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I/O-Psychology by Mind Map: I/O-Psychology

1. Job Analysis

1.1. components

1.1.1. Job description

1.1.2. Job specification

1.1.3. Job evaluation

1.1.4. Performance criteria

1.2. Methods (often combined)

1.2.1. Observation

1.2.2. Use of existing data

1.2.3. Interviews

1.2.4. Surveys

1.2.5. Job diaries

1.3. Sources of error

1.3.1. Carelessness/Poor Job analyst training

1.3.2. Over- or underestimating the importance of certain tasks and jobs

1.3.3. Information overload due to the complexity of some jobs

1.4. Techniques

1.4.1. Job element method focuses on the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) required to perform a particular job Relies on subject matter experts (SMEs) who rate or rank the importance of different elements for performing the job

1.4.2. Critical incidents technique Records specific employee behaviors determine the particular KSAOs needed to perform a job successfully

1.4.3. Position analysis questionaire survey that analyzes with 187 elements arranged into six categories • Information input • Mental processes • Work output • Relationships with other persons • Job context • Other job characteristics) more cost effective and easier to use than other methods

1.4.4. Functional job analysis analyzes jobs by studying tasks task elements - basis of job relationships Method to classify jobs in terms of employees' interaction with data, people, things

1.5. Facts

1.5.1. E.g., Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) 1990: anti-discrimination laws

1.5.2. Job evaluation: assessment of relative value of a job for determining appropriate compensation, examination of jobs on dimensions called -compensable factors-(e.g., physical demands of a job, amount of training, working conditions, responsibility) job score or weighting on each factor; summed total = amount of compensation (salary)

1.5.3. Comparable worth: jobs that require equivalent KSAOs should be compensated equally (valid/fair job evaluations)

1.5.4. gender pay gap: women 75% to what men make, reasons: access to higher-paying jobs, comparable worth (male manager gets higher payment than female manager); "glass ceiling"/"labyrinth": limitations preventing woman+ethnic minorities from advancing into top positions (biases and stereotypes)

2. Methods for employee selection

2.1. Selection process

2.1.1. 1. Employee recruitment

2.1.2. 2. Employee screening reviewing info about job applicants to select for jobs Data sources: CVs, application letters, letters of recommendation. employment tests, interviews References/letters of rec - evaluations of applicant's character, performance, recommender's willingness to re-hire the applicant Employee testing standardized instruments to measure characteristics predictive of job performance screening test/method must demonstrate reliability and validity of predictor of job performance Screening/testing methods Biodata Cognitive ability tests (MOST CONSISTENT PERFORMANCE PREDICTOR) mechanical, motor, sensory ability tests job skills, knowledge tests Personality tests Honesty/Integrity tests (counterproductive behaviour) Good personnel testing methods show: Test-retest reliability Parallel forms Internal consistency content, construct and criterion-related validity Effectiveness of screening tests Test batteries: combine standardized tests to help select best qualified candidates Validity generalization: predict job performance in settings different from test setting Test utility: financial estimate of tests (productivity, efficiency) "Faking" - trying to beat an employment test Accessment Center Performance-based evaluations Use the test battery Hiring Interview supply info that cannot be obtained otherwise typically low reliability and validity; too quick evaluation, contrast effects, unstructured interviews and poor questions

2.1.3. 3. Employee selection and placement

2.2. Evaluation of written materials

2.2.1. Biographical info (education, work experience, accomplishments)

2.2.2. Work experience - quantity and quality to be considered

2.2.3. Written materials create lasting first impressions, impact later evaluations

2.3. Weighted application forms

2.3.1. assign different weights to each aspect, based on organizational research which biographical details relate to job success criteria (e.g. education vs work experience)

3. Work Motivation

3.1. Definition

3.1.1. Energizes people to act, directs behavioir towards attainments, sustains effort

3.2. Basic need theories

3.2.1. 5 categories by Maslow: physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, self-actualization/self-fulfillment needs

3.2.2. Alderfer's ERG Theory: 3 needs - existence, relatedness, growth

3.3. Motivation theories

3.3.1. McClelland's achievement motivation theory: Thematic apperception test (TAT) uses pictures to access psychological motivation: need for achievement, need for power, need for affiliation

3.3.2. Reinforcement theory: behaviour motivated by consequences Positive or negative reinforcers (increase motivation to repeat behaviour) Punishment (poor managerial stategy)

3.3.3. Extrinsic vs intrinsic motivation

3.3.4. Self-determination theory focus on conditions/processes that lead to self-motivation, humand' three basic needs: competence, autonomy, relatedness

