Sidney Louisiana, BIOL 2041-23

Get Started. It's Free
or sign up with your email address


1.1. Blood Brain Barrier

1.1.1. Blood vessels

1.1.2. Capillary

1.1.3. Simple squamous epithelium

1.1.4. Endothelium

1.1.5. Abundant tight junctions

1.1.6. Separation of: Circulating blood Brain extra cellular fluid CSF in the CNS

1.1.7. Occurs along all capillaries Consists of tight junctions Around capillaries

1.1.8. Significance: Keeps harmful substances out of brain Bacteria Viruses Toxins

1.2. Cerebellum

1.2.1. Behind brainstem

1.2.2. Smooths body movement

1.2.3. Coordinates body movements

1.2.4. Maintains posture and equilibrium

1.2.5. Recieves: Propriocepture signals Mechano receptor signals

1.3. Cerebrum

1.3.1. Commissural tracts Allow right and left hemispheres to communicate

1.3.2. Association tracts Single side of hemisphere communication

1.3.3. Projection tracts Longest Ascending and descending tracts Ascending - sensory Descending - motor Connects: Cerebral cortex to thalamus Brain stem to spinal cord And beyond

1.3.4. Frontal (lobe) Voluntary movement Prefrontal cortex Outer layer Processing Planning Decision making Task management Memory Problem solving

1.3.5. Parietal (lobe) Sensory stimuli

1.3.6. Temporal (lobe) Auditory and olfactory cortex Receives information Recognizes objects Written words Faces Emotional responces Memory Limbic system Emotions

1.3.7. Occipital (lobe) Visual cortex Sight

1.3.8. Insula Deep Within lateral sulcus Gustatory cortex Taste General visceral sensations Are processed

1.4. Precentral Gyrus

1.4.1. Anterior to central sulcus

1.4.2. Primary motor cortex Where movement is initiated

1.4.3. Motor signal Messages sent out

1.5. Postcentral Gyrus

1.5.1. Posterior to central sulcus

1.5.2. Primary somatosensory cortex Messages come here

1.5.3. Things that are felt in general senses All those receptors Proprioceptors Strech

1.5.4. Sensory signals Messages come here

1.6. Diencephalon

1.6.1. Has three parts: Thalamus Relay station Several nuclei Information traveling to cerebral cortex Amplifies (turns up) Dampen (turns down) Hypothalamus Just below thalamus Control/ Regulation of: Involved with: Epithalamus Pineal gland


2.1. Midbrain

2.1.1. Involved with: Fight responce Flight responce Freeze response

2.1.2. Cerebral prednucles Connects: Midbrain to cerebral cortex Motor signals: From cerebrum to midbrain Corpora quadrigemina Made up of two things

2.2. Pons

2.2.1. Pyramidal tracts Motor tracts Runs through entire spinal cord

2.3. Reticular Formation Nuclei

2.3.1. Found in brain stem

2.3.2. Involved in: Controlling autonomic behavior

2.4. Medulla Oblongata

2.4.1. Collection of gray matter Reticular formation

2.4.2. Controls vital functions Regulated by: Autonomic nervous system

2.4.3. Cardio center Heart rate Strength of heart beat

2.4.4. Vascular center Dilation/ constriction of: Blood vessels

2.4.5. Respiration center Respiratory rate

2.4.6. Pyramids Motor tracts Run through entire spinal cord

2.5. Anterior Roots

2.5.1. Contains: Viseral motor neuron cell bodies Somatic motor neuron cell bodies

2.5.2. The axons from the neurons Extend out from the root

2.5.3. All signals are output

2.6. Posterior Roots

2.6.1. Unipolar

2.7. Posterior Root Ganglion

2.7.1. In buldge With posterior root

2.8. Ascending Tracts

2.8.1. Sensory signals Going towards the brain

2.9. Descending Tracts

2.9.1. Major motor tracts