Democratic Republic of Congo

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Democratic Republic of Congo by Mind Map: Democratic Republic of Congo

1. Political

1.1. Executive Branch

1.1.1. Prime Minister

1.1.1.1. Adolphe MUZITO (since 10 October 2008)

1.1.1.2. Appointed by President from the party wtih the majority at the National Assembly

1.1.2. Ministers of State appointed by the president

1.1.3. 60 member cabinet

1.1.3.1. headed by Four Vice Presidents

1.1.3.2. headed by President

1.1.3.2.1. Joseph KABILA (since 17 January 2001) member of PPRD party

1.1.3.2.2. elections last held 30 July 2006 and 29 October 2006 (next to be held in 2011

1.2. Legislative Branch

1.2.1. Senate

1.2.1.1. 108 seats

1.2.1.2. 5-year terms

1.2.1.3. Seats won by party: PPRD 22, MLC 14, FR 7, RCD 7, PDC 6, CDC 3, MSR 3, PALU 2, independents 26, others 18 (political parties that won a single seat)

1.2.2. National Assembly

1.2.2.1. 500 seats

1.2.2.1.1. 61 members elected by majority vote in single-member constituencies

1.2.2.1.2. 439 members elected by open list proportional-representation in multi-member constituencies

1.2.2.2. five-year terms

1.2.2.3. Seats won by party: NA; seats by party - PPRD 111, MLC 64, PALU 34, MSR 27, FR 26, RCD 15, independents 63, others 160 (includes 63 political parties that won 10 or fewer seats)

1.3. Political Parties

1.3.1. Mouvement de Libération du Congo (MLC)

1.3.2. Union of Federalists and Independent Republicans (Union des Fédéralistes et des Républicains Indépendants--UFERI)

1.3.3. Mouvement Populaire Renouveau (MPR)

1.3.3.1. From 1967 until 1990, MPR sole legal political party.

1.3.4. National Alliance's Party for Unity (Parti de l'Alliance Nationale pour l'Unité)

1.3.5. Parti du peuple pour la reconstruction et la démocratie (PPRD)

1.3.5.1. led by Joseph Kabila

1.3.6. Rassemblement congolais pour la Démocratie (RCD)

1.3.7. Union pour la République-Mouvement National (UNIR-MN)

1.3.8. Union for Democracy and Social Progress (Union pour la Démocratie et le Progrès Social--UDPS)

1.3.8.1. principal opposition party

1.3.8.2. leader: Étienne Tshisekedi

1.3.9. Democratic and Social Christian Party (Parti Démocrate et Social Chrétien--PDSC)

1.3.10. Congolese National Movement-Lumumba (Mouvement National Congolais-Lumumba-- MNC-Lumumba)

1.3.11. Lumumbist Unified Party

1.3.12. Forces du Futur (FDF)

1.3.13. Forces Novatrices pour l'Union et la Solidarite (FONUS)

1.3.14. Mouvement Social Démocratie et Développement (MSDD)

1.3.15. Union des Nationalistes et des Fédéralistes Congolais (UNAFEC)

1.3.16. Mouvement Populaire de la Révolution--Fait Prive (MPR-FP)

1.3.17. Former rebel movements-turned-political parties; Rassemblement Congolais pour la Démocratie (RCD)

1.3.18. Women in government (% of total): 12.5%

1.4. Threats to Government

1.4.1. Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FLDR)

1.4.1.1. primary Rwandian Hutu Power rebel group during the latest part of the Second Congo War.

1.4.1.2. Operates mostly within the eastern region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

1.4.1.3. It is composed almost entirely of ethnic Hutus opposed to Tutsi rule and influence in the region

1.4.2. Still fighting "Africa’s first World War" - has involved 7 nations

1.4.2.1. reasons include conflicts over basic resources such as water, access and control over rich minerals and other resources as well as various political agendas.

1.4.2.1.1. all sides have been accused of having commercial interests in this war due to the vast resources involved

1.4.2.2. Eastern provinces: particularly North and South Kivu and the Ituri and Haut-Uélé Districts of Orientale Province

1.4.2.2.1. mostly under foreign control, and over three quarters of the estimated number of killings have taken place there

1.4.2.3. This has been fueled and supported by various national and international corporations and other regimes which have an interest in the outcome of the conflict.

