Worldwide problems August 11th, 2009

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Worldwide problems August 11th, 2009 by Mind Map: Worldwide problems August 11th, 2009

1. Diseases, epidemics and pandemics

1.1. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

1.1.1. People with ADHD have trouble paying attention, controlling impulsive behaviors (might act without thinking about what the result will be), and in some cases, are overly active

1.2. Arthritis

1.2.1. Rheumatoid arthritis

1.2.2. a disease that causes the joints of your body to become swollen and very painful

1.3. Asthma

1.3.1. Asthma is a disease that affects your lungs. It causes repeated episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, and nighttime or early morning coughing

1.4. Autism

1.4.1. a mental condition in which a person is unable to communicate or form relationships with others autistic behaviour / children

1.5. Avian Influenza

1.5.1. Avian influenza virus usually refers to influenza A viruses found chiefly in birds, but infections can occur in humans. The risk is generally low to most people, because the viruses do not usually infect humans. However, confirmed cases of human infection have been reported since 1997.…

1.6. Birth Defects

1.6.1. Birth defects affect about one in every 33 babies born in the United States each year. They are the leading cause of infant deaths, accounting for more than 20% of all infant deaths. Babies born with birth defects have a greater chance of illness and long term disability than babies without birth defects.

1.7. Cancer

1.7.1. a serious disease in which growths of cells, also called cancers, form in the body and kill normal body cells. The disease often causes death lung/breast/stomach etc cancer Smoking causes lung cancer cancer of cancer of the womb have cancer She was told last year that she had cancer cancer cells a new treatment which effectively kills cancer cells The cancer has spread to his stomach Most skin cancers are completely curable

1.8. Chlamydia

1.8.1. Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis, which can damage a woman's reproductive organs. Even though symptoms of chlamydia are usually mild or absent, serious complications that cause irreversible damage, including infertility, can occur "silently" before a woman ever recognizes a problem. Chlamydia also can cause discharge from the penis of an infected man

1.9. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

1.9.1. Chronic fatigue syndrome is an illness that is thought to be caused by a virus, and which affects people for a long period of time. Its symptoms include tiredness and aching muscles. The abbreviation CFS is often used.

1.10. Diabetes

1.10.1. a medical condition caused by a lack of INSULIN, which makes the patient produce a lot of URINE and feel very thirsty

1.11. Epilepsy

1.11.1. a disorder of the nervous system that causes a person to become unconscious suddenly, often with violent movements of the body

1.12. Flu (Influenza)

1.12.1. an infectious disease like a very bad cold, that causes fever, pains and weakness

1.13. Heart Disease

1.13.1. an illness which prevents your heart from working normally

1.14. Hepatitis

1.14.1. a serious disease of the LIVER. There are three main forms: hepatitis A (the least serious, caused by infected food), hepatitis B and hepatitis C (both very serious and caused by infected blood)

1.15. HIV/AIDS - Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

1.15.1. AIDS is a disease which destroys the natural system of protection that the body has against other diseases human immunodeficiency virus - HIV Aids research / education / victims the AIDS virus Aids sufferers to be infected with HIV to be HIV positive / negative HIV infection AIDS, the last stage of HIV infection HIV transmission It can be stated that sexual intercourse is the major route of HIV transmission. He developed full-blown Aids five years after contracting HIV

1.16. meningitis

1.16.1. a serious disease in which the tissues enclosing the brain and SPINAL CORD become infected and swollen, causing severe HEADACHE, fever and sometimes death

1.17. Obesity

1.17.1. when someone is very fat in a way that is unhealthy Smoking, lack of exercise, obesity and diet have been suggested causes

1.18. Stroke (n)

1.18.1. a sudden serious illness when a blood VESSEL (= tube) in the brain bursts or is blocked, which can cause death or the loss of the ability to move or to speak clearly The stroke left him partly paralysed. to have / suffer a stroke