3.3.5. Goal-setting theory emphasizes performance goals and worker's commitment to those goals

3.4. Achievement motivation

3.4.1. direction of competence-based affect, cognition, behaviour

3.4.2. approach: approaching a positive outcome (success) avoidance: avoiding a negative outcome (failure)

3.4.3. 2 types of achievement goals: Performance goals (negative, no or positive consequences), Mastery goals (promote positive outcomes, adaptove processes) Mastery Approach, Mastery Avoidance, Performance Approach, Performance Avoidance

3.5. Job design theories of motivation

3.5.1. Herzberg's two-factor theory Job Satisfaction Increase by improving motivator factors Job Dissatisfaction Decrease by improving hygiene factors

3.5.2. Job characteristics model Task itself is key to employee motivation 5 characteristics: Skill variety, Tak identity, Task significance, Autonomy, Feedback from job = MPS (Motivating potential score) Job diagnostic survey (JDS): questionnaire measures core job characteristics

3.5.3. Job enrichment Herzbergs theory + Job characteristic model = job enrichment motivational program which involves redesigning jobs to give workers greater responsibility in planning, execution, and evaluation of their work

3.6. Cognitive theories of motivation

3.6.1. Equity theory of motivation Motivation to keep work inputs in proportion to their outcomes Underpayment inequity: fewer outcomes from job in ratio to inputs Balance by: Increasing outcomes., decreasing inputs, changing comparison to others, leaving situation Overpayment inequity: greater outcomes from avergae-level inputs = imbalance Balance by: Increasing inputs, decreasing outcomes, changing comparison others, distorting situation Equity sensitivity: indivuduals vary in concern over equity input-outcome ratios, 3 types Benevolents/"givers" - content with receiving lower outcomes Entitleds/ "takers" - concerned with high outcomes, regardless of their input Equity sensitives - distressed when underpayed, feel guilty when overrewarded

3.6.2. Expectancy (VIE) theory of motivation Core components: valence, instrumetality, expectancy (VIE) states that motivation is dependent on expectations concerning effort-performance-outcome relationships

4. Positive Organisational Behaviour

4.1. Employee engagement

4.1.1. State of mind characterized by vigor, dedication and absorption

4.1.2. contributed by Jobs high in Job characteristics, support from supervisors/company, Being recognized/rewared for accomplishments, equal treatment in company

4.1.3. Balancing act between Job demands and Job resources -> Job Demands-Resources Model (Bakker) - Both needs to be high for Work Engagement

4.1.4. Engaged employees: better physical health, proactive, better task performance, engaged collegues

4.1.5. Positive related with Job satisfaction, negatively related with intentions to quit job

4.2. Generational facts

4.2.1. Millenials who are engaged in their Jobs = 29%

4.3. Job satisfaction

4.3.1. = Positive feelings, attitudes about one's job

4.3.2. Two aproaches to conceptualize Job satisfaction Global: Overall-yes or no response Facet: Feelings About a number of different Elements/facets (pay, working conditions, relations etc.) - used more often than global approach One or more facets may be the primary cause of lack of job satisfaction

4.3.3. Measurement through interviews, group Meetings, self-reports MSQ and JDI (Rating scales or questionnaires)

4.3.4. No direct link between factors contribute to Job satisfaction: Job satisfaction may be moderated by the perceptions of individual workers

4.3.5. Porter-Lawler Model: Connection between job satisfaction and Job performance mediated by work-related rewards Moderate linkages between satisfaction and performance Psychological well-being rather predicts Job performance

4.3.6. Organizational Commitment: worker's attitudes about entire work organization; measured by OCQ questionnaire

4.4. Employee attitudes and attendance

4.4.1. Absenteeism Voluntary absenteeism: strongly associated with Job satisfaction Involuntary absenteeism: beyond control of the employee difficult to define and measure

4.4.2. Turnover Voluntary turnover: when a competent/capable employee leaves to work elsewhere - costly to the organization Involuntary turnover: employee is fired (positive weeding process) or laid off (financial reasons/beyond control management) Turnover intentions: Workers self-reported intentions to leave their jobs

