BIOLOGY FORM 4

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BIOLOGY FORM 4 by Mind Map: BIOLOGY FORM 4

1. design and carry out a simple experiment to test the hypothesis

2. An animal cell

3. INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY

3.1. PROFORMA : 1.0 INVITATION TO BIOLOGY

3.2. UNDERSTANDING THE STUDY OF BIOLOGY

3.2.1. Carry out small group discussion and present the findings

3.2.2. Construct a concept map based on the information gathered on different fields of study and careers related to Biology

3.2.3. Small group discussion on the importance of acquiring scientific skills, scientific method, practising scientific attitudes and noble values

3.3. LEARNING OUTCOME : Student is able to:

3.3.1. state what the study of Biology is

3.3.2. explain the importance of Biology

3.3.3. list the different fields of study in Biology

3.3.4. list the careers related to Biology

3.3.5. state various ways of studying Biology

3.4. Applying scientific investigation

3.4.1. Observe the situation and identify all the variables. Suggest a question that is suitable for a scientific investigation. Discuss to form a hypothesis,and plan a method of investigation

3.4.2. Carry out an experiment

3.4.2.1. to collect and tabulate data

3.4.2.2. present data in suitable form

3.4.2.3. interpret the data and draw conclusion

3.4.2.4. write a complete report

3.4.3. Carry out an experiment on the making of bread using yeast in the absence and presence of sugar. Record the time taken for the dough to double its size. For further investigation,salt is used

3.4.4. During investigation, highlight the need to practice scientific attitudes and noble values such as honesty and accuracy in recording and verifying data.

3.5. identify the relationship between two variables to form a hypothesis

3.6. LEARNING OUTCOMES : A student is able to:

3.6.1. identify variables in a given situation

3.6.2. interpret data to draw conclusion

3.6.3. record and present data in a suitable form

3.6.4. write a report on an experiment

3.6.5. practice scientific attitudes and noble values

4. CELL STRUCTURE AND CELL ORGANIZATION

4.1. PROFORMA : 2.0 LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION & 6.0 CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

4.1.1. Understanding cell structure and function

4.1.1.1. Prepare and study slides to compare the epidermal cells of onion or cells of Hydrilla leaf with human cheek cells. observe, draw and label diagrams of an animal cell and plant cell as seen through light microscope.

4.1.1.2. Study electron micrographs of animal cell and plant cell to identify cellular components of cell.

4.1.1.2.1. Plasma membrane and cell wall

4.1.1.2.2. cytoplasm

4.1.1.2.3. organelles

4.1.1.3. Work in small group to match cellular components to their functions.

4.1.1.4. Discuss the relationship between the density of certain organelles with the function of specific cells.

4.1.1.4.1. Mitochondria with a function of sperm cells, flight muscle cell in insects and birds, cells in meristems.

4.1.1.4.2. Chloroplasts with the function of palisade cells.

4.1.2. Students present a comparison between the structure of an animal cell and a plant cell.

4.1.3. LEARNING OUTCOME; A student is able to:

4.1.3.1. Draw and label :

4.1.3.1.1. A plant cell

4.1.3.2. Identify the cellular components of

4.1.3.2.1. An animal cell

4.1.3.2.2. A plant cell

4.1.3.3. State the function of cellular components in

4.1.3.3.1. An animal cell

4.1.3.3.2. A plant cell

4.1.3.4. Compare and contrast an animal cell and a plant cell.

4.1.3.5. Relate the density of certain organelles with the functions of specific cell.

4.1.4. Understanding cell organization

4.1.4.1. Observe the living processes of unicellular organisms.

4.1.4.2. Carry out small group discussion and present the following:

4.1.4.2.1. cell specialisation in multicellular organisms.

4.1.4.2.2. The necessity for cell specialisation in multicellular organisms.

4.1.4.2.3. Cell organisation in the formation of tissues, organs, and systems in humans, plants and animals.

4.1.4.3. Construct models of tissues, organs and systems in human, animals and plants.

4.1.4.4. Conduct a disscussion on

4.1.4.4.1. the meaning of internal environment

4.1.4.4.2. factors affecting the internal environment including temperature, pH, osmotic pressure and glucose level.

