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Literary Devices used in Satire by Mind Map: Literary Devices used in
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Literary Devices used in Satire


My Definition: lack of emphasis in expression or a statement that is less than complete.

page 68 "It's because an imbecile from Arras listened to some foolish talk, which was enough to make him go and commit oarricide - not like what happened ......", This is an example of an understatement because it does not give enough information to fully understand the statement. It uses imbecile, instead of a specific name., Voltaire is satirizing the fact that he never gets the right information when he asked. Not enough information is given to him to fully understand what is going on.

Page 36 "'What a lot of plays there are!' said Candide. 'In Italian, Spanish, French!' - 'Yes,' said the Senator, 'three thousand of them, and not three dozen decent ones.'", It is an example of an understatement because after the senator agrees, Candide changes his opinion by saying there are alot, but not any decent ones., Voltaire satirizes people, mostly the higher class of society that possess many literatures. (Books, Journals, Writings)


My Definition: Mocks or makes fun of the original

Page 15 "This is all for the best,'he said. 'For if there is a volcano beneath Lisbon, then it cannot be anywhere else; for it is impossible for things to be elsewhere then where they are. For all is well., It is mocking the idea of Gottfried Wilhem von Leibniz,which was a perosn who believed that God created everything. So everythign that happened was for a good reason., Voltaire is satirizing the idea of "best of all possible worlds" and how people believed in it so much.

Page 64 "He sound like another Pangloss", It is an example of a Parody because it parodies Pangloss saying "He sounds like another Pangloss", Voltaire is satirizing the fact there is many people like Pangloss in Voltaire's time and he is annoyed by it. Candide thinks he is a great man of wisdom, but he is actually nothing.

Irony (sarcasm)

My Definition: Dramatic or Sarcasm

Page 40 the first paragraph, This is an example of an irony because our expectation of the two women being rescued would be happy, but unfortunately they are sad, due to the fact they were saved by the apes., Voltaire satirized the unusual marriages during his time. For example a women in her 20's would not fit a man in his 50's or 60's. Instead of humans Voltaire decided to have some fun. He replaced the man in reality with a ape in the book Candide.

Prince who owns very few dishes - page 83, Princes come from rich families and are enriched with money, therefore princes can not have a few dishes, Voltaire wanted to satirize that during his time there were many unstable social structures.


My Definition: A figure of speech where contradictory terms are combined Ex) Romeo and Juliet

Page 4 "Pangloss taught metaphysico-theologico-cosmo-nigology", During Voltaires time there were many people that pretended that they were full of knowledge when they really wasn't. Voltaire was probably annoyed of this and wanted to satirize it in his book, using Pangloss. Voltaire uses Pangloss as an example of an optimist back is his time. Pangloss says he studies metaphysico-theologico-cosmo-nigology, but really this means the study of nothing., This is an example of an Oxymoron because when Pangloss says he taught metaphysico-theologico-cosmo-nigology it might mean something big to a person that might not no the meaning of the last part of this long word. The definition of nigology means the absolute study of nothing.

Page 8 "Candide trembled like a philosopher, and concealed himself as best he could for the duration of this heroic butchery", I think Voltaire was trying to satarize the nonsense of war and the people who leaded them. It was heroic for the kings, but a bloodbath for the people. So, in my opinion Voltaire was trying to show that the only heros in wars were the kings, but for the others was just butchery., This is an example of Oxymoron because obviously butchery is not heroic neither is war.

Hyperbole (exaggeration)

My Definition: A figure of speech in which exaggeration is used for effect

Pages 58 through 59 beginning of the Second Paragraph, This is an example of a hyperbole because it uses major exaggerations to express Candide's anger effectively., Voltaire was trying to satirize people and war. He is trying to show that men will always fight and they will always have war. 'if hawks have always had the same nature, why do you expect men to have changed theirs?'

Page 26 "They were promptly stripped naked as monkeys", It is an example of a hyperbole because people it exaggerates effectively. People are able to strip, but not to the point there are naked as monkeys, Voltaire is satirizing the pirates.


My Definition: Something not real or the act of alluding

Page 93 You are right,' said Pangloss, 'for when man was placed in the garden of Eden, he was put there ut operaretur eum, so that he might work: which proves that man was not born for rest.', It's an example of allusion because, it is using the garden of Eden, which is a place referenced from the bible., Voltaire is satirizing the people during his time. They are born to work and use their strength in their daily lives.

page 67 "This charming letter, this unhoped-for letter, filled Candide with an inexpressible joy, while the illness of his dear Cunegonde overwhelmed him with grief.", This is an example of a Allusion because it uses the letter, to fill joy, but then it also fills him with grief. Conegande is not there to be with him but he is able to feel her love through the letter., Voltaire is satarizing the the letters that he receives from his beloved.