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History Of Canada by Mind Map: History Of Canada

1. Governance of British North America

1.1. Great Britain Gains New Territory

1.1.1. French and Indian War happened France North American Territories were given to the British The population was mostly made up of Indigenous and French Colonists French law, language, and religion was very dominant in British North America

1.1.2. James Murray was a British military officer that became the first governor in Quebec He brought British Government rules to Quebec 11 years later, the Quebec Act was created

1.2. Creation of Upper and Lower Canada

1.2.1. 40,000 loyalists moved out of U.S. and went into British North America Happened after the American War of Independance

1.2.2. At the time of the Constitutional Act, any lands that were not already part of a seigneurial system could be part of the freehold system In a seigneurial system, there were plots of land given to noblemen by a person known as a seigneur

1.2.3. Lord William Wyndham Grenville proposed an agreement to help calm tensions between the French and the British The Constitutional Act came into effect changes that were part of the reorganization of British North America Made Upper and Lower Canada Tensions increased and the governor- general could veto any decisions made by the individual assemblies Assembly is a deliberative council usually legislative or juridical in purpose and power

1.3. Two Governments

1.3.1. Upper and Lower Canada has two different governments In each government, they had a legislative council, executive council, and a legislative assembly Legislative council could propose laws, it also chooses whether or not to approve laws written by the Legislative assembly. Members were chosen to the Legislative council for life Executive Council advises the Legislative-governor how to run the province. These people are chosen by the Lieutenant Governor Legislative Assembly proposed taxes and laws based on the needs of their province, they had very little power. Most people could afford to run for this seat. Great Britain sent a representative to oversee that governments The person was called a governor-general

1.4. Changes in Government

1.4.1. Many settlers from Upper and Lower Canada wanted a fair government

1.4.2. Lyon Mackenzie was voted in the legislative assembly The government did not meet their demands so he took higher measures Lyon Mackenzie met 1,000 men and decided to fight against the government to take over the system 1,500 loyalists fought against them, but they lost When the fight was over, Lyon Mackenzie was thrown out of the country

1.5. Responsible Government

1.5.1. British Parliament passed the Act of Union Now Upper and Lower Canada has the same government now Upper Canada was the Legislative Council and the members were chosen for life Lower Canada was the House of Assembly and people would be elected. The person had to be a man with property Sir. Louis-Hippolyte LaFontaine and Robert Baldwin won and work well together North America was granted with a responsible governement

2. Road to Upper and Lower Canada

2.1. The System of New Class In New France

2.1.1. New France implemented a class system This class system ranked people on what they did High Class people were known as seigneurs Low Class people were known as habitants Middle Class people were known as traders

2.2. Tensions build between French and British

2.2.1. Both French and the British had the same goal onto taking as much land as possible French and British armies were always fighting for the land They both allied the First Nations French took Acadia for themselves British wanted a share of the land so they fought They fought until they both signed the Treaty of Utrecht

2.3. The Seven Years' War

2.3.1. British had more people and allies than New France British General James decided to take over Quebec Or else he would like to destroy Quebec The British started a siege at the Summer This meant that the siege at to end at Winter

2.4. British Quebec

2.4.1. The Treaty of Paris officially ended the Seven Years' War This meant that New France was apart of Great Britain There are new rules for the First Nations The proclamation created a new government which is called General Assembly

2.5. Arrival of the Loyalists

2.5.1. 20% of Americans stayed loyal to King George III, while 80% did not want to be British Some loyalists fought the Americans Americans thought that the Loyalists as betrayers The others tried to live their lives

2.6. Creation of Upper and Lower Canada

2.6.1. Loyalists did not want to go to Quebec The reason is that they wanted to speak English Loyalists wanted to practice their religion Seigneurs controlled the land of Quebec Loyalists wanted to control their own land

3. Conflicts in New France

3.1. Europeans to the Wast

3.1.1. Europeans wanted to be the first people to be at the Western Hemisphere Jacques Cartier was one of the earliest explorers to be there He was sent by the king of France (King Francis I) to a new world in search of riches or a new route to Asia for trading He found the route to the St. Lawrence River which allowed France to claim Canada

3.2. Jacques Cartier's 1st Voyage

3.2.1. Jacques Cartier claimed land for behalf of France During the expedition, he found Haudenosaunee People The French had conflicts with the Haudenosaunee People He kidnapped Chief Donnacona's sons back to France

3.3. Jacques Cartier's 2nd Voyage

3.3.1. He set sail on May 1535 Jacques Cartier wanted to give back Chief Donnacona's back He got the way to go back to North America The season on his voyage was Winter

3.4. Jacques Cartier's 3rd voyage

3.4.1. The 10 Iroquois people including Chief Donnacona's sons were not returned 9 out of the 10 people died in France

3.4.2. Jacques Cartier brought 100 European settlers with him on his voyage He was sent to establish a permanent settlement along the St. Lawrence River on behalf of France