4.1.4.4.3. it is important that the organism's cell always experience condition which permit efficient functioning, the involvement of various system in maintaining optimum internal environment.

4.1.5. LEARNING OUTCOME: A student is able to:

4.1.5.1. state the necessity for cell specialisation in multicellular organism as compared to unicellular organism.

4.1.5.2. Describe cell specialisation in multicellular organism.

4.1.5.3. Describe cell organiisation in the formation of tissues, organs and system in multicellular organism.

4.1.5.4. State the meaning of internal environment.

4.1.5.5. Explain the necessity to maintain optimum internal environment.

4.1.5.6. Describe the involvement of various systems in maintaining optimal internal environment.

5. MOVEMENT OF SUBSTANCE ACROSS PLASMA MEMBRANE

5.1. PROFORMA : 5.0 EUKARYOTIC CELLS

5.1.1. Analysing the movement of substances across the plasma membrane

5.1.1.1. Discuss the following :

5.1.1.1.1. Substances that are required by cells

5.1.1.1.2. Substances to be eliminated from the cells

5.1.1.1.3. The necessity for movements of substances across the plasma membrane

5.1.1.2. Discuss the structure of plasma membrane

5.1.1.3. Conduct an experiment using starch suspension and glucose solution to study the movement of substances across Visking tube.

5.1.1.4. Discuss the properties of the plasma membrane as a semi permeable membrane

5.1.1.5. Discuss the movement of soluble substances across the plasma membrane through simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion and active transport

5.1.1.6. Carry out an activity to show osmosis using a simple osmometer

5.1.1.7. Conduct a simulation activity to show the movement of substances across the plasma membrane via passive transport and active transport

5.1.1.8. Discuss the processes of passive transport and active transport in living organisms

5.1.1.8.1. Gaseous exchange in the alveoli and blood capillaries

5.1.1.8.2. Absorption of digested food in villus

5.1.1.8.3. Absorption of water by root hairs of a plant

5.1.1.8.4. Ion intake by root hairs of a plant

5.1.1.9. Construct a concept map on a movement of substances across th eplasma membrane

5.1.2. Understanding the movement of substances across the plasma membrane in everyday life

5.1.2.1. Carry out activities to study the effects of hypotonic and hypertonic solution on animal and plant cells

5.1.2.1.1. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in plant cells

5.1.2.1.2. Haemolysis and crenation in rbc

5.1.2.2. Discuss the following:

5.1.2.2.1. Hypotonic,hypertonic and isotonic solution

5.1.2.2.2. Plasmolysis ,deplasmolysis ,haemolysis and crenation

5.1.2.2.3. Flaccidity and turgidity of plant cells

5.1.2.3. Carry out an investigation using various concentration of salt or sugar solutions to determine the concentration of external solution which is isotonic to the cell sap of plant tissues

5.1.3. LEARNING OUTCOME : A student is able to:

5.1.3.1. State the substances required by living cells

5.1.3.2. State the substances that have to be eliminated from the cells

5.1.3.3. Explain the necessity for movement of substances across the plasma membrane

5.1.3.4. Describe the structure of the plasma membrane

5.1.3.5. Describe the permeability of plasma membrane

5.1.3.6. Explain the movement of substances across the plasma membrane by osmosis and the process of passive transport and active transport.