1.19. Tuberculosis (n)

1.19.1. a serious infectious disease in which swellings appear on the lungs and other parts of the body a tubercular infection / lung

1.20. malaria (n)

1.20.1. a disease that causes fever and SHIVERING (= shaking of the body) caused by the bite of some types of MOSQUITO malarial insects / patients / regions

2. words for people involved in disasters/tragedies

2.1. casualty (n)

2.1.1. someone who is hurt or killed in an accident or war road casualties Our aim is to reduce road casualties heavy casualties Both sides had suffered heavy casualties cause/inflict casualties The rebels claim to have inflicted heavy casualties

2.1.2. someone or something that suffers as a result of a particular event or situation a casualty of She became a casualty of the reduction in part-time work Small shops have been a casualty of the recession.

2.1.3. The explosion/typhoon/flood resulted in 300 cusualties

2.2. victim (n)

2.2.1. a person who has been attacked, injured or killed as the result of a crime, a disease, an accident murder / rape victims Most homicide victims are under 30 accident / earthquake / famine victims a massive aid programme for the famine victims Aids / cancer / stroke victims AIDS victims and other patients who are terminally ill innocent victims All these people are innocent victims victim of victims of crime the latest victims Schools are the latest victims of cuts in public spending.

2.2.2. The real victims of the civil war are the children left without parents

2.2.3. a person who has been tricked victims of They were the victims of a cruel hoax She's a fashion victim

2.3. survivor (n)

2.3.1. a person who continues to live, especially in spite of being nearly killed or experiencing great danger or difficulty survivor of Emergency help is needed for survivors of the earthquake. sole / only survivor the sole / only survivor of the massacre no survivors The plane crashed in an area of dense jungle. There were no survivors the last remaining survivor A movie has been made about the last remaining survivor of the tribe There were only three survivors. All other passengers were reported dead

2.4. refugee(n)

2.4.1. someone who has been forced to leave their country, especially during a war, or for political or religious reasons political / economic refugees a refugee camp Refugees were streaming across the border Thousands of refugees have crossed the border looking for food and shelter

3. Disasters/tragedies

3.1. Disaster (n)

3.1.1. a sudden event such as a flood, storm, or accident which causes great damage or suffering air disaster One hundred and twenty people died in China's worst air disaster nuclear disaster the economic consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster natural disaster The 1987 hurricane was the worst natural disaster to hit England for decades. ecological/environmental disaster on the brink of disaster The peace process was on the brink of disaster . prevent/avert a disaster Luckily the pilot saw the other plane just in time, and a disaster was narrowly averted disaster strikes Disaster struck when two men were killed during their parachute jumps.

3.1.2. something that is very bad or a failure, especially when this is very annoying or disappointing sth is a complete/total disaster Because of the weather, the parade was a total disaster. disaster for The cuts in funding will be a disaster for the schools.

3.2. catastrophe (n)

3.2.1. a terrible event in which there is a lot of destruction, suffering, or death environmental/nuclear/economic etc catastrophe The Black Sea is facing ecological catastrophe as a result of pollution. prevent/avert a catastrophe Sudan requires food immediately to avert a humanitarian catastrophe.

3.2.2. an event which is very bad for the people involved catastrophe for If the contract is cancelled, it'll be a catastrophe for everyone concerned. catastrophic (adj) The failure of the talks could have catastrophic consequences

3.2.3. catastrophe (n) - catastrophic (adj) - catastrophically (adv)

3.3. tragedy (n)

3.3.1. a very sad event, that shocks people because it involves death tragedy strike Tragedy struck the family when their three-year-old son was hit by a car and killed. It's tragedy that It's a tragedy that she died so young. end in tragedy The whole affair ended in tragedy Investigators are searching the wreckage of the plane to try to find the cause of the tragedy.

