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Female athletes in sports media by Mind Map: Female athletes in sports media
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Female athletes in sports media

Sports Illustrated is an American sports media franchise owned by media conglomerate Time Warner. Its self titled magazine has over 3.5 million subscribers and is read by 23 million adults each week, including over 18 million men. It was the first magazine with circulation over one million to win the National Magazine Award for General Excellence twice. Its swimsuit issue, which has been published since 1964, is now an annual publishing event that generates its own television shows, videos and calendars. Two other magazines named Sports Illustrated were started in the 1920s and 1930s, but they both quickly failed. Following these events, there was no large-base general sports magazine with a national following. It was then that Time patriarch Henry Luce began considering whether his company should attempt to fill that gap. At the time, many believed sports was beneath the attention of serious journalism and did not think sports news could fill a weekly magazine, especially during...

"girl on girl" crime - female athletes being criticised by their female competitors or female spectators (Gabby Douglas - see link)




In general, an estimated 95% of sports coverage in the United States is dedicated to male athletes and men’s sports (Kinnick, 1998).

language used by sports journalists


marginalisation of everything that threatens dominant hierarchy

strength/weakness gender references

less sponsorship

Olympics 2012

Biggest discussion in London: gender verification


Underrepresentation of women in all media (Fink & Kensicki, 2002; Billings & Angelini, 2007) - see link

language used by sports journalists


harassment by ONLINE trolling (example linked)

Action Points

education of media about huge potential: In-arena audience: 35% to 45% - according to Lopiano, 2000 • TV audience: 41% share USA - according to Andrews, 1998 40% share Italy - according to Capranica et al., 2002

Make visual where the grievances are like in the article that is linked

Speak up like Lizzie Armitstead did after winning a medal in the Guardian (link provided) => USE MOMENTS OF FAME FOR CRITICISM

It has to become more normal that women compete against men => more mixed events => so that it is not something alien anymore if a woman beats a man at sports

US and THEM mentality has to be highlighted => in gender just as in race

Media frames

Young adults and children most vulnerable

Because they have fewer social experiences and a weaker ability for critical thinking than adults (Hardin et al., 2002; Ward, 2004)