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Chapter 9.1-9.3 by
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# Chapter 9.1-9.3

Mind on Statistics, 3rd edition, Utts Heckard, Thomson Brooks Cole, 2007

## Section 9.1

### Parameter

"A parameter is a numberical summary of a population. Its value is considered to be fixed and unchanging." (Utts, 2007)

### Statistic

"A statistic, or sample statistic, is a numerical summary of a sample.  its value may be different for different samples.  The term sample estimate or estimate is synonymous and reinforces the idea that a statistic often is used to estimate the corresponding population parameter." (Utts, 2007)

### Statistical Inference

Statistical inference or statistical induction comprises the use of statistics and random sampling to make inferences concerning some unknown aspect of a population. It is distinguished from...

## Section 9.3

### Sampling distribution

Is the probability distribution of possible values of the statistic for repeated samples of the same size taken from the same population.

### Standard deviation of x

The standard deviation of the sampling distribution of a sample mean.

### Standard deviation of p

The standard deviation of the sampling distribution of a sample proportion.

### Standard error

describes the estimated standard deviation for a sampling distribution.

## Section 9.2

### Population Proportion

Which is a number between 0 and 1 representing the proportion with that trait.

### Population mean

One of the simplest summaries for the population is the average of the variable for everyone in the population.

### Paired Difference

Data that are formed by taking the differences in matched pairs.

### Population mean for paired differences

Which is the mean that we would get if we took differences for the entire population of possible pairs.

### Independent samples

The individuals in one sample are not coupled in any way with the individuals in the other sample.

### Difference in two population means

The parameter of interest is the difference in two population means.