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Ancient Greek Philosophy by Mind Map: Ancient Greek Philosophy
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Ancient Greek Philosophy

Early Philosophy/ Pre-Socratic

The Milesian or Ionian School

Searched for elemental foundation of all things (atom) and origin of motion. 6th century BC

The Pythagoreans

Sought intellectual foundation for religious way of life- metempsychosis influenced by Egyptians- abstract and mathematical Number Late 6th century BCE    

Xenophanes of Colophon

Believed in a single deity that was entirely mind who was not at all physical.

Heraclitus of Ephesus

Change =unity Saw unity between change and opposites as a god

Parmenides of Elea

Being is unchanging and the moving, changing world is simply an illusion Reason without senses- foundation for Plato's thought and modern Christian view of God opposite of Heraticles

Zeno of Elea

Produced paradoxes that supported the ideas of his teacher, Parmenides, 'proved' that motion and divisibility were impossible.

Empedocles of Acragas

Combined ideas of Heraclitus and Parmenides and came up with four elements that remain unchanged but form a changing, moving world.


Void with no matter exists and is composed of tiny particles of the same material with different shapes and sizes. When these particles form certain vortexes, that is the world we live in.


Professional teachers who taught how to be successful. Thought necessary to have oratorical skill, strength in debate, and a knowledge of law and politics; also need to know how to manage property and maybe run the State, and know something of music, astronomy, math, and physics How is virtue acquired?


Morals and Ethics





Theory of Forms






"Good living"

Hellenistic Philosophy

Era after Alexander the Great search for peace of mind, comfort, security, and happiness- "the good life" three main schools sciences of geography, medicine, and astronomy science and philosophy separate


Good= pleasure; All creatures want pleasure Be happy by setting up comfortable environment or dwelling on pleasant memories life of moderation, display wisdom, caution, and courage,  joys of friendship


Good= virtue and excellence complex theory of matter, space, and time, moral thoughts more important observe nature, all come to common agreement and develop universal 'rules'


Did not present own ideas, but said that such ideas did not exist. Critical of other schools, and said because they could not agree, there was no answer. Only evidence for existence were the senses, but the perception of each individual was reality to each individual.

The Cynics

Separate from others and independent; pointed out others' flaws.