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I/O-Psychology by Mind Map: I/O-Psychology

1. Performance Appraisal

1.1. Facts

1.1.1. thorough job analysis is the starting point for measuring/evaluating actual job performance

1.1.2. Appraisal involve assessment of worker performance on basis of predetermined organizational standards

1.1.3. annual or biannual reviews are too infrequent; many organizations use briefer, more frequent "check-ins"

1.2. Purposes

1.2.1. For Employees

1.2.1.1. Career advancement, Feedback

1.2.2. For Supervisors

1.2.2.1. Assessment of goal attainment, Employment decisions and opportunity to interact

1.2.3. For the Organization

1.2.3.1. Assessment of productivity

1.3. Measuring Performance

1.3.1. Objective Performance Criteria

1.3.1.1. quantifiable measurements of performance (number of units produced, sales in euros)

1.3.2. Subjective Performance Criteria

1.3.2.1. involve judgments, ratings of performance

1.4. Concerns for performance criterion

1.4.1. criterion relevance - relevant to job success?

1.4.2. criterion contamination - contains elements that detract from pure assessment of performance?

1.4.3. criterion usefulness - is it useful?

1.5. Biases/Errors

1.5.1. Response tendency errors

1.5.1.1. Leniency errors

1.5.1.2. Severity errors

1.5.1.3. Central tendency errors

1.5.2. Halo effects

1.5.2.1. overall positive (or negative) performance appraisal because of one outstanding characteristic/action

1.5.3. Referency effects

1.5.3.1. giving greater weight to more recent performance

1.5.4. Actor-observer bias/causal attribution error

1.5.4.1. greater emphasis on dispositional factors, lesser emphasis on situational factors affected performance

1.5.5. Personal biases

1.5.5.1. Due to gender, ethnicity, age, physical characteristics, close personal relationships/liking, level of power over subordinates

1.6. Data Sources

1.6.1. Self-appraisals

1.6.2. Peer appraisals

1.6.2.1. Good agreement between peer and supervisor ratings of employee performance

1.6.2.2. Important because organizations are increasingly implementing teams and teamwork

1.6.2.3. Team appraisals: Evaluation of the team as a whole and/or peer evaluation among team members

1.6.2.4. Comparative methods: compare one employees performance with that of another (Ranking, paired comparison, forced distribution) - FD may improve the overall quality of the workforce, but ultimately damage employee morale, teamwork, and collaboration

1.6.3. Subordinate appraisals

1.6.4. Customer appraisals

1.6.5. 360-degree-feedback - multiple performance evaluations from supervisors, peers, subordinates, and customers management development tool

1.6.6. BARS - Behaviorally anchored rating scales, use examples of good and poor behavioral incidents as substitutes

1.7. Components of appraisal process

1.7.1. Performance assessment

1.7.1.1. Measuring an employee‘s performance to make personnel decisions

1.7.2. Performance feedback

1.7.2.1. Providing information to an employee about his/her performance level with suggestions for future improvement

1.7.2.2. Response to feedback and resulting employee behaviour depends on how info is presented by supervisor

1.7.2.3. Value of employee input, participation in review process, appraiser training for constructive feedback helps

1.7.2.4. Effective: descriptive (rather than evaluative), specific (rather than general), consideration of employee/his needs/situation, directed toward behaviour employee is able to change, well timed (immediate), honest (rather than manipulative/self-serving), understood by both, proactive/coactive (provide specific directions for change)

2. Job Analysis

2.1. components

2.1.1. Job description

2.1.2. Job specification

2.1.3. Job evaluation

2.1.4. Performance criteria

2.2. Methods (often combined)

2.2.1. Observation

2.2.2. Use of existing data

2.2.3. Interviews

2.2.4. Surveys

2.2.5. Job diaries

2.3. Sources of error

2.3.1. Carelessness/Poor Job analyst training

2.3.2. Over- or underestimating the importance of certain tasks and jobs

2.3.3. Information overload due to the complexity of some jobs

2.4. Techniques

2.4.1. Job element method

2.4.1.1. focuses on the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) required to perform a particular job

2.4.1.2. Relies on subject matter experts (SMEs) who rate or rank the importance of different elements for performing the job

2.4.2. Critical incidents technique

2.4.2.1. Records specific employee behaviors

2.4.2.2. determine the particular KSAOs needed to perform a job successfully

2.4.3. Position analysis questionaire

2.4.3.1. survey that analyzes with 187 elements arranged into six categories • Information input • Mental processes • Work output • Relationships with other persons • Job context • Other job characteristics) more cost effective and easier to use than other methods

2.4.4. Functional job analysis

2.4.4.1. analyzes jobs by studying tasks

2.4.4.2. task elements - basis of job relationships

2.4.4.3. Method to classify jobs in terms of employees' interaction with data, people, things

2.5. Facts

2.5.1. E.g., Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) 1990: anti-discrimination laws

2.5.2. Job evaluation: assessment of relative value of a job for determining appropriate compensation, examination of jobs on dimensions called -compensable factors-(e.g., physical demands of a job, amount of training, working conditions, responsibility) job score or weighting on each factor; summed total = amount of compensation (salary)

2.5.3. Comparable worth: jobs that require equivalent KSAOs should be compensated equally (valid/fair job evaluations)

2.5.4. gender pay gap: women 75% to what men make, reasons: access to higher-paying jobs, comparable worth (male manager gets higher payment than female manager); "glass ceiling"/"labyrinth": limitations preventing woman+ethnic minorities from advancing into top positions (biases and stereotypes)

