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Revision by Mind Map: Revision

1. Malnutrition

1.1. what is it?

1.1.1. overnutrition or undernutrition

1.1.2. a diet that does not provide adequate calories and protein for maintenance and growth

1.1.3. according to WHO, malnutrition is the biggest threat to world public health

1.1.4. National Health Service says 2 million suffer malnutrition is largest contributor to child mortality

1.2. poor issue?

1.2.1. undernourishment is affected by salary also depends on culture, access to safe drinking water, climate

1.3. problems

1.3.1. brain damage

1.3.2. growth retardation

1.3.3. calcium deficiency

1.4. in Angola

1.4.1. causes irregularity of rainfall (2012 extended dry season left 500,000 starved children limited amounts of arable land no irrigation systems civil war from 1961-2002 left poor, displaced population

1.4.2. 30% of children suffer malnutrition (has 3rd largest child mortality rate in world

2. Demand

2.1. Decreasing Population

2.1.1. improved healthcare

2.1.2. decrease in reproduction (no longer need kids for support)

2.1.3. change in role of women

2.1.4. Consequences fewer children for new generations ageing population jobs and business close down lack of economic income/resource retirement ages increase labour resources are exploited- discontent of the nation increase of old folks homes

2.1.5. Example: Switzerland Upheld by immigrants Is rich- an MEDC

2.2. Increasing Population

2.2.1. more children = more support high child mortality rates lack of access to health care lack of education

2.2.2. lack of proper education

2.2.3. role women (stay at home mothers)

2.2.4. Consequences high population density generally youth not enough resources not enough educated professionals resources aren't managed in a sustainable way (lack of understanding) resources are excessively exploited eventual depletion of resources

2.2.5. Example: Niger youthful population high population density poor-an LEDC

3. Malthus & Boserup

3.1. Malthus

3.1.1. written in 1798

3.1.2. rate of population growth faster than rate of food production

3.1.3. people would die until an equilibrium is reached

3.1.4. Strengths applies to countries without agriculture eg. India

3.1.5. Weaknesses too simplistic (didn't acknowledge poverty didn't anticipate technological advancements was actually a food surplus

3.1.6. Neo-malthusian theory applies to all resources eg. run out of energy sources

3.1.7. applied to crisis happening in Somalia population doubled in last 24 years only source of income is agriculture and farm labour (available food is less) Somalians are politically insecure, don't get aid from their government over cultivation --> soil erosion --> decline in food production

3.2. Boserup

3.2.1. "necessity is the mother of invention"

3.2.2. increase in population would stimulate an increase in technology

3.2.3. people would invent ways of increasing crop supplies if needed new and improved farming humans can adapt

3.2.4. Strengths supported by evidence (GM crops) based on research, history

3.2.5. Weaknesses assumption of closed community overpopulation leads to unsuitable farming population pressure does not mean technological innovation

4. Lost Civilisations (Easter Island)

4.1. Reasons for disappearance

4.1.1. overpopulation internal war for resources, which led to starvation

4.1.2. deforestation exploited wood resources (could no longer build canoes to fish) no access to food supplies

4.1.3. disease westerners in 19th century brought diseases (eg small pox)

4.1.4. lack of technological innovation

4.2. Malthusian theory

4.2.1. population grew too fast for enough food to be produced Malthus discussed this in his essay on the principal of population

5. Water

5.1. irrigation

5.1.1. flood irrigation --> channel around a field

5.2. is replenishable

5.3. triggered hunter-gatherer characteristics in Ancient Egypt

5.4. highly structured society

5.4.1. Garamantes created an underwater tunnel with holes to the surface. Gravity channeled water from cliffs to their village

5.4.2. adaption is key when water ran out, they left

5.5. used in:

5.5.1. domestic

5.5.2. agriculture

5.5.3. industry

5.5.4. entertainment/leisure

5.5.5. power

5.5.6. transportation

5.6. stats/figures

5.6.1. 69% of earth is water

5.6.2. 3% is fresh water 70% of fresh water in polar ice caps 30% of fresh water is in groundwater

6. Mega Dams

6.1. a large dam with multiple functions that was made to manipulate large bodies of water