1.4.2.3.1. some US companies supporting conflict for monetary gains

1.4.2.4. rich resources make it easy for rebels to finance the conflict, especially with regards to trading with Rwanda and Uganda

1.4.3. widespread and long history of corruption

1.4.3.1. Corruption and 'taxation' of regular citizens where the taxes are not used for the stated purposes or are extortionate, while exempting elites in various ways

1.4.4. Other rebel groups

1.4.5. Rwandan forces supposedly combating Rwandan rebels but also seizing Congo's natural resources

1.5. Background

1.5.1. Independence: 30 June 1960 (from Belgium)

1.5.2. new constitution: 18 February 2006

1.5.3. Formal registration of political parties allowed December 1990

1.5.4. negotiations with rebel leaders led to the establishment of a transitional government; elections held July 2003 with free elections held on 30 July 2006 and a run-off on 29 October 2006 confirming Joseph KABILA as president

1.5.5. Republic with strong presidential authority dominated since 1965 by dictator Mobutu Sese Seko until coup by Laurent Kabila

1.5.5.1. Joseph KABILA succeeded his father, Laurent Desire KABILA, after his assassination in January 2001

1.5.5.2. Mobutu had been supported by US when he came to power in 1965 in attempt to circumvent communism in Africa and secure resources of Congo

1.5.5.2.1. Mobutu Sese Seko

1.5.5.3. Laurent Kabila had been aided by Rwanda, Uganda, Angola, Burundi and Eritrea in the coup; also supported by US

1.5.5.3.1. Rebels accused L. Kabila of being a dictator after he gained control; Kabila backed by Angola, Zimbabwe, and Namibia

1.5.5.3.2. rebels controlled about a third of the entire country (the eastern parts) and backed by the governments of Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi

1.6. Judicial Branch

1.6.1. Constitutional Court

1.6.2. Appeals Court or Cour de Cassation

1.6.3. Council of State

1.6.4. High Military Court

1.6.5. civil and military courts and tribunals

1.7. Elections

1.7.1. Suffrage: 18 years old; universal and compulsory

1.7.2. Senate elected by provincial assemblies

1.7.3. President elected by popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term)

1.7.4. Results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party

1.8. To research

1.8.1. what kind of power does the prime minister and four VPs have?

1.8.2. what powers are given to the government by the new constitution?

1.8.3. what factors are preventing the UN and other international actors from giving additional help?

2. Economics

2.1. Total GPD: $21.05 billion (2008 est)

2.1.1. GPD growth rate; 8% (2008 est.)

2.1.2. GPD per capital: $300 (2008 est.)

2.1.3. By sector:

2.1.3.1. agriculture: 55%

2.1.3.2. industry: 11%

2.1.3.3. services: 11%

2.2. Labor Force: 15 million

2.3. Budget

2.3.1. revenues: $700 million

2.3.2. expenditures: $2 billion

2.4. Inflation rate: 16.7%

2.5. Industries

2.5.1. Agriculture

2.5.1.1. coffee, sugar, palm oil, rubber, tea, quinine, cassava (tapioca), palm oil, bananas, root crops, corn, fruits; wood products

2.5.2. Mining

2.5.2.1. mining (diamonds, gold, copper, cobalt, coltan, zinc)

2.5.2.1.1. largest producer of cobalt ore

2.5.3. Mineral Processing

2.5.4. Consumer products

2.5.4.1. consumer products (including textiles, footwear, cigarettes, processed foods and beverages)

2.5.5. Cement

2.5.6. Commercial Ship Repair

2.5.7. Oil

2.5.7.1. Production: 22,160 bbl/day (2007 est.)

2.5.7.2. Consumption; 10,460 bbl/day (2006 est.)

2.5.7.3. Exports: 19,820 bbl/day (2005)

2.5.7.4. Imports: 8,220 bbl/day

2.6. Exports

2.6.1. diamonds, gold, copper, cobalt, wood products, crude oil, coffee

2.6.1.1. diamond mine in DRC

2.6.2. Partners: Belgium 23.6%, China 21.7%, US 9.8%, Finland 9.1%, Brazil 9.1%, France 6.8%, Zambia 6%

2.7. Imports

2.7.1. foodstuffs, mining and other machinery, transport equipment, fuels

2.7.2. Partners: South Africa 22.5%, Belgium 10.3%, Zambia 8.9%, Zimbabwe 7.5%, France 6.8%, Kenya 6.3%, US 4.1%, Cote d'Ivoire 4.1%

2.8. External debt

2.8.1. $10 billion (2007 est.)