3. Methods for employee selection

3.1. Selection process

3.1.1. 1. Employee recruitment

3.1.2. 2. Employee screening

3.1.2.1. reviewing info about job applicants to select for jobs

3.1.2.2. Data sources: CVs, application letters, letters of recommendation. employment tests, interviews

3.1.2.2.1. References/letters of rec - evaluations of applicant's character, performance, recommender's willingness to re-hire the applicant

3.1.2.3. Employee testing

3.1.2.3.1. standardized instruments to measure characteristics predictive of job performance

3.1.2.3.2. screening test/method must demonstrate reliability and validity of predictor of job performance

3.1.2.4. Screening/testing methods

3.1.2.4.1. Biodata

3.1.2.4.2. Cognitive ability tests (MOST CONSISTENT PERFORMANCE PREDICTOR)

3.1.2.4.3. mechanical, motor, sensory ability tests

3.1.2.4.4. job skills, knowledge tests

3.1.2.4.5. Personality tests

3.1.2.4.6. Honesty/Integrity tests (counterproductive behaviour)

3.1.2.5. Good personnel testing methods show:

3.1.2.5.1. Test-retest reliability

3.1.2.5.2. Parallel forms

3.1.2.5.3. Internal consistency

3.1.2.5.4. content, construct and criterion-related validity

3.1.2.6. Effectiveness of screening tests

3.1.2.6.1. Test batteries: combine standardized tests to help select best qualified candidates

3.1.2.6.2. Validity generalization: predict job performance in settings different from test setting

3.1.2.6.3. Test utility: financial estimate of tests (productivity, efficiency)

3.1.2.6.4. "Faking" - trying to beat an employment test

3.1.2.7. Accessment Center

3.1.2.7.1. Performance-based evaluations

3.1.2.7.2. Use the test battery

3.1.2.8. Hiring Interview

3.1.2.8.1. supply info that cannot be obtained otherwise

3.1.2.8.2. typically low reliability and validity; too quick evaluation, contrast effects, unstructured interviews and poor questions

3.1.3. 3. Employee selection and placement

3.2. Evaluation of written materials

3.2.1. Biographical info (education, work experience, accomplishments)

3.2.2. Work experience - quantity and quality to be considered

3.2.3. Written materials create lasting first impressions, impact later evaluations

3.3. Weighted application forms

3.3.1. assign different weights to each aspect, based on organizational research which biographical details relate to job success criteria (e.g. education vs work experience)

4. Training/Development

4.1. Learning

4.1.1. permanent change in behaviour, cognition, affect occuring as result of ones interaction with environment

4.1.2. Core definitions: change, long-asting, interaction with environment

4.1.3. Social learning theory

4.1.3.1. modeling, observational learning of behaviour

4.1.4. Cognitive theories of learning

4.1.4.1. workers = information processors, focus on how new informaion is stored, retrieved and used to produce work behaviour; useful for understanding complex thought processes

4.1.5. Individual differences

4.1.5.1. People learn at different rates/learning curves

4.1.5.2. Attribute-Treatment Interaction - Some methods of training are better suited for certain types of people (Cognitive ability, motivation)

4.2. Training

4.2.1. Faciliate employees' learning, retention, transfer of job-related behaviour

4.2.2. Employee socialization

4.2.2.1. Anticipatory stage

4.2.2.1.1. before joining the organization; forming impression about membership in organization, what its like

4.2.2.2. Encounter stage

4.2.2.2.1. begins when recruit makes formal commitment to join organization, discovering what the organization really is like

4.2.2.3. Successful socialization = new employees accept norms/values of the group; master tasks they must perform; resolve any role conflicts and overloads

4.2.3. Retraining/continuing education programs

4.2.3.1. "refresher courses" - maintain workers’ proficiencies

4.2.4. Retirement planning and preparation

4.2.4.1. Offer assistance in planning and preparing for retirement by the training departments of many organizations

4.2.5. Employee career development

4.2.5.1. Organizations typically offer a variety of programs, including career counseling, courses in career planning, and workshops

4.2.5.2. Lead to more productive, more satisfied, and more loyal workforce (attracting and retaining employees)

4.2.6. Training workers for international assignments, diversity issues, harassment, ethical behaviour

4.2.7. Team training

4.3. Key Issues of successful trainings

4.3.1. Transfer of training

4.3.1.1. degree of similarity between training tasks an actual job tasks

4.3.1.2. Positive affect when receiving feedback and reinforcement

4.3.1.3. Effective when value of new work skills is seen

4.3.2. Trainee readiness

4.3.2.1. Pre-training motivation, Realistic preview and career-related benefits lead to positive effects on both trainee reactions and learning

4.3.3. Training program structure

4.3.3.1. Whole learning better than part learning; positive feedback better than negative feedback

4.3.3.2. Immediate feedback but no overload or confusion by too much

4.3.4. Common Problems

4.3.4.1. Costly, not well organized, not effective

4.4. Factors that influence retention

4.4.1. Meaningfulness of training material, degree of original learning, interference (knowledge before can inhibit retention / after may inhibit retention

4.5. Successful Training - 5 steps

4.5.1. 1. Assessing training needs

4.5.1.1. Organization must have idea what workers need to know to perform their jobs (Organizational Analysis, Task Analysis, Person Analysis, Demographic Analysis)

