Physical Patterns By: Aethena Huang

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Physical Patterns By: Aethena Huang by Mind Map: Physical Patterns By: Aethena Huang

1. Landforms

1.1. Volcanoes

1.1.1. Types of Volcanoes

1.1.1.1. Composite Cone

1.1.1.1.1. They are made up of layers of cinder and magma

1.1.1.2. Shield cone

1.1.1.2.1. They are built entirely of magma

1.1.2. Ring of Fire

1.1.2.1. It is called the Ring of Fire because the active volcanoes in the Pacific forms a circular pattern.

1.1.2.1.1. New node

1.1.2.2. The ring of Fire is located near the Pacific. Japan, Indonesia, and the Philippines, are mostly where volcanoes are.

1.1.3. Status

1.1.3.1. Active - It means that the volcano erupts often

1.1.3.2. Dormant - It means that the volcano is not erupting, but it can happen

1.1.3.3. Extinct - It won't erupt

1.1.4. Where can it be found?

1.1.4.1. Volcanoes can be found in the Ring of Fire and the Mid- Atlantic Ridge.

1.1.5. Magma Chamber

1.1.5.1. A magma chamber is where all the magma is stored.

1.1.6. How do they occur?

1.1.6.1. It occurs when molten magma breaks through the Earth's thin crust. Then the molten magma will find its way to surface from cracks or fault lines.

1.1.7. When magma reaches the the surface. it is called lava.

1.1.8. Pipe

1.1.8.1. A pipe is inside of the volcano, and is connected to the magma chamber. The peak of the volcano can be blown off by the intense magma and gas pushing it up through the pipe.

1.2. Shield

1.2.1. How was it created?

1.2.1.1. It was created by a volcanic activity. It was made up of igneous rocks. Heat and pressure changed parts of it. That is how metamorphic rock are formed.

1.2.2. An example of a shield is the Canadian Shield.

1.2.3. The shield regions were scattered across Earth, as Pangea seperated

1.3. Fold Mountains

1.3.1. When the plates are dragged together, the layers will form an arch. Then over time sedmentary layers will be piled on. Later on, the mountain will be metamorphic rock because of the pressure.

1.3.2. They have been built from thick layers of sedimentary rocks from the ocean basins

1.4. Rivers and Valleys

1.4.1. Trellis Drainage

1.4.1.1. It is a rectangular drainage pattern. It switches from hard and soft rocks..

1.4.1.1.1. It looks like an antenna

1.4.2. Dendritic drainage

1.4.2.1. It is the most common type. It is like a tree. There will be one main stream, and other little streams that connects with the main stream

2. Natural Disasters

2.1. Earthquakes

2.1.1. They use a Richter Scale to measure the magnitude of an earthquake

2.1.2. How do they occur?

2.1.2.1. Earthquakes occur when the tectonic plates are ripped apart, hauled together, or crash in to each other.

2.1.3. The higher the number that is on a Richter Scale, the more powerful it is. The lower it is, the less dangerous it is

2.2. Tsunamis

2.2.1. Tsunamis occur when the ocean floor shakes. This causes tremors, and makes very tall waves. The water will clash on the shore in a circular pattern

2.2.2. Example - If you have a cup filled with water then drop a rock in side it. The water will spill out of the cups and on to your hands. This is what a tsunami looks like, except it doesn't draw back.

2.2.3. A tsunami will drag everything when it gets drawn back. If you were in the tsunami, you might drown.

2.2.4. If there was a tsunami, then you will have to run high land.

2.3. Hurricans

2.3.1. How do hurricans happen?

2.3.1.1. It happens when the warm air rises and then cooler air goes in to the base in a spiral motion. When this is happening, new air is heated and rises. This is called a tropical distubance. As it continues, it will become larger and faster and that is when it reaches the hurrican stage.

2.3.1.1.1. It is the most common type. It is like a tree. There will be one main stream, and other little streams that connects with the main stream

2.3.2. A hurrican forms in the water. They use a Saffir - Simpdon scale to measure the speed and the storm surge. The center of the hurrican is called an eye.

