Plants By: Julie

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Plants By: Julie by Mind Map: Plants By: Julie

1. Have flagellated spores

2. Embryophytes

2.1. Nonvascular plants

2.1.1. Hepatophyta (liverworts)

2.1.2. Bryophyte (true mosses)

2.1.3. Anthocerophyta (hornworts)

2.2. Land plants

2.2.1. Evolved from green algae

2.2.2. Movement to land (benefits)

2.2.2.1. Unfiltered sun

2.2.2.2. More carbon dioxide

2.2.2.3. Nutrient-rich soil

2.2.3. Diploid embryo is retained within the tissue of the female gametophyte

2.2.4. Plant sustain continual growth in their apical meristems

2.2.4.1. Cells from the apical meristems differentiate into various tissues

2.2.5. Apical meristems

2.2.5.1. Roots

2.2.5.2. Shoots

2.2.5.3. More derived traits

2.2.5.3.1. Cuticle

2.2.5.3.2. Stomata

2.3. Called embryophytes because of the dependency of the embryo on the parent

2.4. Multicellular, dependent embryos

2.4.1. Nutrients are transferred from parent to embryo through placental transfer cells

2.5. Walled spores produced in sporangia

2.5.1. The sporophytes produces spores in sporangia organs

2.5.1.1. Spore walls contain sporopollenin, which makes them resistant to harsh environments

2.6. Multicellular gametangia

2.6.1. Female

2.6.1.1. Called archegonia

2.6.1.2. Produce eggs and are the site of fertilization

2.6.2. Male

2.6.2.1. Called antheridia

2.6.2.2. Produce and release sperm

3. Seedless Vascular plants

3.1. Lycophyta: vascular plants, have unique leaves called microphylls. Microphylls are leaves that only have one vein running down the leaf.

3.1.1. Clubmosses

3.1.1.1. Most commonly found growing in tree trunks in rainforest

3.1.1.1.1. Usually in South America

3.1.1.1.2. Can be found in Arctic regions as well

3.1.1.2. Sexually reproduce by spores

3.1.1.2.1. Only one type of spore

3.1.1.3. Sporophyte consists of true roots, aerial stem, and microphylls.

3.1.2. Spike mosses

3.1.2.1. Most diverse group of Lycophytes

3.1.2.1.1. Found mainly in tropics

3.1.2.2. Sexually reproduce by spores

3.1.2.2.1. Two types of spores.

3.1.2.2.2. Scalelike leaves, either spirally, training, climbing, or erect stems and branches.

3.1.3. Quillworts

3.1.3.1. Rely heavily on water

3.1.3.1.1. Live in seasonally flooded habitats

3.1.3.2. Small hears with long narrow leaves, between 5-20 cm long.

3.1.3.2.1. Stems are swollen and grow underground

3.1.3.3. Sexually reproduce by spores

3.2. Monilophyta

3.2.1. Ferns

3.2.1.1. Nonflowering vascular plants

3.2.1.2. Grow on other plants as epiphytes and on forest floor.

3.2.1.3. Have true roots, stems, and complex leaves

3.2.1.4. Reproduced by spores

3.2.2. Horsetails

3.2.2.1. Some are evergreen, some grow new stalks annually.

3.2.2.2. Conelike clusters, strobili

3.2.3. They have hollow jointed, ridged stems that contain silicate.

3.2.4. Wiskferns

3.2.4.1. Range from plants of 1-1.2 cm to huge 30-80 feet trees.

3.2.4.1.1. Some are twining, while others are vinelike of even float on water.

3.2.4.1.2. Best in damp conditions

3.2.4.2. Vascular plants

3.2.4.2.1. Whisklike green stems and scale like appendages called enations.

3.2.4.2.2. Mostly grow as epiphytes

3.2.4.3. Reproduce asexually by spores called sporophytes.

3.2.4.4. Photosynthesis occurs in aerial stems

3.2.4.5. Water and mineral absorption occurs in the horizontal underground rootlike stems called Rhizomes.

4. Seed/vascular plants

4.1. Gymnosperms

4.1.1. Can produce both sex organs on the same gametophyte

4.1.2. Seeds do not form in an enclosed structure

4.1.2.1. Cycadophyta

4.1.2.1.1. Flagellated sperm

4.1.2.1.2. Large cones and palmlike leaves

4.1.2.2. Ginkophyta

4.1.2.2.1. Tolerance to air pollution

4.1.2.2.2. Only one living species today

4.1.2.2.3. Leaves have fanlike appearance

4.1.2.3. Gnetophyta

4.1.2.3.1. Vary in appearence

4.1.2.3.2. Some are tropical and others live in deserts

4.1.2.4. Coniferophyta

4.1.2.4.1. Most conifers are evergreen

4.1.2.4.2. Photosynthesis all year

4.1.2.4.3. All species produce cones

4.2. Angiosperms (Anthophyta)

4.2.1. Bennettitales

4.2.1.1. Extinct seed plants

4.2.1.2. Flowerlike structures

4.2.2. Basal Angiosperms

4.2.2.1. Amborella

4.2.2.2. Water lilies

4.2.2.2.1. (Nymphaea“Rene Gerard”)

4.2.2.3. Star Anise

4.2.2.3.1. Illicium

4.2.2.4. Magnoliids

4.2.2.4.1. Magnolia grandiflora

4.2.3. Monocots

4.2.3.1. Embryos with one cotyledon

4.2.3.2. Leaf veins are usually parallel

4.2.3.3. Vascular tissue stems are scattered

4.2.3.4. Root system usually fibrous (no main root)

4.2.3.5. Pollen grain with one opening

4.2.3.6. Floral organs usually in multiples of three

4.2.3.7. Lemboglossum rossii

4.2.4. Eudicots ("true" dicots)

4.2.4.1. Embryos with two cotyledons

4.2.4.2. Leaf veins are usually netlike

4.2.4.3. Vascular tissue stems are usually arranged in ring

4.2.4.4. Taproot (main root) usually present

4.2.4.5. Rosacanina

4.2.4.5.1. Floral organs usually in multiples of four or five

4.2.5. Reproductive structures

4.2.5.1. Fruits

4.2.5.1.1. Protect seeds

4.2.5.1.2. Aid in their dispersal

4.2.5.1.3. Mature fruits can be

4.2.5.2. Flowers

4.2.5.2.1. Sexual reproduction

4.2.5.2.2. Floral organs

4.2.5.2.3. Complete flowers

4.2.5.2.4. Incomplete flowers

4.2.5.2.5. Symmetry

4.2.6. Pollen grain with three openings

4.2.7. Survive better than unprotected spores, can be transported long distances

4.3. Five Derived Traits

4.3.1. Reduced gametophytes

4.3.1.1. Microscopic male and female gametophytes(n) are nourished and protected by the sporophyte (2n)

4.3.2. Heterospory

4.3.2.1. Microspore

4.3.2.2. Megaspore

4.3.3. Ovules

4.3.3.1. Gymnosperm

4.3.4. Pollen

4.3.4.1. Grains make water unnecessary for fertilization

4.3.5. Seeds