4.5.2. 2. Establishing training objectives

4.5.2.1. should be specific, tied to measurable outcomes

4.5.3. 3. Developing, testing of training materials: Employee training methods

4.5.3.1. On-site methods - conducted on job site

4.5.3.2. Off-site methods - conducted away from actual workplace (seminars/webinars, Audivisual instructions, web-based trainings, simulation techniques)

4.5.3.3. Management/leadership training methods - Problem-solving case studies, roleplay, management games, action learning, 360-degree feedback, mentoring/coaching

4.5.4. 4. Implementing the training program

4.5.4.1. Positive feelings about training, encourage of employees

4.5.4.2. Provide trainees with a "rationale" for training, provide feedback

4.5.5. 5. Evaluating the training program

4.5.5.1. Level 1 - Reaction, Level 2 - Learning, Level 3 - Behaviour, Level 4 - Results

4.6. ROI -Return of investment

4.6.1. Ratio between Results and Training Costs

4.6.2. The greater the ratio, the higher the benefit for the organization

5. Work Motivation

5.1. Definition

5.1.1. Energizes people to act, directs behavioir towards attainments, sustains effort

5.2. Basic need theories

5.2.1. 5 categories by Maslow: physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, self-actualization/self-fulfillment needs

5.2.2. Alderfer's ERG Theory: 3 needs - existence, relatedness, growth

5.3. Motivation theories

5.3.1. McClelland's achievement motivation theory: Thematic apperception test (TAT) uses pictures to access psychological motivation: need for achievement, need for power, need for affiliation

5.3.2. Reinforcement theory: behaviour motivated by consequences

5.3.2.1. Positive or negative reinforcers (increase motivation to repeat behaviour)

5.3.2.2. Punishment (poor managerial stategy)

5.3.3. Extrinsic vs intrinsic motivation

5.3.4. Self-determination theory

5.3.4.1. focus on conditions/processes that lead to self-motivation, humand' three basic needs: competence, autonomy, relatedness

5.3.5. Goal-setting theory

5.3.5.1. emphasizes performance goals and worker's commitment to those goals

5.4. Achievement motivation

5.4.1. direction of competence-based affect, cognition, behaviour

5.4.2. approach: approaching a positive outcome (success) avoidance: avoiding a negative outcome (failure)

5.4.3. 2 types of achievement goals: Performance goals (negative, no or positive consequences), Mastery goals (promote positive outcomes, adaptove processes)

5.4.3.1. Mastery Approach, Mastery Avoidance, Performance Approach, Performance Avoidance

5.5. Job design theories of motivation

5.5.1. Herzberg's two-factor theory

5.5.1.1. Job Satisfaction

5.5.1.1.1. Increase by improving motivator factors

5.5.1.2. Job Dissatisfaction

5.5.1.2.1. Decrease by improving hygiene factors

5.5.2. Job characteristics model

5.5.2.1. Task itself is key to employee motivation

5.5.2.2. 5 characteristics: Skill variety, Tak identity, Task significance, Autonomy, Feedback from job = MPS (Motivating potential score)

5.5.2.3. Job diagnostic survey (JDS): questionnaire measures core job characteristics

5.5.3. Job enrichment

5.5.3.1. Herzbergs theory + Job characteristic model = job enrichment

5.5.3.2. motivational program which involves redesigning jobs to give workers greater responsibility in planning, execution, and evaluation of their work

5.6. Cognitive theories of motivation

5.6.1. Equity theory of motivation

5.6.1.1. Motivation to keep work inputs in proportion to their outcomes

5.6.1.2. Underpayment inequity: fewer outcomes from job in ratio to inputs

5.6.1.2.1. Balance by: Increasing outcomes., decreasing inputs, changing comparison to others, leaving situation

5.6.1.3. Overpayment inequity: greater outcomes from avergae-level inputs = imbalance

5.6.1.3.1. Balance by: Increasing inputs, decreasing outcomes, changing comparison others, distorting situation

5.6.1.4. Equity sensitivity: indivuduals vary in concern over equity input-outcome ratios, 3 types

5.6.1.4.1. Benevolents/"givers" - content with receiving lower outcomes

5.6.1.4.2. Entitleds/ "takers" - concerned with high outcomes, regardless of their input

5.6.1.4.3. Equity sensitives - distressed when underpayed, feel guilty when overrewarded

5.6.2. Expectancy (VIE) theory of motivation

5.6.2.1. Core components: valence, instrumetality, expectancy (VIE)

5.6.2.2. states that motivation is dependent on expectations concerning effort-performance-outcome relationships

6. Positive Organisational Behaviour

6.1. Employee engagement

6.1.1. State of mind characterized by vigor, dedication and absorption

6.1.2. contributed by Jobs high in Job characteristics, support from supervisors/company, Being recognized/rewared for accomplishments, equal treatment in company

6.1.3. Balancing act between Job demands and Job resources -> Job Demands-Resources Model (Bakker) - Both needs to be high for Work Engagement

6.1.4. Engaged employees: better physical health, proactive, better task performance, engaged collegues

6.1.5. Positive related with Job satisfaction, negatively related with intentions to quit job

6.2. Generational facts

6.2.1. Millenials who are engaged in their Jobs = 29%

6.3. Job satisfaction

6.3.1. = Positive feelings, attitudes about one's job

6.3.2. Two aproaches to conceptualize Job satisfaction

6.3.2.1. Global: Overall-yes or no response

6.3.2.2. Facet: Feelings About a number of different Elements/facets (pay, working conditions, relations etc.) - used more often than global approach

