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visual rhetoric by Mind Map: visual rhetoric
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visual rhetoric

The field of vision is a much wider than the sphere for the circulation of images or questions regarding the nature of representation.

There is so much more to see in our field of vision than what we actually take in. We can look at things without actually seeing them.

argumentative aspects of resemblance and representation



Context, rhetoric of an image, Discontinuous/scattered traits, Non-Coded, Denotation, Coded, Connotation, "Italianicity", New node, Symbolic Message, Cultural or Connotated

The Linguistic Message, Present in every image, The Title, Caption or Press Article, Dialogue or comic strip balloon, Anchorage, Most frequent function of the Linguistic message, Text a "vise that holds the connotated message from proliferation", Text tells us what denotational material to ignore., Relay, Polysemous: many ideas attached/within

The Denoted Image, Symbolic Message, No "pure" literal messages, literal always works in relation to the symbolic., Culturally dependent.

Panzani Advertisment, visual symbolism


Images are not always what they seem., The pictures we see are just, that..., Amplify an image by stripping it down to its minimal/essential meaning, The secret behind icon of a cartoon.

People constantly make faces out of images they se., Prefer to look at something more like our own faces., Look at more than abstract image., Mind converting images., Childhood fascination with cartoons. (universal identification, simplicity, and childlike features.)


Rhetoric, 5 Phases of, 1. Inventio, Discovery of ideas/arguments, 2. Dispositio, Arrangement of ideas/arguments, 3. Elocutio, Form of expressing ideas/arguments, Aptum, Appropriateness with references to subject matter and context, Puritas, Correctness of Expression, Perspicuitas, Comprehensibility of Expression, Ornatus, Deliberate adornment of Expression, 4. Memoria, Memorization of Speech, 5. Pronunciatio, Delivery of Speech

Figures of Speech, Figures of Contrast, Antithesis, the juxtaposition of contrasting ideas, Irony, expression that conveys a meaning opposite to its literal meaning, Figures of Contiguity, Metonymy, the substitution of terms suggesting an actual relationship that can be of casual, spatial, or chronological nature, Synecdoche, the substitution of a more inclusive term for one that is less inclusive or vice versa, the nature of which is quantative, Periphrasis, circumlocution, the indirect references by means of well-known attributes or acharacteristics, Puns, a play on words, using words that sound alike but have different meanings, Figures of Resemblance, Metaphor, implied comparison between two things of unlike nature, Personification, comparison whereby human qualities are assigned to inanimate objects, Figures of Graduation, Amplification, the expansion of a topic through the assemblage of relevant particulars, Hyperbole, the exaggeration of an object beyond its natural and proper dimensions


Semiotics for beginners

Denotation, Literal, Obvious, Commonsense


Signs, Signifier, the form which the sign takes, Signified, the concept it represents

Paradigmatic relationships, Concern sustitution

Syntagm, chain, sequential, can represent spacial relationships


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visual argument

Faigley-Understanding Visual Arguments

argument, a claim supported by one or more reasons

visual arguments, often powerful because they invite viewers to co-create claims and links

visual persuasion, 1. get consumers to buy product, 2. name / brand recognition, 3. identify with messages which leads to identifying with brand, 4. associate with something desirable (romantic fulfillment, financial success)

visual metaphor, the use of an image that represents an abstract concept to make a visual analogy

photographs, 1. support arguments used as factual evidence, 2. provide evidence of the past, 3. significance subject to contest (staged, faked)

tables, charts, & graphs as evidence for arguments, 1. tables, present an array of numerical data, 2. bar & column charts, make comparisons iin particular categories, 3. line graphs, show proportional trends over time, 4. pie charts, show the proportion of parts in terms of the whole

methods of visual analysis, 1. immediate, historical, and cultural contexts, 2. using knowledge of images to classify them


terms, enthymeme: informal method of reasoning

Traditional Perspective

context, 1. immediate visual, 2. immediate verbal, 3. visual culture

shifting standards, representation, may not represent, conventionalized, New node, resemblance, may not resemble, New node

prerequisites for visual argument (317), accept the possibility of visual meaning, consider images in context


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Tools for Creation of Semantic Relationships, Synecdoche, Definition: using a part to represent a whole or vice versa, Only elements of a total scene are needed to communicate an idea, Metonymy, Definition: using the name of one thing for another with which it is associated, Metaphor, Definition: using one meaning or idea to represent a second meaning or idea in order to suggest an analogy or likeness between the two, Metaphors make it easier for us to think about complex or abstract ideas by associating them with more familiar or concrete ideas and experiences., Visual language metaphor has multiple meanings that provide the:, Impact, Emphasis, Mood, Tonality, These reinforce the main idea, while triggering supporting and other relevant ideas.


Visual Grammar, Logic of the image, Visual Weight - the ability to place an image effectively within a layout, Tools of Composition, 1. Metaphor, 2. Metonymy, 3. Analogy, 4. Description, Logic of the space, Information Architecture/Discursive Architectonics/Outlining, Used to outline spatial arguments which leads to the usage of tools of composition, Used to "build an electronic essay traversed by the user as a space" page 365, Photographic grammar, Taking a photographic means that it is possible to think photographically, Ability to develop a photographic writing style, Functionality has no place in an essay

David Siegel's Creating Killer Web Sites, Digital space can be talked about in the vocabulary of the technologist which may be why electronic argument is difficult

Humanism, Humanists have a duty to maintain a certain skeptical approach to things like new technologies and visual arguments

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visual culture


computer imaging and simulation, subjunctive documentary: could be, would be, might have been, photography, connected observation and documentation, computer imaging; allows us to capture things too small, too large, or too fast to be visible to traditional instruments, an extension of the camera into realms avaible for human experience, CAT scans, PET scans, and MRI's, charge-coupled devices (CCD's); collect light more efficiently than photographs, sensor technology, planes (radar), submarines (sonar), weater patterns (satellite), birds and humans, MPTE; collect data on environmental conditions, computer simulation; allows an event to be reconstruced and analyzed, basis is mathematical reconstruction; mechanical, simplified version of the event is created in the computer's memory, architectural walk-throughs, give creator a sense of the building and its interior before it is built, to make changes and decide on a final design, provide info on the past and future, job training, train pilots with fligh simulation, train surgeons with medical simulators, product design and testing, companies test prodcuts, from containers to cars, to see how it will hold up, simulate the environment and the product, experimental scientific research, testing and research doesn't have to be done on animals anymore, court cases; evidence


Studying Visual Culture, Vision as Critique, Meanings circulate visually, orally, and textually., Meanings are put into things that we see. We just contract them from our own perspective., Visual Culture as a Transdisciplinary and cross methodological field., Images produce meanings such as:, Aesthetic Values, Power Relations, Gender Stereotypes, Within a culture., Spectatorship in the Field of Vision, Our field of vision is sustained through an illusion of transparent space., We look around us and see the town we are in. But we don't actually see the whole town., Visual Conditions of Historicizing, New node, New node, Images Convey, Information, Afford Pleasure, Afford Displeasure, Influence Style, Determine Consumption, Mediate Power Relations