4.4.3. Changes in job structure Job enlargement Job rotation Job enrichment Job simplification

4.4.4. Job satisfaction + organizational commitment = predictors of employee turnover

4.4.5. Absenteeism = predictor of employee turnover

4.5. Increasing Job satisfaction + Organization commitment

4.5.1. Benefit programs

4.5.2. Flexible work shedules Compressed workweeks (decrease of workdays, increase of workhours, extra days off, 3-day-weekend, drawbacks for working parents) Flextime: "Gleitzeit", 40h per week, flexibility Reduction of stress, Increase of satisfaction and commitment, positive link to productivity "New Ways of working": flexible timing (no fixed shedules), flexible location (zb. home-office), electronic communication Technology More autonomy, more flexibility For employers: Productivity, innovation, wellbeing, satisfaction, leadership For employees: Performance, wellbeing, work-life balance, recovery

4.5.3. Changes in pay structure Profit sharing: All E.'s receive small share of organization's profits Ownership: E.'s own part of an organization Gain sharing: Pay contingent on effective group performance Skill-based: E.'s paid based on knowledge, skills Merit pay: E.'s receive base rate + additional pay based on performance

4.6. Positive employee behaviours

4.6.1. Organizational Citizenship behaviours (OCB) willingness to "go the extra mile" product of high level of motivation and commitment

4.6.2. Positive affect and employee well-being Positive affect: influencing employee attitudes, fostering positive employee behaviours If individual is treated unfairly or is undercompensated even with positive emotions, Job satisfaction and positive work behaviours will decline I/O Psychology two important objectives: 1. Improve physical+social environment at work (enhance worker well-being, satisfaction, life quality), 2. Improve organizational outcomes by increasing employee participation in, and commitment to organizational processes

5. Leadership

5.1. Levels of conzeptualization for leadership theories

5.1.1. Intra-individual How leader traits and values influence leader behavior How leaders make decisions

5.1.2. Dyad How a Supervisor facilitates work of subordinate How leaders and followers influence each other

5.1.3. Group How leadership is shared in the team/group How leaders triggers or inhibit specific member behaviors during team interactions

5.1.4. Organization How top executives influence lower-level members How leaders influence organizational culture

5.2. Defining leadership

5.2.1. directing, towards a shared goal

5.2.2. satisfy motives of followers

5.2.3. influence, motivate, enable others toward effectiveness/success of the organization

5.2.4. Ability to direct a group toward the attainment of goals

5.3. Theoretical approaches to leadership

5.3.1. Universalist theories Great Man Theory: Great leaders are born, not made Trait theory - attempts to discover traits shared by effective leaders

5.3.2. Behavioral theories focused on behaviors common to effective leaders Ohio state studies Identify independent dimensions of leader behavior Initiating structure (extent to which leader is likely to structure his role) - correlates with lower group member Job satisfaction and increase in turnovers Consideration (extent to which person's Job relationship are characterized by mutual trust, respect for ideas) -correlated with Job satisfaction Problem: too simplistic Universitiy of michigan studies Locate behavioral characteristics of leaders related to performance effectiveness Employee-oriented leader (emphasize interpersonal relations) Production-oriented leader (emphasized technical/task aspects) relationship-oriented leader behaviors more effective than task-oriented (difference to Ohio)

5.3.3. Contingency theories No "one size fits all"- approach Effectiveness of leadership depends on situation, numerous factors Interaction of characteristics of leader and situation Fiedler's Contingency Model a leadership theory that maintains that effective leadership depends on a match between the leader’s style and the degree to which the work situation gives control and influence to the leader Path-Goal Theory states that a leader’s job is to help the work group achieve their desired goals Decision-making Model a theory that matches characteristics of the situation with leader decision-making strategies Leaders can choose from different strategies: acting alone, consulting with others, or group consensus Leader-member Exchange (LMX) a theory that effective leadership is determined by the quality of the interaction between the leader and particular group members One subset of employees, the “in-group” is given additional rewards, responsibilities, and trust exchange for their loyalty and performance

5.3.4. Charismatic leadership theory Some leaders possess exceptional characteristics that cause followers to be loyal and inspired (e.g. Ghandi, M.L.King)

5.3.5. Transformational leadership theory Six key dimensions of transformational leadership: Identifying/articulating a vision, Providing an appropriate model, Fostering acceptance of group goals, High performance expectations, Providing individualized support, Intellectual stimulation Promote creative, innovative ideas to solve problems Leaders create learning opportunities for their followers and stimulate followers to solve problems

5.3.6. Transactional leadership theory Leader's power to reinforce subordinates for their succesful completion on the bargain, stress correct options to improve performance

5.3.7. Abusive supervision root cause of stress in workplace, related to psychological strain, amxiety, emotional exhaustion

5.3.8. Toxic triangle of destructive leadership Destructive Leaders Susceptible Followers (Conformers and Colluders) Conducive Environments

