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Philosophy by Mind Map: Philosophy
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Allegory of the cave

The cave, The visible world

The man, Socrates/Plato

The prisoners, Humanity, Unable to understand those who are 'enlightened'

The shadows + echos, What we perceive as the whole of reality, Empirical knowledge

Outside, The eternal and immutable world, Contains the perfect forms

The Sun, Enlightenment, Form of the Good

Going out, Struggle for knowledge, Battle against bodily desires

Return to cave, The attempt to explain new ideas + philosophy

Theory of the forms

A PRIORI, Independent of experience

The soul drove us to the Realm of the Forms

Forms = entities that exist independently of our world, Perfect, timeless and immutable

Our soul recognises reflections of the forms in this world

5 main forms, Good, Beauty, Wisdom, Truth, Justice


People's idea of beauty etc. is very different, e.g. Tracy Emin, Therefore can the forms be universal?

Plato doesn't account for the forms origin, Can they be modelled on forms that pre-existed them, If so that means that they aren't timeless and immutable

Many people don't seek the light, the truth and goodness, Plato said that this is what the soul does


All things will change

Some will decay and die

Some will not decay and die

Some things will not change, Underpinning everything there is something, Eternal and immutable, GOD

Four causes

Material, What its made of

Efficient, How its made

Formal, The expression/idea/plan

Final, The overall aim

A POSTERIORI, Dependant on experience


St Irenaeus

Image --> Likeness, Imperfect -->Perfect, We will get to know God at the end of time, Eschatological aspect

John Hick, Suffering is to make the world 'a vale of soul making'

Theodicy, Suffering is necessary to progress our souls, Safeguards Gods omnipotence, benevolence and evil in one argument


Creator, Gave mankind freedom = free will

Our purpose is to be good and seek good

Benevolent Omnipotent Omniscient

John Stuart Mill + Júrgen Moltman

Said God was not all powerful

Design arguement



St Thomas Aquinus

Summa Theologica, The world could not have happened by random chance, It has to have been designed, There has to have to have been a designer, Which is who we call God

The whole design argument is based on this idea

The worlds complexity, pattern, order, function and purpose suggest design, God

William Paley

Walking in heath and see's a..., Stone, Blind physical forces of the universe, Watch/Nature, Shows the elements of complexity, pattern, order, function and purpose, Watch - Watchmaker, Nature - Designer, God



David Hume, Order = yes Design = no, Reducto ad absurdem, He takes the argument seriously and to its extreme, Many designers of a watch = Many designers of the world, Polytheism, How good is the design?, It can't be very good, e.g. Childbirth, Pascal, 'The God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob - not the God of the Philosophers'

Charles Darwin, Theory of Natural Selection, The strongest survive to pass on their genes, Can explain the diversity of life without referring to ethereal beings, Kills the design argument at the very first stage

John Stuart Mill, Poor design, Not all powerful but is all good

Cosmological Arguement

Reliese on something else for its existance


God is a cause within a cause


The final cause, Aristole

Timeless Omniscient Omnipotent Omnipotent, Unchangable + immuutable, Perfect, LOVE

Everything can 'be' or 'not be'

So, given infinate time, everything will 'not be' AT SOME POINT, If there was once nothing, then nothing can come from it, Something has to exist - Angels(beings with infinate life), Everything has to be caused and uncaused, This cannot go one forever as it would make the universe meaningless, Therefore there must be something that caused itself, GOD


There is a jump from something that created the universe to God

William of Ockham, Things can cause something and then not conserve it, Is there a link between cause + effect?, Is God the most perfect being ATM or the most perfect being ever?