6.3.2.3. One or more facets may be the primary cause of lack of job satisfaction

6.3.3. Measurement through interviews, group Meetings, self-reports MSQ and JDI (Rating scales or questionnaires)

6.3.4. No direct link between factors contribute to Job satisfaction: Job satisfaction may be moderated by the perceptions of individual workers

6.3.5. Porter-Lawler Model: Connection between job satisfaction and Job performance mediated by work-related rewards

6.3.5.1. Moderate linkages between satisfaction and performance

6.3.5.2. Psychological well-being rather predicts Job performance

6.3.6. Organizational Commitment: worker's attitudes about entire work organization; measured by OCQ questionnaire

6.4. Employee attitudes and attendance

6.4.1. Absenteeism

6.4.1.1. Voluntary absenteeism: strongly associated with Job satisfaction

6.4.1.2. Involuntary absenteeism: beyond control of the employee

6.4.1.3. difficult to define and measure

6.4.2. Turnover

6.4.2.1. Voluntary turnover: when a competent/capable employee leaves to work elsewhere - costly to the organization

6.4.2.2. Involuntary turnover: employee is fired (positive weeding process) or laid off (financial reasons/beyond control management)

6.4.2.3. Turnover intentions: Workers self-reported intentions to leave their jobs

6.4.3. Changes in job structure

6.4.3.1. Job enlargement

6.4.3.2. Job rotation

6.4.3.3. Job enrichment

6.4.3.4. Job simplification

6.4.4. Job satisfaction + organizational commitment = predictors of employee turnover

6.4.5. Absenteeism = predictor of employee turnover

6.5. Increasing Job satisfaction + Organization commitment

6.5.1. Benefit programs

6.5.2. Flexible work shedules

6.5.2.1. Compressed workweeks (decrease of workdays, increase of workhours, extra days off, 3-day-weekend, drawbacks for working parents)

6.5.2.2. Flextime: "Gleitzeit", 40h per week, flexibility

6.5.2.3. Reduction of stress, Increase of satisfaction and commitment, positive link to productivity

6.5.2.4. "New Ways of working": flexible timing (no fixed shedules), flexible location (zb. home-office), electronic communication Technology

6.5.2.4.1. More autonomy, more flexibility

6.5.2.4.2. For employers: Productivity, innovation, wellbeing, satisfaction, leadership

6.5.2.4.3. For employees: Performance, wellbeing, work-life balance, recovery

6.5.3. Changes in pay structure

6.5.3.1. Profit sharing: All E.'s receive small share of organization's profits

6.5.3.2. Ownership: E.'s own part of an organization

6.5.3.3. Gain sharing: Pay contingent on effective group performance

6.5.3.4. Skill-based: E.'s paid based on knowledge, skills

6.5.3.5. Merit pay: E.'s receive base rate + additional pay based on performance

6.6. Positive employee behaviours

6.6.1. Organizational Citizenship behaviours (OCB)

6.6.1.1. willingness to "go the extra mile"

6.6.1.2. product of high level of motivation and commitment

6.6.2. Positive affect and employee well-being

6.6.2.1. Positive affect: influencing employee attitudes, fostering positive employee behaviours

6.6.2.2. If individual is treated unfairly or is undercompensated even with positive emotions, Job satisfaction and positive work behaviours will decline

6.6.2.3. I/O Psychology two important objectives: 1. Improve physical+social environment at work (enhance worker well-being, satisfaction, life quality), 2. Improve organizational outcomes by increasing employee participation in, and commitment to organizational processes

7. Stress and CWB

7.1. Key terms

7.1.1. Stress

7.1.2. Stressors - environmental forces affecting the person

7.1.3. Strains - negative consequences that occur due to the stressors taxing or exceeding the resources/capacity of the person

7.2. Organizational Stressors

7.2.1. Organizational structure and Control - rigid policies

7.2.2. Human resource systems - lack of Training, inadequate Career opportunities

7.2.3. Reward systems - inquitable rewards

7.2.4. Leadership - lack of respect, poor relationships

7.2.5. Factors intrinsic to the Job - workload, insufficient control

7.2.6. Bad team processes

7.3. Challenge/ hindrance stressors at work

7.3.1. Challenge stressors - time pressure, work complexity, work responsibility

7.3.2. Hindrance stressors - role conflict, role ambiguity, role overload, daily hassles

7.3.3. Stressors in work and non-work settings

7.4. Sources of worker stress

7.4.1. situational sources

7.4.1.1. arising from certain conditions that exist in the work environment or in the worker’s personal life

7.4.2. dispositional sources

7.4.2.1. Type A behaviour pattern - excessive drive/competitiveness, impatience

7.4.2.2. self-efficacy = one's sense of competence and effectiveness

7.4.3. work task stressors

7.4.3.1. work overload - e.g. clerical workers, soldiers, air traffic controllers, Health care workers

7.4.3.2. Underutilization - having too little to do, feeling that skills are not being fully used - can cause "Boreout" = low engagement

7.4.4. work role stressors

7.4.4.1. Job ambiguity/ uncertainty - lack of clearly defined jobs

7.4.4.2. lack of control - lower-level Jobs, highly strucured organizations, feeling of having little control over work behaviour on the job

7.4.4.3. physical working conditions - extreme temperatures, loud and distracting noise, poor lighting