5.4. Meta-analysis: leadership styles, employee wellbeing

5.4.1. Higher levels of stress and burnout linked to lower levels of transformational leadership and higher levels of abusive supervision

5.4.2. Transformational leadership and LMX: lower employee stress and burnout

5.4.3. Abusive supervision: higher employee stress and burnout

5.4.4. no clear causality – different directions are possible

5.5. Re-thinking leadership (new development)

5.5.1. More dynamism is needed - most leadership research remains static/incapable explaining complexity of leader- and followership

5.5.2. Communication as core element of leadership as relational process

5.5.3. Influence requires behavioral manifestation

5.5.4. Influential role of followers

5.6. Leadership training and development

5.6.1. 2 general approaches Diagnostic skills Specific skills or behavior that lack

5.6.2. Ensure that leadership behaviors taught in training will be accepted in the work group and organization

5.6.3. Training needs must be determined

5.7. Job redesign and substitudes for leadership

5.7.1. Involves changing characteristics of the situation to fit the leader’s typical style or orientation

5.7.2. In other situations, where roles and procedures are well defined, substitutes for leadership, such as self-managing work teams or shared leadership, may be appropriate

6. Organizational communication

6.1. Communication

6.1.1. Sender/Encoder Encoding: preparing a message for transmission

6.1.2. Receiver/Decoder Decoding: translating a message so that can be understood

6.1.3. Channel Vehicle through which message flows from Sender to receiver

6.1.4. Feedback Receiver resoonds with Feedback to Sender

6.1.5. Noise physcial or psychological distractions that disrupt communication flow

6.2. Metamodel of communication

6.2.1. communication itself forms our experience, dynamic across situations, driving force in our lives, central activity that creates all other forces in society

6.2.2. organizations are created and changed through communication

6.3. Communication process

6.3.1. Source factors Organizational status, credibility and Encoding skills of the sender

6.3.2. Channel factors characteristics of vehicle of transmission (e.g. semantic problems) channel selection; can influence job satisfaction (e.g. frequency of face-to-face interactions with Supervisors)

6.3.3. Audience factors Attention, relationshiop to sender, decoding skills/listening skills of the receiver

6.4. Nonverbal communication

6.4.1. susbstitutes for verbal communication, convey underlying feelings

6.4.2. Pygmalion effect: Sender communicates expetations to Receiver, influencing his or her behavior (Rosenthal)

6.4.3. Function for receiver: 1. additional Information, 2. used in person perception, making judgments about a persons attitudes, competence

6.5. Communication flow

6.5.1. Downward communication - from superior to subordinates

6.5.2. Upward communication - from subordinates to superiors

6.5.3. Lateral communication - same-level parties

6.5.4. Barriers Filtering - selective presentation of Content, MUM-effect (message not forwarded to others because involves bad news) Exaggeration - distortion of Information (elaborating, minimizing parts of message)

6.6. Communication networks

6.6.1. Centralized networks communication flow is directed through certain members chain - status hierarchy, message works its way up or down through the different links of button or top of the chain Y - hierarchy with different levels of status, communication to more than one person Wheel - higher-status member and lower-status member; all communication must pass through higher status member "hub" faster, make fewer errors in dealing with simple tasks than dentralized networks noncentral workers tend to have lower job satisfaction in centralized networks (due to communcation restrictions)

6.6.2. Decentralized networks Messages can originate at any point, not directed through specific members Circle - communication occuring between members accessible to each other, difficult to trace source of message All-channel or comcon - complete freedom among communication links better for complex/creative tasks than centralized networks

6.7. Formal/informal communcation

6.7.1. Organigram - diagram of organizations hierarchy representing formal lines of communication

6.7.2. Grapevine - informal communication network in organization Friendship - determines who communicates with whom Usage - People who are links in formal lines also likely to be links in grapevine more efficient for sharing info than are formal lines vital for maintaining social relationships among employees, encouraging unity/commitment to work group rumors - may occur within grapevine, presented as fact/ may not be true gossip - getting informations, gaining influence, releasing pent-up emotions, providing intellectual stimulation, fostering interpersonal intimacy, Maintaining/enforcing group values and norms

6.7.3. Sociogram - diagram of informal lines of communication among organizational members

6.8. Organizational communication and individual performance

6.8.1. More communication (lateral and supervisor communication skills) is positively related to employee performance and productivity

6.9. Organizational communication and individual job satisfaction

6.9.1. lower-level workers have higher job satisfaction with upward communication

6.9.2. Employees who receive a great deal of information about the organization through downward communication have higher job satisfaction and organizational commitment