4. Religion in New France

4.1. What is New France?

4.1.1. New France, now known as Canada, was discovered by Jacques Cartier Aboriginal People have lived in New France for 12,000 In 1615, a french explorer Samuel de Champlain got four Catholic Recollect friars (members of a roman catholic order) The Ursuline nuns built schools, hospitals, and their homes

4.2. Aboriginal Spiritual Beliefs

4.2.1. Every Aboriginal group has different beliefs Some of the beliefs are the same or common One belief is that they believed their Ancestors were animal- spirits In an Aboriginal's Spiritual Life, it includes storytelling, rituals, and ceremonies Elders were the ones to tell stories & legends to the younger kids

4.2.2. The Europeans misunderstood the Aboriginal People often The Europeans thought the shamans were the people who worshiped the devil The European's goal was to change the Aboriginal's religion into Christian The Aboriginal People did not trust the European missionaries

4.3. Educating Colonists & First Nations

4.3.1. European missionaries' goal was to convert Aboriginal People's religion into Christian Religious groups ran schools and hospitals for the people and colonists. In 1635, Jesuits opened “College de Jesuits” to convert the Huron-Wendat children to Catholic Later, the Europeans figured out that teaching Christianity was unsuccessful

4.4. Health Care & Hospitals

4.4.1. In New France, nuns and priests were ministered to the sick, wounded, and suffering Nuns and priests were also poor Some group of missionaries found and ran hospitals The nuns that were running the hospitals believed that god had a role to play with the illness Catholicism taught that sickness was a warning from god Surgeons took care of wounds and injuries

4.5. Religion & Government

4.5.1. The King of France had all the power at the time He wanted his colony to be Catholic So he banned Non-Catholics to be in New France The Compagnie des Cent-Associes controlled the land & fur trade The Church acted as the government officials The Compagnie promised the king to convert the Aboriginal people

5. Daily Life in British North America

5.1. Life as an European Settler

5.1.1. Europeans Settlers came to Canada at 1600s They faced many challenges One of the biggest challenges was to survive through the Winter They had to learn how to survive in the cold and snow

5.1.2. Reason for Europeans Settling in British North America Europeans came searching for a better life Their problems lured them to North America They were experiencing hardships such as famine Others did not like the government Some did not have the freedom for their religion practices

5.2. Splitting Land with the Indigenous People

5.2.1. Europeans thought all the land was belonging to them at first They had that thought till the Indigenous came through their life The Europeans started to form alliances and treaties with the Indigenous People

5.2.2. The British were more interested in settling the land than establishing themselves in the fur trade British settlements began to crop up along the east coast of North America French colonies were established along the St.Lawrence River and near the Great Lakes

5.3. Settlers making communities

5.3.1. The Settlers had to cut down all the trees They did this so that they can farm They used the flat land to build homes and other homes They built long cabins out of the trees' bark This also made room for their crops and their farm animals

5.4. First Settlers' Clothing

5.4.1. Women They wore brown clothing Reason is if dirt came on the clothing, it will not show that much

5.4.2. Men Men wore leather pants and a simple shirt in the Winter With that, men wore boots filled with straw

5.5. First Settlers Hunting Life

5.5.1. Farming For farming, the Europeans used a method called scatter Scatter is tossing the seeds across the farm soil This made farming very easy The Europeans got gifts from the First Nations People such as food supplies

5.5.2. Hunting The European Settlers used guns, knives, and spears to hunt Spearing was the best way for hunting in British North America Arrows was also called as mini spear was used often as well

5.5.3. Food They mostly ate livestock like, pigs,cows,horses,sheep and goats From their farming, they also ate vegetables and fruits

5.6. Women and Children

5.6.1. Boys Boys usually were learning from their dad Men will hunt and get food for their family

5.6.2. Girls Girls learned from their mom Women would farm and prepare foods for their family

5.6.3. Women Women would take care of the children They would farm and prepare food for their family Women made their children go to school to get education

6. Relationships with Aboriginals First Nations.

6.1. Stranger in the World

6.1.1. Mi'kmaq men fished in the south of St.Lawrence river That river and land provided lots of requirements and in return they took care of the land and water The fishermen were searching for goods until they came across two large sail boats with light-skinned men on it

6.2. Trading

6.2.1. Trading was the biggest thing in that time Trading meant selling something valuable in return for something of greater value One of the items that the Mi'kmaq traded gained popularity

6.3. The struggle to survive

6.3.1. The King of France hired a seaman Samuel de Champlain to explore North America to colonize the area Samuel de Champlain discovered Quebec There was another colony discovered in St. Lawrence New France started to increase its population