7.4.4.4. role stress = natural, often unavoidable, harms effectiveness, negatively related to job performance and satisfaction

7.4.4.4.1. Cognitive processes = lack of Information for solving conflicting demands

7.4.4.4.2. Motivational processes = role stress tends to weaken "effort-to-performance" and "performance-to-reward" expectancies

7.4.4.5. interpersonal stress - difficulties with other people in work setting

7.4.4.6. Harassment

7.4.4.7. Work-family conflict

7.5. Measurement of worker stress

7.5.1. physiological measures - blood pressure, ekg

7.5.2. self-report assessments - stressful events can bring on stress-related illness and may impair job performance

7.6. Effects of worker stress

7.6.1. Optimum = moderate level of stress for high level of performance

7.6.2. Prolonged stress exposure = Physiological, psychological and behavioral strains as consequences

7.6.3. Organizational Costs = loss of money due to absenteeism and reduced productivity

7.7. Gender differences

7.7.1. Gender = moderator of relationship between stress and strain (dysfunctional performance)

7.7.2. Women: unique stressors compared to men = multiple conflicting roles, lack of career progress, discrimination/ stereotyping

7.7.2.1. Overall = women higher levels of stress than men, suffer from more health ailments than men

7.8. Individual differences

7.8.1. Core individual differences

7.8.1.1. Emotional stability, extraversion, positive/negative affect

7.8.2. Beliefs and core self-evaluations

7.8.2.1. Self-efficacy, self-esteem, optimism

7.8.3. Need for stimulation (boredom)

7.8.3.1. Sensation seeking, boredom proneness

7.8.4. Drive (work engagement)

7.8.4.1. Need for Achievement, conscientiousness

7.9. Job burnout

7.9.1. less commited to job, begin to withdraw from work, inability to concentrate, mood changes, social Isolation, increased drinking

7.9.2. 3 phases: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, low personal accomplishment

7.9.3. high in human service professions

7.9.4. antecedents: Job demands (overload, pressure,...) and lack of Job resources (lack of social support/feedback, poor participation)

7.9.5. Consequences/ organizational outcomes = poor organizational commitment, turnover (intentions), sickness absence, impaired job performance

7.10. CWBS - Counterproductive/deviant work behaviours

7.10.1. destructive behaviours harmful to employers or fellow employees

7.10.2. due to stress, frustration, feelings of inequity, personality differences

7.10.3. stealing, vandalism, sabotage, harassment, missingwork, drugs on the job

7.11. Appraisal and coping

7.11.1. Coping = behaviors to manage stressful demands and emotions associated with them

7.11.1.1. Behavioral methods, cognitive methods, problem-focused, emotion-focused

7.11.2. Organizational coping strategies: steps organizations can take to reduce stress levels for employees

7.11.2.1. Improving person-job fit, offering better training and orientation programs, removing hazardous work conditions, provide supportive work Environment, improving communication in workplace

8. Groups/Teams in Organizations

8.1. Distinction between work groups and work teams

8.1.1. Work groups

8.1.1.1. Goal - Share information

8.1.1.2. Synergy - neutral/sometimes negative

8.1.1.3. Accountability - individual

8.1.1.4. Skills - random and varied

8.1.2. Work teams

8.1.2.1. Goal - Collective performance

8.1.2.2. Synergy - positive

8.1.2.3. Accountability - individual and mutual

8.1.2.4. Skills - complementary

8.2. Types of teams

8.2.1. problem-solving

8.2.2. self-managed

8.2.3. cross-functional

8.2.4. virtual

8.3. Multiteam Systems (MTS)

8.3.1. two or more teams that interface directly/interdependently, collective goals

8.3.2. all teams pursuing different proximal goals, share at least one common distal goal

8.3.3. all teams: interdependance with at least one other team in the system

8.3.4. Teams: Integration Team (Leadership), Point Component Team (Operations), Support Component Team (Intelligence)

8.4. Team effectiveness factors

8.4.1. Context

8.4.2. Composition

8.4.3. Process

8.5. Group roles

8.5.1. Functional roles - Patterns of behavior adopted based on expectations about function of a position

8.5.2. Team roles - individual tendencies to adopt certain roles in a team

8.6. Potential team member roles

8.6.1. Adviser, Linker, Creator, Promoter, Assessor, Organizer, Producer, Controller, Maintainer

8.7. Belbin's team roles

8.7.1. Thinking - Monitor Evaluator, Specialist, Plant

8.7.2. Action - Implementer, Shaper, Completer Finisher

8.7.3. People - Co-ordninator, Resource Investigator, Teamworker

8.7.4. Belbin's principles for building effective teams

8.7.4.1. every team needs optimal balance of functional and team roles, depending on specific goals and tasks

8.7.4.2. team effectiveness depends on team members knowing themselves well and adapt to the team

8.7.4.3. personal/mental abilities = predispositions for some roles, but work against other roles

8.7.4.4. Sufficient balance and breadth of team roles for optimal resources usage

8.8. Norms

8.8.1. rules governing appropriate/inappropriate behavior for members

8.8.2. important for regulating group activities, helping achieve shared goals

8.8.3. Purposes: faciliate group production, help commit work group members to producing higher-qualitiy products/Services, increase predictability of members' behavior