6.10. Organizational communication and organizational-level results

6.10.1. Open communication among employees may result in a “snowball effect,” where employees quit their jobs in clusters

6.10.2. Keeping downward and upward communication flowing is considered a crucial best practice when effectively managing major organizational changes like downsizing

7. Performance Appraisal

7.1. Facts

7.1.1. thorough job analysis is the starting point for measuring/evaluating actual job performance

7.1.2. Appraisal involve assessment of worker performance on basis of predetermined organizational standards

7.1.3. annual or biannual reviews are too infrequent; many organizations use briefer, more frequent "check-ins"

7.2. Purposes

7.2.1. For Employees Career advancement, Feedback

7.2.2. For Supervisors Assessment of goal attainment, Employment decisions and opportunity to interact

7.2.3. For the Organization Assessment of productivity

7.3. Measuring Performance

7.3.1. Objective Performance Criteria quantifiable measurements of performance (number of units produced, sales in euros)

7.3.2. Subjective Performance Criteria involve judgments, ratings of performance

7.4. Concerns for performance criterion

7.4.1. criterion relevance - relevant to job success?

7.4.2. criterion contamination - contains elements that detract from pure assessment of performance?

7.4.3. criterion usefulness - is it useful?

7.5. Biases/Errors

7.5.1. Response tendency errors Leniency errors Severity errors Central tendency errors

7.5.2. Halo effects overall positive (or negative) performance appraisal because of one outstanding characteristic/action

7.5.3. Referency effects giving greater weight to more recent performance

7.5.4. Actor-observer bias/causal attribution error greater emphasis on dispositional factors, lesser emphasis on situational factors affected performance

7.5.5. Personal biases Due to gender, ethnicity, age, physical characteristics, close personal relationships/liking, level of power over subordinates

7.6. Data Sources

7.6.1. Self-appraisals

7.6.2. Peer appraisals Good agreement between peer and supervisor ratings of employee performance Important because organizations are increasingly implementing teams and teamwork Team appraisals: Evaluation of the team as a whole and/or peer evaluation among team members Comparative methods: compare one employees performance with that of another (Ranking, paired comparison, forced distribution) - FD may improve the overall quality of the workforce, but ultimately damage employee morale, teamwork, and collaboration

7.6.3. Subordinate appraisals

7.6.4. Customer appraisals

7.6.5. 360-degree-feedback - multiple performance evaluations from supervisors, peers, subordinates, and customers management development tool

7.6.6. BARS - Behaviorally anchored rating scales, use examples of good and poor behavioral incidents as substitutes

7.7. Components of appraisal process

7.7.1. Performance assessment Measuring an employee‘s performance to make personnel decisions

7.7.2. Performance feedback Providing information to an employee about his/her performance level with suggestions for future improvement Response to feedback and resulting employee behaviour depends on how info is presented by supervisor Value of employee input, participation in review process, appraiser training for constructive feedback helps Effective: descriptive (rather than evaluative), specific (rather than general), consideration of employee/his needs/situation, directed toward behaviour employee is able to change, well timed (immediate), honest (rather than manipulative/self-serving), understood by both, proactive/coactive (provide specific directions for change)

8. Training/Development

8.1. Learning

8.1.1. permanent change in behaviour, cognition, affect occuring as result of ones interaction with environment

8.1.2. Core definitions: change, long-asting, interaction with environment

8.1.3. Social learning theory modeling, observational learning of behaviour

8.1.4. Cognitive theories of learning workers = information processors, focus on how new informaion is stored, retrieved and used to produce work behaviour; useful for understanding complex thought processes

8.1.5. Individual differences People learn at different rates/learning curves Attribute-Treatment Interaction - Some methods of training are better suited for certain types of people (Cognitive ability, motivation)

8.2. Training

8.2.1. Faciliate employees' learning, retention, transfer of job-related behaviour

8.2.2. Employee socialization Anticipatory stage before joining the organization; forming impression about membership in organization, what its like Encounter stage begins when recruit makes formal commitment to join organization, discovering what the organization really is like Successful socialization = new employees accept norms/values of the group; master tasks they must perform; resolve any role conflicts and overloads

8.2.3. Retraining/continuing education programs "refresher courses" - maintain workers’ proficiencies

8.2.4. Retirement planning and preparation Offer assistance in planning and preparing for retirement by the training departments of many organizations

8.2.5. Employee career development Organizations typically offer a variety of programs, including career counseling, courses in career planning, and workshops Lead to more productive, more satisfied, and more loyal workforce (attracting and retaining employees)

