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Ethics by Mind Map: Ethics

1. Scope & Application

1.1. Ethics- the study of morality and morals

1.1.1. Morals: the way people should act / their beliefs how they should act

1.1.1.1. Morality: describing what one beliefs should be the proper behaviour

1.1.2. Four types of Ethics

1.1.2.1. Meta-Ethics

1.1.2.1.1. Questioning

1.1.2.2. Descriptive Ethics

1.1.2.2.1. comparative ethics, based on empirical experiments, looking into people's beliefs and morality

1.1.2.3. Normative Ethics

1.1.2.3.1. constructing framework for guidance as how to make the right decision, starting with the assumption: there is right or wrong

1.1.2.4. Applied Ethics

1.1.2.4.1. deals with the actual application of ethical principles to a particular situation

1.1.3. Medical Ethics

1.1.3.1. The code of behaviour doctors and other providers adhere to.

1.1.3.1.1. The doctor is bound by a code of medical ethics to help me improve my health and, above all else, do no harm."

1.1.4. Environmental ethics

1.1.4.1. The discipline in philosophy that studies the moral relationship of human beings to, and also the value and moral status of, the environment and its non-human contents.

1.1.5. Business ethics

1.1.5.1. can thus be understood as the study of the ethical dimensions of productive organizations and commercial activities.

1.1.5.1.1. includes ethical analyses of the production, distribution, marketing, sale, and consumption of goods and services

2. Language & Concepts (Katie)

2.1. Our way of comunitcaing the use of ethics

2.2. Depends on how we process language to determine the ethics

2.3. Different processes created different ethical beliefs

2.4. Metaphors

2.4.1. Repetition is the key to learning

2.4.2. Invented structure for conserving and communicating order

2.4.2.1. Learned like language by mimicking and remembering

2.4.3. Stop light

2.4.3.1. Red= Do not Proceed, decision not acepted by the majority of society

2.4.3.2. Yellow = proceed with caution, making restraints from making these decisions

2.4.3.3. Green = proceed, decisions that are acceptable to society

2.4.4. Moon

2.4.4.1. represents goals and ambitions

2.4.4.1.1. In the beginning our goals seem unattainable, representation of what we must work to have

2.5. Theories

2.5.1. Consequentialist Theories (CONSEQUENCES)

2.5.1.1. The Utilitarian Approach: utility, pleasure, happiness, feeling

2.5.1.2. The Egoistic Approach: self-interest, self-respect, respect, feeling

2.5.1.3. The Common Good Approach: general will, respect, compassion, feeling

2.5.2. Non-Consequentionalist Theories (INTENTION, ACTION)

2.5.2.1. The Duty- Based Approach: personal will, intention, obligation of ethical action, reason, categorical imperative ⇒ universal moral law?

2.5.2.2. The Rights Approach: right to dignity → action

2.5.2.3. The Justice/Fairness Approach: free, rational, equal → fair action

2.5.2.4. The Divine Command Approach: God’s will, omnipotence, free will, teleological suspension of the ethical

2.5.3. Agent-Centred Theories

2.5.3.1. The Virtue Approach: consistency, human virtues, role models

2.5.3.2. The Feminist Approach: principle of care

2.5.4. Theories of Morality

2.5.4.1. Moral Subjectivism

2.5.4.2. Cultural Relativism

2.5.4.3. Ethical Egoism

2.5.4.4. Divine Command Theory

2.5.4.5. Virtue Ethics

2.5.4.6. Feminist Ethics

2.5.4.7. Utilitarianism

2.5.4.8. Kantian Theory

2.5.4.9. Rights-based Theories

2.5.4.10. Contractarianism

2.6. What are moral values?

2.6.1. principles and ideals that guide us how to live / make ethical decision

2.6.1.1. difference between beliefs and values

2.6.1.1.1. Beliefs are more seen as DOCTRINES (authority/evidence), STATEMENTS (authority/evidence) or EXPERIENCES (proof/evidence)

2.7. When making a judgement on action

2.7.1. obligatory action

2.7.2. impermissible action

2.7.3. permissible action

2.7.4. supererogatory action

2.8. A moral theory, then, explains why a certain action is wrong -- or why we ought to act in certain ways

3. Methodology (Anna)

3.1. Knowledge production in ethics is not straightforward

3.1.1. Experimental approach (using HS methods)

3.1.2. Experimental approach (using NS methods)

3.1.3. Theoretical approach

3.2. Morality and the way different philosophers work explains why they have different theories

3.3. Facts in ethics

3.3.1. People can stretch the definition to more than empirical facts - needs to be careful with the use of language

3.3.1.1. Accepted principles: principle of - Human dignity - Beneficence - Respect for autonomy - Justice

3.3.1.2. Empirical Facts (used in experimental ethics): collected empirical data - Neuroscientists - Psychologists

3.3.1.3. Normative statements: Kindness is a virtue - animal farming is wrong

3.4. Theories + Predictions

3.4.1. Present different options of what we should/could do

3.4.2. Explain princaples of an un/ethical action

3.4.3. Help us make decisions in the future

4. Historical Development (Juval)

4.1. Religious teaching & ethics

4.1.1. Big impact on development of ethics and ideas

4.1.2. Many philosophers were theists and religions have their own philosophies

4.1.2.1. Bhudism:

4.1.2.1.1. Suffering is an inescapable part of life

4.1.2.1.2. Suffering stems from greed, ignorance and hatred from our minds

4.1.2.1.3. This can be ended by stopping our craving and achieving Nirvana

4.1.2.1.4. Happiness, virtue and Nirvana can be achieved through the right actions and thought processes

4.2. How to live a good life

4.2.1. Aristotle believed we should live virtuously

4.2.1.1. We should find a balance between different behaviours - the balance is the "golden mean"

4.2.1.1.1. Courage = cowardice vs recklessness

4.2.1.1.2. Generosity = Stinginess vs proficacy

4.3. Relitavism: The belief that moral truths depend on moral beliefs of various groups or individuals

4.3.1. This idea became widespread during the 20th Century

4.3.2. This idea kept being critiqued and refined throughout time

4.3.2.1. Eg. By Richard Brandt and John Ladd

4.3.2.2. As society and its needs change, theories are often explored and modified

4.3.2.2.1. As societies progress, new problems arise from emerging technologies and knowledge, as well as the acceptance/rejection of new/old ideas

4.4. Modern philosophical debate

4.4.1. Technology and data handling

4.4.1.1. Is the way our data is treated and handled the right way?

4.4.1.2. How has the way we share PK changed?

4.4.1.3. Does/should our language change when we speak offline vs online?

4.4.1.4. Can a computer be a person?

4.4.1.5. Should a programmer create emergency protocols that prioritise one life over another?

5. Personal Knowledge (Hamza)

5.1. Subjectivity

5.1.1. Based on personal feelings

5.2. Objectivity

5.2.1. Not influenced by personal feelings

5.3. Religious Ethics

5.3.1. People can make decisions based on their religious guidelines

5.3.1.1. Cults can remove people's initial moral guidelines and create different ones, which seem right to the cult's followers.

5.4. Moral Reasoning

5.4.1. Using a person's personal morals to influence decisions

5.4.1.1. Impacted by a variety of factors

5.4.1.1.1. Culture/Society

5.4.1.1.2. Religion

5.4.1.1.3. Past Experiences