2.9. Currency

2.9.1. Congolese Franc (CDF)

2.10. 2007, The World Bank granted up to $1.3 billion in assistance funds for 3 years

2.11. global economic downturn has led to lowered value of natural resources, which had hurt Congo's economy

2.12. elite networks running a self-financing war economy centered on pillage

2.13. Pipelines: gas 37 km; oil 39 km; refined products 756 km (2008)

2.14. To research

2.14.1. what is preventing them from fully profiting from their natural resources?

2.14.2. how could Congo fully exploit their natural resources?

2.14.3. How much of the population is unemployed?

2.15. Estimated earned income (PPP US$)

2.15.1. Women: 488

2.15.2. Men: 944

3. Geography

3.1. Location

3.1.1. Central Africa, northeast of Angola

3.1.2. straddles equator

3.1.3. has narrow strip of land that controls the lower Congo River and is only outlet to South Atlantic Ocean

3.1.4. Borders

3.1.4.1. Uganda for 765 km

3.1.4.2. Sudan for 628 km

3.1.4.3. Republic of the Congo for 2,410 km

3.1.4.4. Angola for 2,511 km

3.1.4.5. Burundi for 233 km

3.1.4.6. Central African Republic for 1,577 km

3.1.4.7. Rwanda for 217 km

3.1.4.8. Tanzania for 459 km

3.1.4.9. Zambia for 1,930 km

3.2. Natural Resources

3.2.1. cobalt

3.2.2. niobium

3.2.3. tantalum

3.2.4. petroleum

3.2.4.1. natural gas reserves: 991.1 million cu m

3.2.4.2. Oil reserves: 180 million bbl

3.2.5. industrial and gem diamonds

3.2.6. gold, silver, copper, tin

3.2.7. zinc

3.2.8. manganese

3.2.9. uranium

3.2.10. coal

3.2.11. hydropower

3.2.12. timber

3.3. Environmental Hazards

3.3.1. periodic droughts in south

3.3.2. Congo River floods (seasonal)

3.3.3. Active volcanoes in the east, in the Great Rift Valley

3.3.4. poaching of wildlife populations

3.3.5. water pollution

3.3.6. deforestation; refugees responsible for significant deforestation

3.3.7. soil erosion

3.3.8. mining of minerals adding to environmental damage

3.4. Land

3.4.1. Area:2,345,410 sq km

3.4.2. 19 largest land mass in the world, slightly less than 1/4 the size of the US

3.4.3. land area: 2,267,600 sq km

3.4.3.1. Forest area (% total land): 58.9%; 1,336.1 thousand sq km

3.4.4. water area: 77,810 sq km

3.4.5. Coastline: 37 km

3.4.6. territorial sea: 12 nm

3.4.7. Land Use: arable land: 2.86% permanent crops: 0.47% other: 96.67%

3.4.8. Total Renewable Water Sources: 1,283 cu km (2001)

3.4.9. Irrigated Land: 110 sq km (2003)

3.4.10. lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

3.4.11. highest point: Pic Marguerite on Mont Ngaliema (Mount Stanley) 5,110 m

3.4.12. dense tropical rain forest in central river basin and eastern highlands

3.5. Climate

3.5.1. tropical

3.5.2. hot and humid in equatorial river basin

3.5.3. cooler and wetter in eastern highlands

3.5.4. cooler and drier in southern highlands

3.5.5. north of Equator - wet season (April to October), dry season (December to February)

3.5.6. south of Equator - wet season (November to March), dry season (April to October)

3.6. Main Cities

3.6.1. Capital: Kinshasa

3.6.2. Kananga, Kisangani, Lubumbashi, Mbuji-Mayi

3.7. 10 provinces

3.7.1. Bandundu, Bas-Congo, Equateur, Kasai-Occidental, Kasai-Oriental, Katanga, Kinshasa - capital, Maniema, Nord-Kivu, Orientale, Sud-Kivu