8.2.6. Training workers for international assignments, diversity issues, harassment, ethical behaviour

8.2.7. Team training

8.3. Key Issues of successful trainings

8.3.1. Transfer of training degree of similarity between training tasks an actual job tasks Positive affect when receiving feedback and reinforcement Effective when value of new work skills is seen

8.3.2. Trainee readiness Pre-training motivation, Realistic preview and career-related benefits lead to positive effects on both trainee reactions and learning

8.3.3. Training program structure Whole learning better than part learning; positive feedback better than negative feedback Immediate feedback but no overload or confusion by too much

8.3.4. Common Problems Costly, not well organized, not effective

8.4. Factors that influence retention

8.4.1. Meaningfulness of training material, degree of original learning, interference (knowledge before can inhibit retention / after may inhibit retention

8.5. Successful Training - 5 steps

8.5.1. 1. Assessing training needs Organization must have idea what workers need to know to perform their jobs (Organizational Analysis, Task Analysis, Person Analysis, Demographic Analysis)

8.5.2. 2. Establishing training objectives should be specific, tied to measurable outcomes

8.5.3. 3. Developing, testing of training materials: Employee training methods On-site methods - conducted on job site Off-site methods - conducted away from actual workplace (seminars/webinars, Audivisual instructions, web-based trainings, simulation techniques) Management/leadership training methods - Problem-solving case studies, roleplay, management games, action learning, 360-degree feedback, mentoring/coaching

8.5.4. 4. Implementing the training program Positive feelings about training, encourage of employees Provide trainees with a "rationale" for training, provide feedback

8.5.5. 5. Evaluating the training program Level 1 - Reaction, Level 2 - Learning, Level 3 - Behaviour, Level 4 - Results

8.6. ROI -Return of investment

8.6.1. Ratio between Results and Training Costs

8.6.2. The greater the ratio, the higher the benefit for the organization

9. Stress and CWB

9.1. Key terms

9.1.1. Stress

9.1.2. Stressors - environmental forces affecting the person

9.1.3. Strains - negative consequences that occur due to the stressors taxing or exceeding the resources/capacity of the person

9.2. Organizational Stressors

9.2.1. Organizational structure and Control - rigid policies

9.2.2. Human resource systems - lack of Training, inadequate Career opportunities

9.2.3. Reward systems - inquitable rewards

9.2.4. Leadership - lack of respect, poor relationships

9.2.5. Factors intrinsic to the Job - workload, insufficient control

9.2.6. Bad team processes

9.3. Challenge/ hindrance stressors at work

9.3.1. Challenge stressors - time pressure, work complexity, work responsibility

9.3.2. Hindrance stressors - role conflict, role ambiguity, role overload, daily hassles

9.3.3. Stressors in work and non-work settings

9.4. Sources of worker stress

9.4.1. situational sources arising from certain conditions that exist in the work environment or in the worker’s personal life

9.4.2. dispositional sources Type A behaviour pattern - excessive drive/competitiveness, impatience self-efficacy = one's sense of competence and effectiveness

9.4.3. work task stressors work overload - e.g. clerical workers, soldiers, air traffic controllers, Health care workers Underutilization - having too little to do, feeling that skills are not being fully used - can cause "Boreout" = low engagement

9.4.4. work role stressors Job ambiguity/ uncertainty - lack of clearly defined jobs lack of control - lower-level Jobs, highly strucured organizations, feeling of having little control over work behaviour on the job physical working conditions - extreme temperatures, loud and distracting noise, poor lighting role stress = natural, often unavoidable, harms effectiveness, negatively related to job performance and satisfaction Cognitive processes = lack of Information for solving conflicting demands Motivational processes = role stress tends to weaken "effort-to-performance" and "performance-to-reward" expectancies interpersonal stress - difficulties with other people in work setting Harassment Work-family conflict

9.5. Measurement of worker stress

9.5.1. physiological measures - blood pressure, ekg

9.5.2. self-report assessments - stressful events can bring on stress-related illness and may impair job performance

9.6. Effects of worker stress

9.6.1. Optimum = moderate level of stress for high level of performance

9.6.2. Prolonged stress exposure = Physiological, psychological and behavioral strains as consequences

9.6.3. Organizational Costs = loss of money due to absenteeism and reduced productivity

9.7. Gender differences

9.7.1. Gender = moderator of relationship between stress and strain (dysfunctional performance)

9.7.2. Women: unique stressors compared to men = multiple conflicting roles, lack of career progress, discrimination/ stereotyping Overall = women higher levels of stress than men, suffer from more health ailments than men