6.4. Spiritual Lives Collides

6.4.1. The First Nations and the French settlers had a lot of spiritual beliefs Later, both spiritual beliefs collided each other in New France The First Nations used cedar, sage, and tobacco as their medicines

6.5. Alliances and Hostilities

6.5.1. King Henry IV of France tries to establish another colony in North America at 1604 The King hired skilled mapmaker and seaman Samuel de Champlain to explore North America for a place to colonize The explorers established a fishing and fur-trading colony in Quebec Champlain actively sought alliances with Mi'kmaq and other Algonquin nations

6.6. European Dominance

6.6.1. Jacques Cartier set foot in North America The Aboriginal People outnumbered the European explorers The European influx had changed the aboriginal life permanently Millions of First Nations people had succumbed to European diseases France, Spain, and Great Britain had colonies along the east coast of North America They wanted to expand the territory but by the late 1700’s the conflicts brought an end to New France

7. Exploration of New France

7.1. The Aboriginal People were the first people in Canada

7.1.1. Splitted into 3 groups First Nations First Nations people are original inhabitants of the land that is now Canada Inuit Inuit are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska Metis Metis are a group of that are a both mix of an Indigenous North American and an European settler

7.1.2. Used feet, horses, and boats as transportation Fisherman traded their fish to the French

7.1.3. The land was found by Samuel de Champlain and was called New France Built a trading network with the First Nations Traveled up the St. Lawrence River More Europeans came to New France Brought diseases with them

7.1.4. Hunted for their food or picked their vegetables to eat Cook their hunted meat on a fire Wash their vegetables that they picked and ate it

8. Conflicts in British North America

8.1. Claims on Canada

8.1.1. The British and the French were in conflict for land and the places changed when the colonies took control of the land The British claimed Acadia After, renamed it Nova Scotia Acadia is now located in the provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island A treaty was signed which returned Acadia back to France British did a lot of attacks at Port Royal They took control and named it Fort Charles

8.1.2. Great Britain and France were once again at war Britain couldn't take control of Quebec To take control of Quebec, France hired a project Pierre le moyne d'iberville took control of every British Fort and transferred the land to Acadia.

8.2. The War of 1812

8.2.1. It was between U.S. and United Kingdom The war took place at North America,Atlantic Ocean,Pacific Ocean and the Gulf Coast Of The United States The reason for the war was about their trading network

8.3. Great Britain controls North america

8.3.1. It was brought to an end when they signed the treaty of Utrecht

8.3.2. France lost most of the fight and had to give up their land

8.3.3. Great Britain also took control of Iroquois and Mi’kmaq islands

8.3.4. France got to keep St. John and Cape Breton islands

8.3.5. The British continued to grow their population

9. Daily Life in New France

9.1. `Marriage and Family

9.1.1. King Louis XIV bribed women to marry the men at the colony to increase the population Colony Leaders payed large families extra money Because of the bounse and the les filles du roi( The King's daughters), the population grew quickly

9.2. Work in New France

9.2.1. Many men and women were farmers. The men and women cleared the land for their crops.

9.2.2. The men and women products and goods

9.2.3. If a man dies or was away, the women would take over It is rare for women to run a business

9.3. Colonial Clothing & Entertainment

9.3.1. Made clothing out of sheep's wool. This process is called Etoffe This clothing is very heavy and coarse Men wore baggy pants and knee length coats Women wore long skirts of etoffe du and skirts and dresses made of calico

9.3.2. Indigenous People wore clothing made out of animal skin like deer, caribou, moose, and bison skins Men wore short tunics over leggings Women wore leggings with longer tunics

9.3.3. Colonists held festive parties The festive parties are called soirees During soirees, colonists told each other stories Most Colonists and First Nations people like music The village tavern was the popular meeting spot for soirees

9.4. Food in New France

9.4.1. Colonists relied on First Nations people to learn how to grow the food Later, they had the skills to grow the food

9.4.2. Colonial women cooked food in outdoor bake ovens Women cooked on fire

9.5. Health & Diseases

9.5.1. Colonists experience many illnesses Smallpox Chicken Pox Bubonic Plague Pneumonic Plasue Cholera Diphtheria Influenza Measles Scarlet Fever Typhus Tuberculous Whopping Cough

9.5.2. First Nations group died from diseases Several epidemics spread throughout New France Smallpox epidemic killed almost half of the Huron-Wendat and Iroquois communities

10. Settlement of British North America

10.1. Europeans Arrive

10.1.1. Bajani, a viking, found the land that is now called North America

10.1.2. Decade later, Leif Erikson, a viking, came to North America Built a small settlement and called it Vinland

10.1.3. Years later, vikings return to Greenland

10.1.4. Hundreds years later, Europeans found North America instead of Asia 13 Colonies settled in North America

10.2. Europeans Start Settling

10.2.1. Samuel de Champlain was sent to New France to claim land and manage fur trades The french people formed alliances with Indigenous People Huron Wendat Innu Algonquin The French got help from the Indigenous people to survive through the Winter French people were greedy and took advantage of the Indigenous people's goods. One of the best goods that the Europeans got was fur.