8.9. Organizational socialization

8.9.1. Employees become integrated into work groups and develop specific work skills and abilities

8.10. Basic group processes

8.10.1. Conformity

8.10.2. Group cohesiveness (We-they Feeling)

8.10.3. Group efficacy

8.11. Cooperation and competition in work groups

8.11.1. Cooperation

8.11.1.1. critical to effective functioning

8.11.1.2. task interdependance

8.11.1.3. social loafing - less effort than when working alone

8.11.2. Competition

8.11.2.1. Can lead to conflict

8.12. Conflict in work groups/organizations

8.12.1. Conflict

8.12.1.1. natural process, occur at a number of levels within work organizations

8.12.2. Levels of conflict

8.12.2.1. interindividual conflict between two people

8.12.2.2. intragroup conflict between one Person/fraction within a group and the other group members

8.12.3. Sources of conflict

8.12.3.1. various (individual, organization)

8.12.4. Conflict outcomes

8.12.4.1. Positive - motivates workers, stimulates them to be creative, improves quality of decisions

8.12.4.2. Negative - disrupts group work activities, social relationships, reduction of group cohesivness

8.12.5. Managing conflict

8.12.5.1. regulating the level of conflict

8.12.5.2. 5 conflict resolution strategies (accomodation, collaboration, compromise, avoidance, competition)

8.12.5.3. Helping strategies: understand/manage individual conflict behavior, effectiely lead the team when in conflict

8.13. Group decision-making processes

8.13.1. Autocratic decision making

8.13.1.1. Group leader makes decisions

8.13.1.2. Consultative decision making

8.13.2. Democratic decision making

8.13.2.1. based on majority rule

8.14. Groupthink

8.14.1. concurrence-seeking tendency that overrides the ability of a cohesive group to make critical decisions

8.15. Group polarization

8.15.1. When all think alike, then noone is thinking

8.16. Communication-based team phenomena

8.16.1. functional perspective

8.16.1.1. communication instrumental for successful problem solving, decision making in groups/teams

8.16.1.2. Intragroup interaction processes are the essential element linking inputs to group outcomes

8.16.2. Social exchange theory

8.16.2.1. People join a group and work toward group goals when they expect that the outcome will outweigh their own investment (recall equity theory)

8.17. Five-phase model of group development (Tuckman)

8.17.1. Forming

8.17.2. Storming

8.17.3. Norming

8.17.4. Performing

8.17.5. Adjourning

8.18. Gersick Study

8.18.1. Qualitative study with 8 project Teams working on a task

8.18.2. Tuckmans 5 phases not found

8.18.3. Instead: “Punctuated Equilibrium Model“

8.19. Dyads = groups?

9. Leadership

9.1. Levels of conzeptualization for leadership theories

9.1.1. Intra-individual

9.1.1.1. How leader traits and values influence leader behavior

9.1.1.2. How leaders make decisions

9.1.2. Dyad

9.1.2.1. How a Supervisor facilitates work of subordinate

9.1.2.2. How leaders and followers influence each other

9.1.3. Group

9.1.3.1. How leadership is shared in the team/group

9.1.3.2. How leaders triggers or inhibit specific member behaviors during team interactions

9.1.4. Organization

9.1.4.1. How top executives influence lower-level members

9.1.4.2. How leaders influence organizational culture

9.2. Defining leadership

9.2.1. directing, towards a shared goal

9.2.2. satisfy motives of followers

9.2.3. influence, motivate, enable others toward effectiveness/success of the organization

9.2.4. Ability to direct a group toward the attainment of goals

9.3. Theoretical approaches to leadership

9.3.1. Universalist theories

9.3.1.1. Great Man Theory: Great leaders are born, not made

9.3.1.2. Trait theory - attempts to discover traits shared by effective leaders

9.3.2. Behavioral theories

9.3.2.1. focused on behaviors common to effective leaders

9.3.2.2. Ohio state studies

9.3.2.2.1. Identify independent dimensions of leader behavior

9.3.2.2.2. Initiating structure (extent to which leader is likely to structure his role) - correlates with lower group member Job satisfaction and increase in turnovers

9.3.2.2.3. Consideration (extent to which person's Job relationship are characterized by mutual trust, respect for ideas) -correlated with Job satisfaction

9.3.2.2.4. Problem: too simplistic

9.3.2.3. Universitiy of michigan studies

9.3.2.3.1. Locate behavioral characteristics of leaders related to performance effectiveness

9.3.2.3.2. Employee-oriented leader (emphasize interpersonal relations)

9.3.2.3.3. Production-oriented leader (emphasized technical/task aspects)

9.3.2.3.4. relationship-oriented leader behaviors more effective than task-oriented (difference to Ohio)

9.3.3. Contingency theories

9.3.3.1. No "one size fits all"- approach

9.3.3.2. Effectiveness of leadership depends on situation, numerous factors

9.3.3.3. Interaction of characteristics of leader and situation

9.3.3.4. Fiedler's Contingency Model

9.3.3.4.1. a leadership theory that maintains that effective leadership depends on a match between the leader’s style and the degree to which the work situation gives control and influence to the leader

9.3.3.5. Path-Goal Theory

9.3.3.5.1. states that a leader’s job is to help the work group achieve their desired goals

9.3.3.6. Decision-making Model

9.3.3.6.1. a theory that matches characteristics of the situation with leader decision-making strategies

9.3.3.6.2. Leaders can choose from different strategies: acting alone, consulting with others, or group consensus

9.3.3.7. Leader-member Exchange (LMX)

9.3.3.7.1. a theory that effective leadership is determined by the quality of the interaction between the leader and particular group members