9.8. Individual differences

9.8.1. Core individual differences Emotional stability, extraversion, positive/negative affect

9.8.2. Beliefs and core self-evaluations Self-efficacy, self-esteem, optimism

9.8.3. Need for stimulation (boredom) Sensation seeking, boredom proneness

9.8.4. Drive (work engagement) Need for Achievement, conscientiousness

9.9. Job burnout

9.9.1. less commited to job, begin to withdraw from work, inability to concentrate, mood changes, social Isolation, increased drinking

9.9.2. 3 phases: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, low personal accomplishment

9.9.3. high in human service professions

9.9.4. antecedents: Job demands (overload, pressure,...) and lack of Job resources (lack of social support/feedback, poor participation)

9.9.5. Consequences/ organizational outcomes = poor organizational commitment, turnover (intentions), sickness absence, impaired job performance

9.10. CWBS - Counterproductive/deviant work behaviours

9.10.1. destructive behaviours harmful to employers or fellow employees

9.10.2. due to stress, frustration, feelings of inequity, personality differences

9.10.3. stealing, vandalism, sabotage, harassment, missingwork, drugs on the job

9.11. Appraisal and coping

9.11.1. Coping = behaviors to manage stressful demands and emotions associated with them Behavioral methods, cognitive methods, problem-focused, emotion-focused

9.11.2. Organizational coping strategies: steps organizations can take to reduce stress levels for employees Improving person-job fit, offering better training and orientation programs, removing hazardous work conditions, provide supportive work Environment, improving communication in workplace

10. Groups/Teams in Organizations

10.1. Distinction between work groups and work teams

10.1.1. Work groups Goal - Share information Synergy - neutral/sometimes negative Accountability - individual Skills - random and varied

10.1.2. Work teams Goal - Collective performance Synergy - positive Accountability - individual and mutual Skills - complementary

10.2. Types of teams

10.2.1. problem-solving

10.2.2. self-managed

10.2.3. cross-functional

10.2.4. virtual

10.3. Multiteam Systems (MTS)

10.3.1. two or more teams that interface directly/interdependently, collective goals

10.3.2. all teams pursuing different proximal goals, share at least one common distal goal

10.3.3. all teams: interdependance with at least one other team in the system

10.3.4. Teams: Integration Team (Leadership), Point Component Team (Operations), Support Component Team (Intelligence)

10.4. Team effectiveness factors

10.4.1. Context

10.4.2. Composition

10.4.3. Process

10.5. Group roles

10.5.1. Functional roles - Patterns of behavior adopted based on expectations about function of a position

10.5.2. Team roles - individual tendencies to adopt certain roles in a team

10.6. Potential team member roles

10.6.1. Adviser, Linker, Creator, Promoter, Assessor, Organizer, Producer, Controller, Maintainer

10.7. Belbin's team roles

10.7.1. Thinking - Monitor Evaluator, Specialist, Plant

10.7.2. Action - Implementer, Shaper, Completer Finisher

10.7.3. People - Co-ordninator, Resource Investigator, Teamworker

10.7.4. Belbin's principles for building effective teams every team needs optimal balance of functional and team roles, depending on specific goals and tasks team effectiveness depends on team members knowing themselves well and adapt to the team personal/mental abilities = predispositions for some roles, but work against other roles Sufficient balance and breadth of team roles for optimal resources usage

10.8. Norms

10.8.1. rules governing appropriate/inappropriate behavior for members

10.8.2. important for regulating group activities, helping achieve shared goals

10.8.3. Purposes: faciliate group production, help commit work group members to producing higher-qualitiy products/Services, increase predictability of members' behavior

10.9. Organizational socialization

10.9.1. Employees become integrated into work groups and develop specific work skills and abilities

10.10. Basic group processes

10.10.1. Conformity

10.10.2. Group cohesiveness (We-they Feeling)

10.10.3. Group efficacy

10.11. Cooperation and competition in work groups

10.11.1. Cooperation critical to effective functioning task interdependance social loafing - less effort than when working alone

10.11.2. Competition Can lead to conflict

10.12. Conflict in work groups/organizations

10.12.1. Conflict natural process, occur at a number of levels within work organizations

10.12.2. Levels of conflict interindividual conflict between two people intragroup conflict between one Person/fraction within a group and the other group members

10.12.3. Sources of conflict various (individual, organization)

10.12.4. Conflict outcomes Positive - motivates workers, stimulates them to be creative, improves quality of decisions Negative - disrupts group work activities, social relationships, reduction of group cohesivness

