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Emulsifier by Mind Map: Emulsifier
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Functions on application



Texture modification

Emulsion stabilization

Solid fluidization

Crystal modification

Palatability improvement





Aeration or foaming


Definition:A dispersed two-phase system i.e. an intimate mixture of two liquids that are immiscible under normal conditions,whereby one phase is dispersed in the other in the form of fine droplets

Two types of simple emulsion

The stability of an emulsion depends on:

Properties of some common food emulsifier

Mono & Di-glycerides

Sucrose Esters

Sorbitan Esters


Polysorbate 60

Polysorbate 80

Polysorbate 65

Stearoyl Lactylates

Lechitin & Derivatives

Definition: Substances which reduce the interfacial tension of two normally immiscible phases, allowing them to mix and form an emulsion

Called surface active agent or surfactant

How does emulsifier work?

Emulsifier reduce interfacial tension between the two immiscible phases due to their molecular structure

They have both polar group with an affinity for water (hydrophilic) and a non polar group with an affinity for oil(lipophilic)

The presence of both regions on the emulsifier molecule allows them to orient themselves at the phase interface & lower the interfacial energy that leads to instability

Emulsifier stabilise emulsions by means of monomolecular interfacial films & also by formation of steric and electrical barriers that prevent coalescence of the dispersed droplets

Type of emulsifiers






To promote emulsion stability,stabilized aerated systems and control agglomeration of fat globules

To modify texture,shelf life and rheological properties by complexing with starch and protein components

To improve the texture of fat-based foods by controlling the polymorphism of fats


Breads,Rolls & Buns


Confectionery Products & Coatings

Frozen Dairy Products- Ice Cream

Noodle & Pasta

How to select an emulsifier?

Consult Malaysian Food Act & Regulations-use only approved emulsifier

Select an emulsifier after considering the functional requirements of the food system,the method of processing and the form of the finished product

Consult the supplier for approximate usage levels and methods of incorporating the emulsifier into the food

Determination the HLB requirements for the food system-involves screening emulsifier over a range of HLB values & several concentrations to determine approximate requirement-then verify through experimentation

Evaluate different combinations of two or more emulsifier to determine which gives the most stable emulsion

Optimize the usage level of the emulsifier.If the level is too low,the emulsifier may not perform the function;if too high,it may destroy the product.For example,polysorbate 80 acts as an aerating agent at 0.03-0.1%; however at 0.005%,it acts as a defoamer

Consult the supplier for approximate usage levels and methods of incorporating the emulsifier into the food