US recognition of Morocco’s claim

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US recognition of Morocco’s claim by Mind Map: US recognition of Morocco’s claim

1. What is in news?

1.1. Morocco became the fourth nation after UAE,Bahrain ,Sudan to set aside hostilities with Israel and normalise relations .

1.1.1. As a part of the deal, US agreed to recognise Morocco’s claim over Western Sahara region.

2. Deal brokered by

2.1. USA

2.1.1. considered as an attempt to present a united front against Iran to curb its growing influence in the region.

3. Who are the parties claiming sovereignty over the Western Sahara Region?

3.1. Morocco

3.2. Polisario Front

3.2.1. In 1973, a guerilla movement sprang up called Popular Front for the Liberation of Saguia el-Hama and Rio de Oro( Polisario front),the two provinces in Western Sahara under the control of Spain.

3.2.2. Even after Spain withdrew from the region and the region was divided between Morocco and Mauritiana ,the Polisario Front contested the handover and continued the armed struggle.

4. What is the importance of the Western Sahara region ?

4.1. mineral rich area with abundant reserves of Phosphate,

4.1.1. a key ingredient in the manufacturing of synthetic fibre

4.2. . It also has lucrative fish resources and is believed to have off shore oil..

5. Timeline of the conflict

5.1. 1. Western Sahara was under the Spanish control from 1884 and later in 1934 it was made into a province called Spanish Sahara.

5.2. In 1957,Morocco which was earlier a French colony claimed entire Western Sahara region thus reiterating its historic position.

5.2.1. Also Sahrawi Ethnic group from the region began its efforts to gain independence from Spain The Polisario front was the result of the guerilla movement for the same.

5.3. In 1975 Spain withdrew from Western Sahara and the region was divided between Morocco and Mauritiana.

5.3.1. Two third portion of the Northern area went to Morocco

5.3.2. areas in the south to Mauritiana

5.3.3. The partition was done inspite of ICJ’s calling on the claim of both the countries as unrealistic and recognising the right of Sahrawis of self determination.

5.4. The Polisario front was against the partition of the region and hence continued the armed struggle with the help of Algeria

5.4.1. .In 1976, the front formed a government in exile called- Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR).

5.5. After Mauritiana decided to exit from the region,

5.5.1. Morocco annexed Mauritiana’s area in Western Sahara which led to the conflict in the area. This was settled after UN brokered a ceasefire in 1991.

5.6. 6. As of today Morocco holds 80 % of the Western Sahara which includes its rich phosphate reserves and fishing grounds.

6. What was agreed in the 1991 ceasefire agreement by Morocco?

6.1. Morocco has agreed to hold an independent referendum for the Sahrawis

6.1.1. But in 2001,King Muhammad VI of Morocco denied to conduct the poll as promised.

6.1.2. Morocco instead encouraged its people to settle in Western Sahara thereby changing the demography in the region . Morocco has also proposed wide ranging autonomy for the region but Polisario Front maintains the right of the local population to a referendum.

6.2. Why did the Polisario Front repudiate the 1991 ceasefire ?

6.2.1. In November 2020, Moroccon forces entered the buffer zone which separates it from the SADR escalated tensions Polisario front countered by repudiating the ceasefire of 1991.It announced that it will return to armed conflict .

7. What is the status of the SADR?

7.1. has been recognised in around 70 countries

7.2. member of the African Union.

7.3. Algeria and Mauritania also support the Sahrawis right to self determination.

8. What are the terms of the deal between the Morocco and US?

8.1. 1. USA agreed to recognize Morocco’s sovereignty over the Western Sahara.

8.2. 2. Morocco will establish full diplomatic relations and resume official contacts with Israel.

8.3. 3. Morocco wil open liaison offices in Rabat and Tel Aviv immediately with the intention to open embassies soon.

8.4. 4. US will open a consulate in Western Sahara

9. Possible affects

9.1. 1. More countries could recognize Morocco’s sovereignty over the region.

9.2. 2. Possible uptick in hostilities in the region because the Polisario Front has not welcomed the decision.

9.3. 3. Undermining of efforts of US and France to rid the region of growing Islamic Insurgencies.

9.4. 4. Washington’s relations with Algeria might get affected as Algeria actively supports the SADR.