Krashen's Five Hypotheses

Krashen's Five Hypotheses

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Krashen's Five Hypotheses by Mind Map: Krashen's Five Hypotheses

1. Acquisition/Learning Hypothesis

1.1. Acquisition and Learning are different

1.1.1. Acquisition of a second language occurs naturally, when meaning interactions are had with native speakers of the subject language Only way to allow fluent communication in second language

1.1.2. Learning is more formal, consciously studying a language and the different grammatical rules of the language in a foreign language classroom Cannot turn into acquisition by studying, interaction is needed

2. Monitor Hypothesis

2.1. Grammar monitor is acquired through the formal studying of a foreign language

2.1.1. Monitor ensures correct use of words

2.1.2. 3 things necessary for monitor Sufficient time Focus on grammatical form Explicit knowledge of the rules

2.1.3. Monitor is more efficient when used for writing rather than speaking

3. Natural Order Hypothesis

3.1. Proposes that language learners acquire the rules of a language in a specific sequence

3.1.1. Morphemes acquired early on

3.1.2. Other rules acquired later on

3.2. Studies support a natural order of acquisition for English language learners, both native and those learning second language

4. Input Hypothesis

4.1. Second language is acquired through learners' understanding of the target language in natural social communication

4.1.1. Comprehensible input is a causative variable

4.2. 3 Constraints for Krashen's definition of input

4.2.1. 1. Must be understandable (comprehensible input)

4.2.2. 2. Must contain grammar a level above acquirer to challenge them

4.2.3. Must be natural flowing language with authentic, purposeful communication

5. Affective Filter Hypothesis

5.1. Considers how social and emotional variables affect second language acquistion

5.1.1. Most important learning factors 1. Low anxiety learning environment 2. Student motivation 3. Self-confidence 4. Self-esteem