3.3.2. a serious play with a sad ending, especially one in which the main character dies; plays of this type Shakespeare's tragedies Greek tragedy tragedy >< comedy

3.3.3. tragedy (n) - tragic (adj) - tragically (adv)

3.4. storm (n)

3.4.1. a period of very bad weather when there is a lot of rain or snow, strong winds, and often lightning fierce / heavy / violent storms thunderstorm a night-time thunderstorm storm strikes Twenty people were killed when storms struck the Mid-West. storm break The storm broke (=suddenly started) at five o'clock.

3.4.2. (in compounds) very bad weather of the type mentioned a snowstorm / sandstorm

3.4.3. a situation in which people suddenly express very strong feelings about something that someone has said or done political storm The governor found himself at the center of a political storm storm of protest/abuse/criticism etc Government plans for hospital closures provoked a storm of protest.

3.5. hurricane (n)

3.5.1. a storm that has very strong fast winds and that moves over water Many casualties occurred during the hurricane Hurricane Betty is now approaching the coast of Florida injure (people), damage (thing) 200 peoples were injured and dozens of buildings were damaged in the hurricane

3.6. tornado (n)

3.6.1. A tornado is a violent wind storm consisting of a tall column of air which spins round very fast and causes a lot of damage a tornado sweep through a tornado swept through the islands yesterday Tornadoes ripped into the southern United States yesterday The tornado claimed dozens of lives Tornado API is discussed in detail

3.7. cyclone (n)

3.7.1. a violent tropical storm in which strong winds move in a circle The cyclone struck the village late last night A cyclone in the tropics is caused by a smaller area of low pressure

3.8. typhoon (n)

3.8.1. a violent tropical storm with very strong winds The typhoon inflicted severe damage on the island The typhoon is gathering strength A typhoon blustered over the land A typhoon in 1954 sank a ferry, drowning 1,218 people

3.9. flood

3.9.1. flood (n) a large amount of water covering an area that is usually dry The heavy rain has caused floods in many parts of the country. The river is in flood flood water / damage flood warning flood victims

3.9.2. flood (v) if a place floods or sth floods it, it becomes filled or covered with water Towns and cities all over the country have been flooded.

3.10. Tsunami (n)

3.10.1. A tsunami is a very large wave, often caused by an earthquake, that flows onto the land and destroys things. International Tsunami Warning System Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre Despite an exciting climax to2005, the year got off to a gloomy start due to the tsunami tragedy which claimed 230,000 lives in South Asia

3.10.2. Tsunami = tidal wave

3.11. drought (n)

3.11.1. a long period of time when there is little or no rain suffer drought the area is suffering its worst drought for many years hit by drought The country's entire grain harvest has been hit by drought two years of severe drought one of the worst droughts on record

3.12. volcano (n)

3.12.1. a mountain with a large hole at the top, through which lava (=very hot liquid rock) is sometimes forced out an active volcano An active volcano may erupt at any time a dormant volcano (= one that is not active at present) an extinct volcano (= one that is no longer active) volcano erupt A volcano has erupted in Indonesia, hundreds are fear dead

3.12.2. volcanic (adj) volcanic rocks / eruptions / ash Over 200 people have been killed by volcanic eruptions volcanic activity

3.13. earthquake (n)

3.13.1. a sudden shaking of the earth's surface that often causes a lot of damage earthquake shake a big earthquake shook the city at noon today earthquake strike An earthquake measuring 6.1 on the Richter scale struck southern California on June 28.

3.13.2. seismic (adj) seismic data / waves

3.14. explosion (n)

3.14.1. a loud sound and the energy produced by something such as a bomb bursting into small pieces bomb/gas/nuclear explosion Several people were injured in a bomb explosion. loud explosion We heard a loud explosion huge/massive etc explosion A massive explosion ripped through the building.