9.3.3.7.2. One subset of employees, the “in-group” is given additional rewards, responsibilities, and trust exchange for their loyalty and performance

9.3.4. Charismatic leadership theory

9.3.4.1. Some leaders possess exceptional characteristics that cause followers to be loyal and inspired (e.g. Ghandi, M.L.King)

9.3.5. Transformational leadership theory

9.3.5.1. Six key dimensions of transformational leadership:

9.3.5.2. Identifying/articulating a vision, Providing an appropriate model, Fostering acceptance of group goals, High performance expectations, Providing individualized support, Intellectual stimulation

9.3.5.3. Promote creative, innovative ideas to solve problems

9.3.5.4. Leaders create learning opportunities for their followers and stimulate followers to solve problems

9.3.6. Transactional leadership theory

9.3.6.1. Leader's power to reinforce subordinates for their succesful completion on the bargain, stress correct options to improve performance

9.3.7. Abusive supervision

9.3.7.1. root cause of stress in workplace, related to psychological strain, amxiety, emotional exhaustion

9.3.8. Toxic triangle of destructive leadership

9.3.8.1. Destructive Leaders

9.3.8.2. Susceptible Followers (Conformers and Colluders)

9.3.8.3. Conducive Environments

9.4. Meta-analysis: leadership styles, employee wellbeing

9.4.1. Higher levels of stress and burnout linked to lower levels of transformational leadership and higher levels of abusive supervision

9.4.2. Transformational leadership and LMX: lower employee stress and burnout

9.4.3. Abusive supervision: higher employee stress and burnout

9.4.4. no clear causality – different directions are possible

9.5. Re-thinking leadership (new development)

9.5.1. More dynamism is needed - most leadership research remains static/incapable explaining complexity of leader- and followership

9.5.2. Communication as core element of leadership as relational process

9.5.3. Influence requires behavioral manifestation

9.5.4. Influential role of followers

9.6. Leadership training and development

9.6.1. 2 general approaches

9.6.1.1. Diagnostic skills

9.6.1.2. Specific skills or behavior that lack

9.6.2. Ensure that leadership behaviors taught in training will be accepted in the work group and organization

9.6.3. Training needs must be determined

9.7. Job redesign and substitudes for leadership

9.7.1. Involves changing characteristics of the situation to fit the leader’s typical style or orientation

9.7.2. In other situations, where roles and procedures are well defined, substitutes for leadership, such as self-managing work teams or shared leadership, may be appropriate

10. Organizational change

10.1. Forces for change

10.1.1. 6 dimensions

10.1.1.1. The changing nature of the workplace

10.1.1.2. Technology

10.1.1.3. Economic shocks

10.1.1.4. Competition

10.1.1.5. Social trends

10.1.1.6. World politics

10.2. Reactionary vs. planned change

10.2.1. Planned change

10.2.1.1. Change activities that are intentional and goal oriented

10.2.1.2. Proactive situations

10.3. 3 stages of change

10.3.1. unfreeze the status quo

10.3.2. Change - movement to a desired end state

10.3.3. refreeze the new change to make it permanent, overcome pressures of individual resistance and group conformity

10.4. Episodic vs. continious organizational change

10.4.1. Episodic

10.4.1.1. Organizations are inertial, Change is infrequent, discontinuous, intentional

10.4.1.2. Change is an occassional interruption of divergence from equilibrium

10.4.1.3. Tends to be dramatice, driven externally, seen as failure of organization to adopt ist structure to changing environment

10.4.1.4. Perspective: macro, distant, global

10.4.1.5. Emphasis: short-run adaptation

10.4.2. Continious

10.4.2.1. Organizations are emergent, selforganizing, Change is constant, evolving, cumulative

10.4.2.2. Change is a pattern of endless modifications in work processes; driven by organizational instability, alert reaction to daily contingencies

10.4.2.3. Perspective: Micro, close, loyal

10.4.2.4. Emphasis: Long-run adaptability

10.5. Kotter's eight-step plan for implementing change

10.5.1. Creating a Climate for change

10.5.1.1. Increase urgency, Build guiding Teams, Get the vision right

10.5.2. Engaging, enabling the organization

10.5.2.1. Communication for buy-in, Enable action, Create short-term wins

10.5.3. Implementing, sustaining the change

10.5.3.1. Dont let-up, Make it stick

10.6. Change management

10.6.1. essential, reactive, ddiscontinous, ad hoc, fails in 70% of the cases

10.7. Critical role of self-construal

10.7.1. Self-construal/perception of the individual moderates the relationship between change consequences and uncertainty

10.7.2. Perceived consequences of change differ depending of the individual

10.7.3. Outcomes: Physiological, anticipated and perceived stress

10.8. Change causes stress

10.8.1. Change leads to stress when its consequences are central to employees’ sense of self, particularly when the personal self is salient

10.8.2. Uncertainty perceptions mediate this effect

10.9. Resistance to change

10.9.1. Individual resistance

10.9.2. Organizational resistance

10.9.3. Tactics for overcoming resistance to change

10.9.3.1. Education and communication - show logic behind change

10.9.3.2. Participation

10.9.3.3. Building support and commitment

10.9.3.4. Developing positive relationships

10.9.3.5. Implementing changes fairly

10.9.3.6. Manipulation and cooptation - Spinning the message to gain cooperation

10.9.3.7. Selecting people who accept Change in first place

10.9.3.8. Coercion - direct threats and force

10.9.3.9. Key process for dealing with resisting employees: conversational dynamics

10.9.4. Autonomy-restrictive communication

10.9.4.1. Advising without permission ("You should try)", Confronting (correcting, arguing), Directing (order, command), Raising concern (pointing out possible problems), Warning (implying negative consequence)