10.2.2. Great Britain was interested in the food trades and fur trades. Great Britain built the Hudson Bay Company

10.2.3. Mi'kmaq helped trapping the beavers Beavers became more valuable and it was scarce to find. Beavers was close to extinction

10.3. War breaks out in Europe

10.3.1. King of Spain died Many countries tries to conquer Spain

10.3.2. Conflict between France and Britain Britain, Dutch, and Germany allied against French, Spain, and other nations France settles in Newfoundland, Acadia, and Nova Scotia At the end, France lost to Britain In 1750, the war broke out again Acadians were told an oath of allegiance to Britain Acadians refused Treaty of Paris brings the war between French and Britain to a end Britain was given all french lands British issued a proclamation

10.4. Loyalists Arrive

10.4.1. Great Britain encourages its people to move to North America People did not like the rule to govern themselves The people were at war with Britain British loyalists were forced to leave during the war The war ended in 1783 North America transformed into British North America Some Indigenous people allied with the British in the war

10.5. New Colonies

10.5.1. British helped loyalists with places to settle Loyalists are the people that have been loyal to Britain Families got 80 to 485 acres of land Loyalists were given farm tools and clothing for two years British promised to give 80 acres of land of the children Loyalists are still not happy They fancied Nova Scotia They moved to the north side of Bay of Fundy and Chaleur Bay. Numerous loyalists decided to go to Nova Scotia

10.5.2. The British decided to create The Constitutional Act The Constitutional Act of 1791 was an Act of the British Parliament creating Upper Canada and Lower Canada Upper Canada was more of a British way of life Lower Canada was more of a French way of life

10.6. Uniting the Canadians

10.6.1. Upper Canada and Lower Canada is called Ontario and Quebec now Instead of Lower and Upper Canada the new land was called Canada The new land called Canada followed British laws

10.6.2. St. John Island is called Prince Edward Island now

10.6.3. The capital was meant to be Newark, but now it is called Toronto Newark was in the center of Upper Canada The governor got worried about U.S. seizing them

10.6.4. There was another war the struck British helped people move to British North America 120,000 people were residing in Upper Canada

11. Indigenous Relations with the First Nations People.

11.1. Early European Arrivals

11.1.1. John Cabot Claimed Land for Britain and behalf the King of France

11.1.2. More Arrivals of Europeans increased Needed help to survive and got help from the Indigenous people Traded guns, tools made of steel like pots, needles, knives, axes for bark canoes, snowshoes, toboggans and fur to the Aboriginal people

11.2. Cultural Areas of Indigenous Peoples

11.2.1. Northwest Coast Is home to many Indigenous peoples, such as the,Haida, Coast Salish and Haisla

11.2.2. Plateau The Plateau peoples lived in a small region that included the southern interior of British Columbia and Alberta.

11.2.3. Plains Various Indigenous nations call the Plains their traditional territory, such as the Siksika, Piikani, Kainai, Dakota, Stoney Nakoda, Cree, Assiniboine and Tsuut'ina

11.2.4. Subarctic “Subarctic peoples” describes a number of different and unique groups, including the Dene, Cree, Ojibwa, Atikamekw, Innu and Beothuk.

11.2.5. Arctic Arctic indigenous peoples include for example Saami in circumpolar areas of Finland, Sweden, Norway and Northwest Russia, Nenets, Khanty, Evenk and Chukchi in Russia, Aleut, Yupik and Inuit (Iñupiat) in Alaska, Inuit (Inuvialuit) in Canada and Inuit (Kalaallit) in Greenland.

11.2.6. Eastern Woodlands The Eastern Woodlands includes, among others, the Haudenosaunee, Mi'kmaq, Ojibwa and Wendat (Huron) peoples.

11.3. Changing Way of Life

11.3.1. French Commissioner wanted to teach the Aboriginal People Christianity

11.3.2. French established the fur trade French made a company called Northwest Company

11.3.3. Britain wanted the fur trade Britain made a company called Hudson Bay Company British Colonies grew faster than French Colonies They all surrounded New France

11.4. Alliances with Europeans

11.4.1. British Alliances: People of Allegheny Mountain range, Members of Iroquois Confederacy

11.4.2. French Alliances: Huron-Wendat, Algonquin, Odawa, Montagnais Had the war called French and Indian War

11.4.3. The conflicts between the French and the British affected the relationship of the Indigenous people.

11.5. Americans Arrive

11.5.1. Took the land away from the Indigenous People

11.5.2. More Americans came and took more land away from the Indigenous people

11.5.3. Indigenous People were forced to live in small plots of land or Christian missions

12. Done By: Shumugan M.