5.1.3.7. Explain the process of passive transport and active transport in living organisms using examples.

5.1.3.8. Compare and contrast passive transport and active transport

5.1.4. LEARNING OUTCOME : A student is able to:

5.1.4.1. Explain what is hypotonic, hypertonic and isotonic solutions are

5.1.4.2. Explain the effects of hypotonic, hypertonic and isotonic solutions on animal cells and plant cells

5.1.4.3. Explain plasmolysis, deplasmolysis, haemolysis, and crenation

5.1.4.4. Design an experiment to determine the concentration of external solution which is isotonic to cell sap

5.1.5. Appreciating the movements of substances across the plasma membrane

5.1.5.1. Student is able to explain the necessity of movement of substances across th eplasma membrane

6. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF CELL

6.1. PROFORMA :3.0 CHEMICAL BASIS & 4.0 MOLECULES OF LIFE

6.1.1. Understanding the chemical composition of the cell

6.1.1.1. Carry out small group discussion on the following and present the findings :

6.1.1.1.1. Elements in the cell including macromolecules and micromolecules.

6.1.1.1.2. The presences and importance of chemical compounds in the cell.

6.1.2. LEARNING OUTCOME: A student is able to:

6.1.2.1. State the elements of the cell

6.1.2.2. List the chemical compounds in the cell

6.1.2.3. Explain the importance of organic compounds in the cell

6.1.2.4. Explain the importance of organic compounds in the cell

6.1.2.5. Explain the importance of water in the cell

6.1.3. Understanding carbohydrates

6.1.3.1. Carry out small group discussion on the following and present the finding

6.1.3.1.1. element in carbohydrates

6.1.3.1.2. types of carbohydrates

6.1.3.1.3. the formation and breakdown of disaccharides and polysaccharide

6.1.3.2. conduct an activity to differenciate between reducing and non reducing sugar

6.1.4. Understanding proteins

6.1.4.1. Carry out small group discussion on the following and present the finding

6.1.4.1.1. Elements in protein

6.1.4.1.2. Dipeptides and polypeptides

6.1.4.1.3. Formation and breakdown of dipeptides and polypeptides

6.1.4.1.4. Essential amino acids and non essential amino acids

6.1.5. LEARNING OUTCOME: A student will be able to

6.1.5.1. State the elements in protein

6.1.5.2. State the various structure of protein

6.1.5.3. Explain the formation and breakdown of dipeptide and polypeptide

6.1.5.4. Explain the meaning of essential amino acids and non essential amino acids

6.1.5.5. LEARNING OUTCOME: A student will be able to:

6.1.5.5.1. State the elements in carbohydrates

6.1.5.5.2. State the type of carbohydrates

6.1.5.5.3. Explain the formation and breakdown of disaccharide and polysaccharide

6.1.6. Understanding lipids

6.1.6.1. List the main types of lipids

6.1.6.1.1. Fat

6.1.6.1.2. Oil

6.1.6.1.3. Wax

6.1.6.1.4. Phospholipids

6.1.6.1.5. Steroids

6.1.6.2. Carry out small group discussion and present the findings

6.1.6.2.1. Elements in lipids

6.1.6.2.2. Component of fats and oils

6.1.6.2.3. Formation and breakdown of oils and fats

6.1.7. LERARNING OUTCOME: A student be able to

6.1.7.1. State the elements of lipids

6.1.7.2. State main tyoe of lipids

6.1.7.3. State the component of fats and oils

6.1.7.4. Explain formation and breakdown of fats and oils

6.1.7.5. Compare and contrast saturated and non saturated fats

7. RESPIRATION

7.1. PROFORMA: 8.0 CHEMICAL ENERGY

7.1.1. Understanding the respiratory process in energy production

7.1.1.1. Discuss the following

7.1.1.1.1. Living processes require energy

7.1.1.1.2. The main substrate for respiration: Glucose is obtained from the following

7.1.1.2. Carry out a discussion on the type of respiration

7.1.1.3. Carry out an activity to show aerobic respiration

7.1.1.4. Discuss the energy production in aerobic respiration

7.1.1.5. Conduct an experiment to investigate anaerobic respiration in yeast

7.1.1.6. Discuss the following :

7.1.1.6.1. Condition leading to anaerobic respiration in cells

7.1.1.6.2. The process of anaerobic respiration in human muscles

7.1.2. LEARNING OUTCOMES: A student is able to :

7.1.2.1. State all living processes require energy

7.1.2.2. Identify the main substrate for energy making

7.1.2.3. State the two type of respiration

7.1.2.4. Explain what cell respiration is

7.1.2.5. Explain the energy production from glucose during the process of aerobic respiration.

7.1.2.6. State the condition leading to anaerobic respiration

7.1.2.7. Explain the process of anaerobic respiration in yeast

7.1.2.8. Explain the process of anaerobic respiration in human muscles

7.1.2.9. Write the chemical equation for the aerobic and anaerobic respiration

7.1.2.10. Compare and contrast aerobic respiration with anaerobic respiration.