3.7.1.1. Highly centralized system with little autonomy at regional or local level

3.8. Ports and terminals

3.8.1. Banana, Boma, Bukavu, Bumba, Goma, Kalemie, Kindu, Kinshasa, Kisangani, Matadi, Mbandaka

4. Technology

4.1. Electricity

4.1.1. Electricity production: 7.243 billion kWh

4.1.2. Electricity Exports: 1.799 billion kWh (2006 est.)

4.1.3. Electricity Imports: 6 million kWh (2006 est.)

4.1.4. Population without electricity (in millions): 53.8

4.2. Telephones

4.2.1. mobile phones; 6.592 million (2007)

4.2.2. Telephone main lines: 9,700 (2006)

4.2.3. domestic: barely adequate wire and microwave radio relay service in and between urban areas

4.3. Internet

4.3.1. Internet hosts: 3,211 (2008)

4.3.2. Internet Users: 230,400 (2007)

4.4. Transportation

4.4.1. Air

4.4.1.1. Airports: 200 (2008)

4.4.1.2. Airports with paved runways: total: 26

4.4.2. Rail

4.4.2.1. total 5,138 km

4.4.3. Roadways

4.4.3.1. total: 153,497 km

4.4.3.2. paved: 2,794 km

4.4.3.3. unpaved: 150,703 km

4.4.4. Water

4.4.4.1. 15,000 km (2008)

4.4.4.2. 1 merchant marine; by type: petroleum tanker 1

4.5. Media

4.5.1. Newspapers and periodicals: Circulation Daily: 129,000

4.5.2. Televisions 6,478,000

4.5.2.1. TV stations: 4 (2001)

4.5.2.2. Households with television 1.69 %

4.5.3. Newspapers and periodicals, Number of titles: Daily 9

4.5.4. Radios 18,030,000

4.6. To research

4.6.1. what do the newspapers say about the violence and situation in DRC?

4.6.2. how independent are media sources from government control or censorship?

5. Military

5.1. weapons have come from the former Soviet bloc countries as well as the United States, who have also provided military training

5.2. Branches

5.2.1. Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Forces d'Armees de la Republique Democratique du Congo, FARDC): Army, National Navy (La Marine Nationale), Congolese Air Force (Force Aerienne Congolaise, FAC) (2008)

5.2.2. The majority of FARDC members are land forces; also has a small air force and even smaller navy

5.2.3. Together the three services may number around 130,000 personnel

5.3. Manpower available

5.3.1. Age

5.3.1.1. 18-45 years of age for military service

5.3.2. males age 16-49: 8,925,355

5.3.3. females age 16-49: 9,047,356

5.3.4. Manpower reaching military age annually

5.3.4.1. male: 814,199

5.3.4.2. female: 811,238

5.4. Annaul expenditure for military 2.5% of GDP

5.5. presidential force called the Republican Guard, but it and the National Congolese Police (PNC) are not part of the Armed Forces

5.6. The government, the UN, the EU, and bilateral partners including Angola, South Africa, and Belgium attempting to create viable force with ability to provide DRC with stability and security

5.7. Problems

5.7.1. funded by rich natural resources but weakened by war and underfunding

5.7.2. widespread corruption, extortion of civilians by FARDC

5.7.3. one of most unstable forces in Africa

5.8. Major General Joseph Kabila Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces

5.9. FARDC chief of staff: Major General Sungilanga Kisempia (PPRD)

5.10. UN deployed team MONUC to help human rights but plagued by lacks equipment, personnel, international backing, and has weak mandate

5.10.1. over 16,000 peacekeepers

5.11. To research

5.11.1. what is the government doing to combat corruption in the military?

5.11.2. how legitimate is the military seen by civilians?

5.11.3. what has made the military so corrupt?

5.11.4. where do the DRC get their weapons from?

6. Social

6.1. Population

6.1.1. total population: 68,692,542

6.1.1.1. male/female ratio: 0.99 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

6.1.2. Age structure

6.1.2.1. 0-14 years: 46.9% (male 16,161,301/female 16,038,024)

6.1.2.2. 15-64 years: 50.6% (male 17,289,453/female 17,483,027)

6.1.2.3. 65 years and over: 2.5% (male 699,667/female 1,021,070) (2009 est.)

