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Literary Devices Used in Satire by Mind Map: Literary Devices Used in
Satire
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Literary Devices Used in Satire

Allusion

Definition

An indirect reference to some piece of knoweldge.

Example 1

This kingdom is the ancient patrimony of the Incas, who very imprudently quitted it to conquer another part of the world, and were at length conquered and destroyed themselves by the Spaniards. (ch. 18)

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Example 2

This same Issachar was the most choleric little Hebrew that had ever been in Israel since the captivity of Babylon. (ch. 9)

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Hyperbole

Definition

An extravagant and exagerated figure of speech not meant to be taken literally.

Example 1

"Master Pangloss taught the metaphysico-theologo-cosmolonigology."

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Example 2

I grew up, and improved in beauty, wit, and every graceful accomplishment; and in the midst of pleasures, homage, and the highest expectations. I already began to inspire the men with love. My breast began to take its right form, and such a breast! white, firm, and formed like that of the Venus de' Medici; my eyebrows were as black as jet, and as for my eyes, they darted flames and eclipsed the luster of the stars, as I was told by the poets of our part of the world. My maids, when they dressed and undressed me, used to fall into an ecstasy in viewing me before and behind; and all the men longed to be in their places. (ch. 11)    

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Example 3

The twenty janissaries, who were left to defend it, had bound themselves by an oath never to surrender the place. Being reduced to the extremity of famine, they found themselves obliged to kill our two eunuchs, and eat them rather than violate their oath. But this horrible repast soon failing them, they next determined to devour the women. (ch. 12)

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Parody

Definition

A humurous imitation of a literature, writing, people. and etc.

Example 1

"I will never suffer," said the Baron, "my sister to be guilty of an action so derogatory to her birth and family; nor will I bear this insolence on your part. No, I never will be reproached that my nephews are not qualified for the first ecclesiastical dignities in Germany; nor shall a sister of mine ever be the wife of any person below the rank of Baron of the Empire." Cunegund flung herself at her brother's feet, and bedewed them with her tears; but he still continued inflexible. "Thou foolish fellow, said Candide, "have I not delivered thee from the galleys, paid thy ransom, and thy sister's, too, who was a scullion, and is very ugly, and yet condescend to marry her? and shalt thou pretend to oppose the match! If I were to listen only to the dictates of my anger, I should kill thee again."

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Example 2

The second day two of their sheep sunk in a morass, and were swallowed up with their Jading; two more died of fatigue; some few days afterwards seven or eight perished with hunger in a desert, and others, at different times, tumbled down precipices, or were otherwise lost, so that, after traveling about a hundred days they had only two sheep left of the hundred and two they brought with them from El Dorado. (ch. 19)

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Irony

Definition

To convery a meaning that is the opposite of its literal meaning.

Example 1

He was about to continue when he felt himself struck speechless at seeing the two girls embracing the dead bodies of the monkeys in the tenderest manner, bathing their wounds with their tears, and rending the air with the most doleful lamentations.

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Example 2

he soon found himself between two physicians, whom he had not sent for, a number of intimate friends whom he had never seen, and who would not quit his bedside, and two women devotees, who were very careful in providing him hot broths. "I remember," said Martin to him, "that the first time I came to Paris I was likewise taken ill. I was very poor, and accordingly I had neither friends, nurses, nor physicians, and yet I did very well." However, by dint of purging and bleeding, Candide's disorder became very serious. (ch. 22)

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Oxymoron

Definition

A figure of speech where words form a self-contradictory effect.

Example 1

"Cunegund!" said he, "Cunegund is come with you doubtless! Where, where is she? Carry me to her this instant, that I may die with joy in her presence." (ch. 26)

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Example 2

Honestly could not read through every word in the book and find one, nor just put up a phrase which seem to be an oxymoron but actually isn't.

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Understatement

Definition

To state or represent something less strikiningly, weakly, and in a restrained manner.

Example 1

Canndide was flogged to some tune, while the anthem was being sung; the Biscayan and the two men who would not eat bacon were burned, and Pangloss was hanged, which is not a common custom at these solemnities. The same day there was another earthquake, which made most dreadful havoc. (ch. 6)

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Example 2

The brutal soldier, enraged at my resistance, gave me a wound in my left leg with his hanger, the mark of which I still carry." "Methinks I long to see it," said Candide, with all imaginable simplicity. "You shall," said Cunegund, "but let me proceed."   (ch. 8)

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