2.3.3. Global warming

2.3.3.1. Global warming can cause many hurricans because the Earth's air is getting warmer. The sun's energy can make tropical storms

2.4. Tornadoes

2.4.1. Tornadoes happen over land. They often happen at Canada and America.

2.4.2. How does it form?

2.4.2.1. When cool air starts moving in a spiral motion. The warm air will then enter the bottom of the tornado and have the cool air move around the warm air.

2.4.3. It is measured with a Enhanced Fujita Scale.

2.4.4. Tornadoes usually happen during spring. and summer.

2.4.5. How do they occur?

2.4.5.1. They occur when warm air meets cool air.

2.4.6. Vortex

2.4.6.1. When the tornado starts getting faster and faster, it is called a vortex. Eventually it will start to pick stuff up.

3. Climate

3.1. Continental Climate

3.1.1. Hot summers and cold winters

3.1.1.1. It is not near huge bodies of water. It is more drier than the maritime climate.

3.1.1.1.1. The general location is all around the world

3.2. Desert/Arid Climate

3.2.1. Very hot and dry

3.2.1.1. The wind is very cool and dry

3.2.1.1.1. The general location is Egypt and South Africa

3.3. Maritime Climate

3.3.1. Cool winters and warm summers

3.3.1.1. They have plenty of rain when wind blows

3.3.1.1.1. The general location is near large bodies of water

3.4. Polar climate

3.4.1. It has severe winters and cool summers.

3.4.1.1. The lights will reflect upward into the sky, and that creates the northern lights. That also why it is so cold.

3.4.1.1.1. The general location for polar climate is Siberia

3.5. Tropical climate

3.5.1. Tropical climate has hot temperatures and a lot of moisture.

3.5.1.1. They have that kind of climate because they are near the equator. That is where the sun is most concentrated on.

3.5.1.1.1. The general location is around the equator

3.6. Temperate climate

3.6.1. Moderate temperature all year.

3.6.1.1. The sun's rays make enough solar energy and is less intense than the Tropical climate. Also, the sun's rays hit the Earth's curve in a slight angle

3.6.1.1.1. The general location is Australia. It is between the equator and the South pole

3.7. What causes different climate?

3.7.1. Latitude

3.7.1.1. Latitude can cause different climate based on where the sun's rays are most concentrated on. That is why the sun is more intense near the equator, than the North Pole and South Pole.

3.7.2. Moving Air

3.7.2.1. Warm air is light and rises. Cool air is dense and sinks. Light, rising air creates low pressure.

3.7.3. Mountains

3.7.3.1. On mountain peaks, there is less oxygen. The altitude and the exposure to sunlight can change the mountain climate.

3.7.3.1.1. The higher you are on the mountain the cooler it is. Also, the backside of the mountain is a lot cooler than the side that is receiving sunlight

3.8. Water bodies

3.8.1. They make the temperature more comfortable because it will feel a bit cooler.

4. Agriculture

4.1. What effects agriculture?

4.1.1. Climate can effect agriculture because if it is too cold then you won't be able to plant crops or raise animals.

4.1.2. Soil can affect agriculture because you need to know what kind of soil will be suitable for the things you are growing or raising.

4.1.2.1. The darker and thicker the soil layers are, the better it is.

4.1.3. Natural vegetation also has an effect on agriculture because it is important to the soil fertility.

4.2. Intensive farming means that labour is used to get food.

4.3. Extensive farming means that little labour is used, but often uses large machinery.

4.4. Subsistence agriculture means that the farmer only produce enough for their family.

4.5. Subsistence

4.5.1. These farmer work all the time, so they can feed themselves. They use animal and their own labour.

4.5.1.1. Normadic Herders

4.5.1.1.1. They survive by patches of grass and watering holes to help their animals. In Africa, the most common animals are goats, camels, or cattle.

4.5.1.2. Shifting Cultivators

4.5.1.2.1. They use fire to clear the land and plant their crops there. When the soil fertility drops, they would move to a different land.

4.5.1.3. Small landers

4.5.1.3.1. They have small permanent farms. Everyone in the family works. If they have anything extra, they will sell or trade it.

4.6. Commercial

4.6.1. They would have a large amount of products, then sell them. They don't eat the things they planted. However they buy things from the grocery store.The family members usually don't have to work on the farms. Most of them make organic foods.

4.7. Specialized

4.7.1. It focuses on one type of product.