6.1.3. Median age: 16.4 years

6.1.4. Growth rate: 3.208% (2009 est.)

6.1.5. Infant Mortality rate: total: 81.21 deaths/1,000 live births

6.1.6. Birth rate: 42.63 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

6.1.6.1. Births attended by skilled health personnel: 61%

6.1.7. Death rate: 11.88 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)

6.1.7.1. Probability at birth of not surviving to age 40: 41.1%

6.1.8. urban population: 34% of total population (2008)

6.1.8.1. rate of urbanization: 5.1% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

6.1.9. Life Expectancy at Birth: 54.36 years

6.1.10. Fertility rate: 6.2 children born/woman (2009 est.)

6.1.10.1. Contraception pervalence rate (% of married women 15-49) (1997-2005): 31%

6.2. Religion

6.2.1. Roman Catholic 50%

6.2.2. Protestant 20%

6.2.3. Kimbanguist 10%

6.2.4. Muslim 10%

6.2.5. other (includes syncretic sects and indigenous beliefs) 10%

6.3. Education

6.3.1. School life expectancy: 9 years

6.3.1.1. male: 10 years

6.3.1.2. female: 8 years

6.3.2. Literacy: total population: 67.2%;

6.3.2.1. male: 80.9%

6.3.2.2. female: 54.1%

6.3.3. At all levels of education, males greatly outnumber females

6.3.4. The elite continue to send their children abroad to be educated, primarily in Western Europe.

6.4. Ethnic Groups

6.4.1. over 200 African ethnic groups of which the majority are Bantu

6.4.2. the four largest tribes (45% of population)

6.4.2.1. Mangbetu-Azande (Hamitic)

6.4.2.2. Luba (Bantu)

6.4.2.3. Kongo (Bantu)

6.4.2.4. Mongo (Bantu)

6.5. Human Rights Problems

6.5.1. use of child soldiers by non-state actors

6.5.2. widespread rape and abuse of women as terror tactic by non-state actors

6.5.3. human trafficking; slavery

6.5.3.1. much occurs in unstable eastern provinces by armed groups outside government control

6.5.4. mutilation

6.5.5. Forced labor and displacement

6.5.5.1. 1.5 internally displaced peoples or refugees

6.5.5.1.1. Refugees by country: 132,295 (Angola); 37,313 (Rwanda); 17,777 (Burundi); 13,904 (Uganda); 6,181 (Sudan); 5,243 (Republic of Congo)

6.5.5.2. 90% of refugees from eastern Congo fleeing fighting

6.5.6. pillaging civilians by rebels and military

6.5.7. murder for resisting extortion and reasons

6.6. Health

6.6.1. HIV/AIDS adult prevalence: 4.2% or 1.1 million (2003 est.)

6.6.2. Major infection disease risk: very high

6.6.2.1. food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

6.6.2.1.1. 46% of population not using improved water source (2004)

6.6.2.2. vectorborne diseases: malaria, plague, and African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)

6.6.2.3. water contact disease: schistosomiasis

6.6.2.4. animal contact disease: rabies

6.6.2.5. % population using improved sanitation (2004): 30%

6.6.3. famine and malnutrition widespread

6.6.3.1. 2/3 of population malnourished

6.6.4. Some 5.4 million people have died since outbreak of conflict in 1998

6.6.4.1. Most deaths from non-violent causes but difficult to get treatment b/c of the conflict

6.6.4.2. Although 19% of the population, children account for 47% of the deaths

6.6.4.3. About 45,000 die each month

6.6.5. Health expenditure per capital (PPP US$): 15 (2004)

6.6.6. Public expenditure on health (% of GDP): 1.1% (2004)

6.6.7. Private expenditure on health (% of GDP): 2.9% (2004)

6.6.8. Physicians per 100,000 people (2000-2004): 11

6.7. Languages

6.7.1. French (official)

6.7.2. Lingala (a lingua franca trade language)

6.7.3. Kingwana (a dialect of Kiswahili or Swahili)

6.7.4. Kikongo

6.7.5. Tshiluba

6.8. To research

6.8.1. how much has the UN and others helped civilians?

6.8.2. Health and social services offered by government

6.8.3. what security or assistance is available to civilians?

6.8.4. Role of women in society vs. men