10.9.4.2. Change agents with autonomy-restrictive behavior trigger resistance to change

10.9.4.3. Focusing on communication to avoid breakdowns in organizational change

10.10. Organizational development interventions

10.10.1. Sensitivity Training, survey Feedback, team Building, process consultation, intergroup development, more effective interpersonal work environment

10.11. Creating a culture for change: Innovation

10.11.1. Sources of innovation

10.11.1.1. Structural variables: organic structures, long managerial tenure, slack resources, high Degree of interunit communciation

10.11.2. Idea champions

10.11.2.1. Individuals who actively promote the innovation

10.12. Managing learning- suggestions

10.12.1. Establish a strategy

10.12.2. Redesign the organization's structure

10.12.3. Reshape the organization's culture

11. Organizational communication

11.1. Communication

11.1.1. Sender/Encoder

11.1.1.1. Encoding: preparing a message for transmission

11.1.2. Receiver/Decoder

11.1.2.1. Decoding: translating a message so that can be understood

11.1.3. Channel

11.1.3.1. Vehicle through which message flows from Sender to receiver

11.1.4. Feedback

11.1.4.1. Receiver resoonds with Feedback to Sender

11.1.5. Noise

11.1.5.1. physcial or psychological distractions that disrupt communication flow

11.2. Metamodel of communication

11.2.1. communication itself forms our experience, dynamic across situations, driving force in our lives, central activity that creates all other forces in society

11.2.2. organizations are created and changed through communication

11.3. Communication process

11.3.1. Source factors

11.3.1.1. Organizational status, credibility and Encoding skills of the sender

11.3.2. Channel factors

11.3.2.1. characteristics of vehicle of transmission (e.g. semantic problems)

11.3.2.2. channel selection; can influence job satisfaction (e.g. frequency of face-to-face interactions with Supervisors)

11.3.3. Audience factors

11.3.3.1. Attention, relationshiop to sender, decoding skills/listening skills of the receiver

11.4. Nonverbal communication

11.4.1. susbstitutes for verbal communication, convey underlying feelings

11.4.2. Pygmalion effect: Sender communicates expetations to Receiver, influencing his or her behavior (Rosenthal)

11.4.3. Function for receiver: 1. additional Information, 2. used in person perception, making judgments about a persons attitudes, competence

11.5. Communication flow

11.5.1. Downward communication - from superior to subordinates

11.5.2. Upward communication - from subordinates to superiors

11.5.3. Lateral communication - same-level parties

11.5.4. Barriers

11.5.4.1. Filtering - selective presentation of Content, MUM-effect (message not forwarded to others because involves bad news)

11.5.4.2. Exaggeration - distortion of Information (elaborating, minimizing parts of message)

11.6. Communication networks

11.6.1. Centralized networks

11.6.1.1. communication flow is directed through certain members

11.6.1.2. chain - status hierarchy, message works its way up or down through the different links of button or top of the chain

11.6.1.3. Y - hierarchy with different levels of status, communication to more than one person

11.6.1.4. Wheel - higher-status member and lower-status member; all communication must pass through higher status member "hub"

11.6.1.5. faster, make fewer errors in dealing with simple tasks than dentralized networks

11.6.1.6. noncentral workers tend to have lower job satisfaction in centralized networks (due to communcation restrictions)

11.6.2. Decentralized networks

11.6.2.1. Messages can originate at any point, not directed through specific members

11.6.2.2. Circle - communication occuring between members accessible to each other, difficult to trace source of message

11.6.2.3. All-channel or comcon - complete freedom among communication links

11.6.2.4. better for complex/creative tasks than centralized networks

11.7. Formal/informal communcation

11.7.1. Organigram - diagram of organizations hierarchy representing formal lines of communication

11.7.2. Grapevine - informal communication network in organization

11.7.2.1. Friendship - determines who communicates with whom

11.7.2.2. Usage - People who are links in formal lines also likely to be links in grapevine

11.7.2.3. more efficient for sharing info than are formal lines

11.7.2.4. vital for maintaining social relationships among employees, encouraging unity/commitment to work group

11.7.2.5. rumors - may occur within grapevine, presented as fact/ may not be true

11.7.2.6. gossip - getting informations, gaining influence, releasing pent-up emotions, providing intellectual stimulation, fostering interpersonal intimacy, Maintaining/enforcing group values and norms

11.7.3. Sociogram - diagram of informal lines of communication among organizational members

11.8. Organizational communication and individual performance

11.8.1. More communication (lateral and supervisor communication skills) is positively related to employee performance and productivity

11.9. Organizational communication and individual job satisfaction

11.9.1. lower-level workers have higher job satisfaction with upward communication

11.9.2. Employees who receive a great deal of information about the organization through downward communication have higher job satisfaction and organizational commitment

11.10. Organizational communication and organizational-level results

11.10.1. Open communication among employees may result in a “snowball effect,” where employees quit their jobs in clusters

11.10.2. Keeping downward and upward communication flowing is considered a crucial best practice when effectively managing major organizational changes like downsizing