• Classic programming languages include

• An application generatoris a program that creates source code or machine code from a specification of the required functionality – Often bundled as part of a DBMS

• A macrois a series of statements that instructs an application how to complete a task

• You usually create the macro in one of two ways: – Record the macro with a macro recorder – Write the macro

Web Page Development

• HTMLis a special formatting language that programmers use to format documents for display on the Web

• XHTMLis a markup language that allows Web sites to be displayed more easily on mobile devices

• XMLallows Web developers to create customized tags and use predefined tags to display content appropriately on various devices – WMLis a subset of XML and is used to design pages for microbrowsers

• Two applications of XML are RSS 2.0 and ATOM

• Web browsers can execute short programs to add interactive elements to Web pages

• To send and receive information between your computer and a Web server, these programs use the CGI (common gateway interface)

• Programmers write scripts, applets, servlets, or ActiveX controls using a variety of languages

• Web 2.0 allows Web sites to provide a means for users to

• Most Web 2.0 sites use APIs – An API enables programmers to interact with an environment such as a Web site or operating system

• Web page authoring softwarecan create sophisticated Web pages that include images, video, audio, animation, and other effects