Computer Programs and Programming Languages

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Computer Programs and Programming Languages by Mind Map: Computer Programs and Programming Languages

1. Low‐Level Languages

1.1. • Machine languageis the first generation of programming languages

1.2. • Only language the computer directly recognizes

1.3. • Programmer writes instructions using symbolic instruction codes

1.4. • Assembly languageis the second generation of programming languages

1.5. • A source programcontains the code to be converted to machine language

2. Computer Programs and Programming Languages

2.1. computer program

3. Object‐Oriented Programming Languages and Program Development Tools

3.1. • An object‐oriented programming (OOP) languageallows programmers the ability to reuse and modify existing objects

3.2. • Other advantages include:

3.3. • Javais an object‐oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems

3.4. • The Just‐in‐time (JIT) compiler to convert the bytecodeinto machine‐dependent code

3.5. • The Microsoft .NETFramework allows almost any type of program to run on the Internet or an internal business network, as well as computers and mobile devices

3.6. • C++is an extension of the C programming language – Additional features for working with objects, classes, events, and other object‐oriented concepts

3.7. • C#is based on C++ and was developed by Microsoft

3.8. • PowerBuilderis a powerful program development RAD tool

3.9. • Best suited for Web‐based, .NET, and large‐scale enterprise object‐oriented applications

4. Procedural Languages

4.1. • In a procedural language, the programmer writes instructions that tell the computer what to accomplish and how to do it – Third‐generation language(3GL)

4.2. • COBOL(COmmonBusiness‐Oriented Language) is designed for business applications, but easy to read because of the English‐like statements

5. Program Development

5.1. Program developmentconsists of a series of steps programmers use to build computer programs

5.1.1. Step 1 –Analyze Requirements

5.1.2. Step 2 –Design Solution

5.1.3. Step 3 –Validate Design

5.1.4. Step 4 –Implement Design

5.1.5. Step 5 –Test Solution

5.1.6. Step 6 –Document Solution

6. Multimedia Program Development

6.1. • Multimedia authoring software allows programmers to combine text, graphics, animation, audio, and video in an interactive presentation

7. Other Programming Languages and Development Tools

7.1. • A 4GL(fourth‐generation language) is a nonprocedural languagethat enables users and programmers to access data in a database – One popular 4GL is SQL

7.2. • Classic programming languages include

7.3. • An application generatoris a program that creates source code or machine code from a specification of the required functionality – Often bundled as part of a DBMS

7.4. • A macrois a series of statements that instructs an application how to complete a task

7.5. • You usually create the macro in one of two ways: – Record the macro with a macro recorder – Write the macro

8. Web Page Development

8.1. • HTMLis a special formatting language that programmers use to format documents for display on the Web

8.2. • XHTMLis a markup language that allows Web sites to be displayed more easily on mobile devices

8.3. • XMLallows Web developers to create customized tags and use predefined tags to display content appropriately on various devices – WMLis a subset of XML and is used to design pages for microbrowsers

8.4. • Two applications of XML are RSS 2.0 and ATOM

8.5. • Web browsers can execute short programs to add interactive elements to Web pages

8.6. • To send and receive information between your computer and a Web server, these programs use the CGI (common gateway interface)

8.7. • Programmers write scripts, applets, servlets, or ActiveX controls using a variety of languages

8.8. • Web 2.0 allows Web sites to provide a means for users to

8.9. • Most Web 2.0 sites use APIs – An API enables programmers to interact with an environment such as a Web site or operating system

8.10. • Web page authoring softwarecan create sophisticated Web pages that include images, video, audio, animation, and other effects