3.14.2. a large, sudden or rapid increase in the amount or number of sth a population explosion the population explosion in India explosion of an explosion of interest in learning Japanese an explosion in oil prices

3.14.3. explosion (n) - explode (v) - explosive (adj, n) - unexploded (adj)

3.15. war (n)

3.15.1. when there is fighting between two or more countries or between opposing groups within a country, involving large numbers of soldiers and weapons America's defeat in the Vietnam War war against/with/between the war with Spain winning the war fight the war (country) fight in the war (people) be at war (with sb) go to war (with sb) declare war break out the outbreak of war civil war nuclear war the war years during the war the Second World War a war widow / hero

3.15.2. a situation in which there is aggressive competition between groups, companies, countries, etc: trade war No one wants to start a trade war here. price war All the large supermarket chains are currently locked in a price war

3.15.3. a struggle over a long period of time to control something harmful war on/against The government has declared war on drug dealers War on Terror the war against racism / crime

3.16. accident (n)

3.16.1. an unpleasant event, especially in a vehicle, that happens unexpectedly and causes injury or damage a car / road / traffic accident Over 70,000 people are killed or seriously injured every year in road accidents. a serious / minor / fatal / tragic accident a fatal accident on the freeway He was killed in an accident One in seven accidents is caused by sleepy drivers The accident happened at 3 p.m. a climbing / riding accident the hospital accident and emergency department

3.16.2. something that happens unexpectedly and is not planned in advance it was an accident I'm sorry about breaking the vase - it was an accident (=I did not intend to do it) Their early arrival was just an accident It is no accident that It is no accident that men fill most of the top jobs in nursing an accident of birth / fate / history (= describing facts and events that are due to chance or circumstances)

3.16.3. accident (n) - accidental (adj) - accidentally (adv)

3.17. crash

3.17.1. crash (v) to have an accident in a car, plane etc by violently hitting something else crash into/onto etc crash a car/bus/plane etc

3.17.2. crash (n) an accident in which a vehicle violently hits something else plane/car etc crash fatal crash head-on crash crash victim

3.18. collision (n)

3.18.1. an accident in which two or more people or vehicles hit each other while moving in different directions collision with The school bus was involved in a collision with a truck. head-on collision Two people were killed in a head-on collision on highway 218

3.18.2. a strong disagreement between two people or groups collision between a collision between the two countries over fishing rights

3.18.3. collide (v) to hit something or someone that is moving in a different direction from you A car and a van collided on the motorway. collide with collide head-on to disagree strongly with a person or group, especially on a particular subject collide with

3.19. pile-up (n)

3.19.1. a road accident involving several vehicles crashing into each other: Three people died in a multiple pile-up in freezing fog.

3.20. famine (n)

3.20.1. a situation in which a large number of people have little or no food for a long time and many people die severe/widespread famine the threat of widespread famine in Africa face famine A million people are facing famine

3.20.2. starve (v) to suffer or die because you do not have enough food to eat; to make sb suffer or die in this way starve to death millions are starving as a result of the famine pictures of starving children She's starving herself to try to lose weight starve (v) - starvation (n)

3.20.3. hunger (n) lack of food, especially for a long period of time, that can cause illness or death die of/from hunger a strong need or desire for something hunger for

3.21. epidemic (n)

3.21.1. a large number of cases of a disease that happen at the same time flu epidemic Over 500 people died during last year's flu epidemic. the outbreak of a flu epidemic epidemic of an epidemic of measles epidemic spread The flu epidemic spread rapidly throughout the country.

3.21.2. sudden increase in the number of times that something bad happens epidemic of Britain is suffering an epidemic of petty crime

3.22. pandemic (n)

3.22.1. a disease that affects people over a very large area or the whole world the AIDS pandemic

3.22.2. pandemic (n) - pandemic (adj)

3.23. endemic (adj)

3.23.1. an endemic disease or problem is always present in a particular place, or among a particular group of people endemic (in, to,...) Malaria is endemic in many hot countries. Corruption is endemic in the system the endemic problem of racism