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Statistics/Data
Analysis
by Kate Makris
# Statistics/Data
Analysis

## Line Graph

### Continuous Data

### time usually marked on horizontal axis

### Shows trends in a variable over time

### how data values change over time

### What the graph needs?

### Used to see a "trend" between two variables

## Scatterplot

### relationship between two sets of data

### What graph needs?

## Measure of Central Tendency- KM,LR

### Mean

### Median

### Mode

### IQR

### Standard Deviation/Variance

### Range

## Pictograph (RL)

### Used to represent tellies of categories.

## Dot Plot (RL)

### Provides a quick and simple way of organizing
numerical data.

### Numerical
data

### A horizontal number line on which each score
is represented by a dot, or an x above the
corresponding number-line value

### Outlier

### Cluster

### Gap

### Mode

### Bar
Graphs

## All the parts of a graph: (RL)
http://www.beaconlearningcenter.com/weblessons/alltheparts/default.htm

## Frequency Table (RL)

### Shows how many times data occurs in a
range.

### Characteristics

### New node

## Bar
Graph

### EXAMPLE

### What is a Bar Graph used for?

### Parts of a Bar Graph

### Create your own bar graph!

## Circle Graph

### EXAMPLE

### What is a Circle Graph?

### What is a Circle Graph used for?

### Parts of a Circle Graph

### Create your own Circle Graph!

## Histogram

### EXAMPLE

### What is a Histogram?

### What is a Histogram used for?

### Parts of a Histogram

### Create your own Histogram!

## Abuse of
Statistics
(KM, AG)

### Reported Statistics-DG

### Misleading Graphs

### Misuse of Mean, Median, and Mode

### Statistics are used to display information and
are commonly abused.

## Stem and Leaf Plot

### Used to show each value in a data set and group
values.

### What the graph needs?

## New node

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includes the variable or quantity that changes, Units represent data, Main title for graph

Main title for graph, Descriptive label that includes the variable or quantity that changes, Units represent data

Add all the numbers then divide by the number of numbers. Example- In a set of numbers {20, 22, 22, 23, 24} the mean is 22 after rounding.

The middle number from least to greatest. Example- In a set of numbers {20, 22, 22, 23, 24} the median is 22.

Numbers that occur the most often. Example- In a set of numbers {20, 22, 22, 23, 24} the mode is 22.

The Standard Deviation is a measure of how spread out numbers are. Its symbol is σ (the Greek letter sigma) The formula is easy: it is the square root of the Variance. The average of the squared differences from the Mean. Example- 20,22,22,23,24/5 = Avg of 22.2 then subtract this with all the numbers and square it then divide this by how many numbers there is. It will look like this. 4.84+.04+.04+.04+.64+3.24=8.8/5 At last you find the square root to get the variance. So the final answer would be 1.32

Biggest number subtracted by the smallest number. Example- In a set of numbers {20, 22, 22, 23, 24} the range is 24-20= 4

Categorical data

Titles, Main title for the graph that describes the given data set., Descriptive label that includes the variable or quantity that changes.

Legend, A key that gives the symbol and shows what the symbol represents.

Link(s), http://www.superteacherworksheets.com/pictograph.html

Each x represents how many times an event occurred.

A data point whose value is significantly greater than or less than other values.

An isolated group of points.

A large space between data points.

Data value(s) that occur most often.

Shading in a dot plot in the squares of a grid paper and adding a vertical axis depicting the scale forms a bar graph.

Each class interval has the same size.

The size of each interval can be computed by subtracting the lower endpoint from the higher and adding 1., Link(s), http://www.psychstat.missouristate.edu/introbook/sbk07.htm

The number of data values are known but the particular data values are unknown.

As the interval size increases, information is lost.

Classes (intervals) should not overlap.

Daniel Gomez

(Categorical Data) To compare numbers of data items in grouped categories; order of data does not matter except for convenience.

Graph Title

Axes and their labels, Grouped Data Axis, Frequency Data Axis

Bars

Daniel Gomez

A graph which consists of a circular region partitioned into disjoint sections, with each section representing a part or piece of the whole.

(Categorical Data) To show the division of a whole into parts.

Graph Title

Sectors

Sector Labels

Daniel Gomez

A diagram consisting of rectangles whose area is proportional to the frequency of a variable and whose width is equal to the class interval.

(Numerical Data) To compare numbers of data items grouped in numerical intervals; order matters in the data depicted.

Graph Title

Axes and their labels, Grouped Data Axis, Frequency Data Axis

Bars, Height, Width

Data interpretations are only as honest as their reporters, Registered for what?

Be objective and consider all evidence provided

Question information about the responders, How were participants chosen?, How were the responses interpreted?

Will be missing information

Check graphs for essential elements, Does it have a title?, There is no title on this graph., Are there labels on the axes?, What is the source of the data?, Is there a key to a pictograph?, This graph is missing a key., No key, Does the pictograph use a uniform size of symbols?, Does the scale start with a zero, when applicable?, What are we looking at? There is a key, but no title, no axis labels., Are the numbers on the scale equally spaced?

All of these figures are considered "averages"

These figures can be reported to suit the statistician's needs

Watch for a low number of contributors, which would allow an extremely high or low value skew the overall data

Main title for the plot, complete number scale (stem) that accommodates the extreme values of the data set, Values for the "stem" written vertically from least (top) to greatest (bottom) values., a key or legend