6.2. aid in irrigation, hydropower, flood control

6.3. examples

6.3.1. Three Gorges- China

6.3.2. Aswan Dam- Egypt

6.3.3. Syncrude Tailings-Canada

6.4. Political

6.5. Environmental

6.5.1. flood area could ruin rainforests Belo Monte flooded 400km^2 of Amazon

6.5.2. divert flood waters- area relying on seasonal floods don't get them

6.5.3. emit carbon dioxide into air while producing energy

6.5.4. reduction of water in original river threatens fish species

6.6. Social

6.6.1. human populations are displaced Belo Monte dam displaced 20,000

6.7. Economical

6.7.1. shows countries have power and money

7. Food Revolution

7.1. What?

7.1.1. global food production increased due to vast development in agricultural technology

7.1.2. invention + experiment

7.1.3. increased knowledge of organic foods

7.1.4. more food => more shopping

7.1.5. not reliant on seasons

7.2. Advantages

7.2.1. crop yield is higher

7.2.2. farmers can protect their livestock

7.2.3. products are less expensive, common people can have balanced diets

7.2.4. more productive --> meets demand for food

7.2.5. intensive farming = more economical

7.3. Disadvantages

7.3.1. intensive farming uses chemicals and fertilisers and pesticides

7.3.2. could alter the environment forests destroyed to create open fields (soil erosion)

7.3.3. direct relationship between consumption of food from intensive farming & cancer patients caused by inorganic poisons in vegetables

7.3.4. creation of hybrid livestock

7.3.5. eutrophication = nitrates in water produce algae occurs in slow or stagnant water (water we drink)

8. Oil

8.1. how is oil formed

8.1.1. crude oil (petroleum) = hydrocarbons in geological formations (remains of dead animals)

8.1.2. is more than 1/2 of world's energy

8.1.3. 1. Seismic survey: sound waves sent beneath earth's surface. Waves are reflected back at different speeds depending on density of rock. readings are interpreted by seismologists has an average of 10% success rate problems seismic noise disorients whales is not reliable- Cairn Energy spent half of 2011 digging for oil in Arctic, never found any

8.1.4. 2. Drilling/ Extraction: involves the use of turn table, drill pipes, water well and a disposal pit primary hole is drilled, cement coats the sides oil sand is seen in rock cuttings, and can be extracted oil is pumped out of the ground using a sucker rod problems creates a discharge of contaminated waste fluids -> are toxic, contain elements such as mercury and lead

8.1.5. 3. Transportation: road, train, sea or pipeline (pipe is most common) oil is kept in a constant motion of 6 m/s in pipeline problems 300 oil spills a year pipeline at the Amazon has spilled 16 million gallons of oil in 18 years

8.1.6. 4. Refinement components used in petroleum are separated and heated at 600 degrees celsius pumped into furnace, resulting elements distill at different heights liquid petroleum gas, gasoline and kerosene can be extracted problems burning oil generates carbon dioxide causes sulphur dioxide to combine with atmospheric moisture

9. Food Aid

9.1. what is it?

9.1.1. tackle hunger either in emergency or long term comes as food, money or support shares skills and knowledge

9.1.2. required because of drought, conflict, natural disasters or diseases

9.2. short term aid

9.2.1. in emergencies (immediate self-help) saves lives, provides basic necessities

9.2.2. difficult to distribute in dangerous situations

9.2.3. corruption at a local level

9.3. long term aid

9.3.1. is sustainable (for development)

9.3.2. encourages local skills & resources

9.3.3. passes on new skills --> teachers, agriculture

9.3.4. improves local industry & infrastructure

9.4. types

9.4.1. Bilateral (from government) advantages grants for study abroad jobs and local skills & technology disadvantages often "tied" -> need to pay back wealthier countries encourages corruption countries are put in debt- can't pay it back increases dependancy on donor -> loss of local industry and skills -> globalization

9.4.2. Multilateral (international -> for example World Bank) advantages development of new crops & jobs disadvantages products often are not for local consumption dependancy & debt to donor given to recipients with favourable politics

9.4.3. Voluntary (NGOs, religious groups) advantages saves lives (shelter, food clothes provided) not "tied" -> is simply given to areas in need help in emergency situations is more likely to reach those in immediate need encourages low cost, self help & sustainable development disadvantages dependant on charity's ability to collect & distribute people's donations uncertainty