10.12.5. Managing conflict regulating the level of conflict 5 conflict resolution strategies (accomodation, collaboration, compromise, avoidance, competition) Helping strategies: understand/manage individual conflict behavior, effectiely lead the team when in conflict

10.13. Group decision-making processes

10.13.1. Autocratic decision making Group leader makes decisions Consultative decision making

10.13.2. Democratic decision making based on majority rule

10.14. Groupthink

10.14.1. concurrence-seeking tendency that overrides the ability of a cohesive group to make critical decisions

10.15. Group polarization

10.15.1. When all think alike, then noone is thinking

10.16. Communication-based team phenomena

10.16.1. functional perspective communication instrumental for successful problem solving, decision making in groups/teams Intragroup interaction processes are the essential element linking inputs to group outcomes

10.16.2. Social exchange theory People join a group and work toward group goals when they expect that the outcome will outweigh their own investment (recall equity theory)

10.17. Five-phase model of group development (Tuckman)

10.17.1. Forming

10.17.2. Storming

10.17.3. Norming

10.17.4. Performing

10.17.5. Adjourning

10.18. Gersick Study

10.18.1. Qualitative study with 8 project Teams working on a task

10.18.2. Tuckmans 5 phases not found

10.18.3. Instead: “Punctuated Equilibrium Model“

10.19. Dyads = groups?

11. Organizational change

11.1. Forces for change

11.1.1. 6 dimensions The changing nature of the workplace Technology Economic shocks Competition Social trends World politics

11.2. Reactionary vs. planned change

11.2.1. Planned change Change activities that are intentional and goal oriented Proactive situations

11.3. 3 stages of change

11.3.1. unfreeze the status quo

11.3.2. Change - movement to a desired end state

11.3.3. refreeze the new change to make it permanent, overcome pressures of individual resistance and group conformity

11.4. Episodic vs. continious organizational change

11.4.1. Episodic Organizations are inertial, Change is infrequent, discontinuous, intentional Change is an occassional interruption of divergence from equilibrium Tends to be dramatice, driven externally, seen as failure of organization to adopt ist structure to changing environment Perspective: macro, distant, global Emphasis: short-run adaptation

11.4.2. Continious Organizations are emergent, selforganizing, Change is constant, evolving, cumulative Change is a pattern of endless modifications in work processes; driven by organizational instability, alert reaction to daily contingencies Perspective: Micro, close, loyal Emphasis: Long-run adaptability

11.5. Kotter's eight-step plan for implementing change

11.5.1. Creating a Climate for change Increase urgency, Build guiding Teams, Get the vision right

11.5.2. Engaging, enabling the organization Communication for buy-in, Enable action, Create short-term wins

11.5.3. Implementing, sustaining the change Dont let-up, Make it stick

11.6. Change management

11.6.1. essential, reactive, ddiscontinous, ad hoc, fails in 70% of the cases

11.7. Critical role of self-construal

11.7.1. Self-construal/perception of the individual moderates the relationship between change consequences and uncertainty

11.7.2. Perceived consequences of change differ depending of the individual

11.7.3. Outcomes: Physiological, anticipated and perceived stress

11.8. Change causes stress

11.8.1. Change leads to stress when its consequences are central to employees’ sense of self, particularly when the personal self is salient

11.8.2. Uncertainty perceptions mediate this effect

11.9. Resistance to change

11.9.1. Individual resistance

11.9.2. Organizational resistance

11.9.3. Tactics for overcoming resistance to change Education and communication - show logic behind change Participation Building support and commitment Developing positive relationships Implementing changes fairly Manipulation and cooptation - Spinning the message to gain cooperation Selecting people who accept Change in first place Coercion - direct threats and force Key process for dealing with resisting employees: conversational dynamics

11.9.4. Autonomy-restrictive communication Advising without permission ("You should try)", Confronting (correcting, arguing), Directing (order, command), Raising concern (pointing out possible problems), Warning (implying negative consequence) Change agents with autonomy-restrictive behavior trigger resistance to change Focusing on communication to avoid breakdowns in organizational change

11.10. Organizational development interventions

11.10.1. Sensitivity Training, survey Feedback, team Building, process consultation, intergroup development, more effective interpersonal work environment

11.11. Creating a culture for change: Innovation

11.11.1. Sources of innovation Structural variables: organic structures, long managerial tenure, slack resources, high Degree of interunit communciation

11.11.2. Idea champions Individuals who actively promote the innovation

11.12. Managing learning- suggestions

11.12.1. Establish a strategy

11.12.2. Redesign the organization's structure

11.12.3. Reshape the organization's culture