Instruction Differentiation Piaget vs Vygotsky

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Instruction Differentiation Piaget vs Vygotsky by Mind Map: Instruction Differentiation         Piaget vs Vygotsky

1. How to teach to Vygotsky's ZPD

1.1. Teacher models the behavior for the student

1.2. Student imitates the adult's behavior

1.3. Teacher phases out direct instruction

1.4. Teacher offers feedback on student's performance

2. Reading Development

2.1. Provide children with a rich literacy environment

2.2. Encourage reading

2.3. Surround children with books and other printed materials

2.4. Read to children

2.5. Model reading

2.6. Build phonemic awareness

3. Atypical Reading Development

3.1. Poor phonological skills

3.2. Chronic ear infections during preschool years or hearing impairment

3.3. Trouble distinguishing similar consonant sounds

3.4. Poor visual processing

3.5. Poor comprehension skills

3.6. Students with reading disabilities

3.7. Slow reading rate

4. Vygotsky

4.1. Theory into pracitce

4.1.1. Practical implications of Vygotsky's Theory in the classroom:

4.1.2. Zone of Proximal Development-instruction that is planned within the student's zpd to help guide them through

4.1.3. Scaffolding-is providing hints and prompts until the learner is able to it independently

4.1.4. Cooperative Learning-are activities that can be planned within groups of children at different levels who can help each other learn

5. Piaget

5.1. Theory into practice

5.1.1. Practical implications of Piaget's Theory in the classroom: Developmentally appropriate education: Providing students with the individual instruction needed in order to meet their academic goals as well as their social emotional needs

5.1.2. Focus on the process of children's thinking

5.1.3. Recognition of the crucial role children's self-initiated, active involvement in learning activites

5.1.4. A deemphasis of practices aimed at making children adultlike in their thinking

5.1.5. Acceptance of individual differences in developmental progress

5.1.6. Believed that development precedes learning

6. Reading Development at all Stages:

6.1. Emergent: Birth-2 years-

6.1.1. Produce one word utteracnes

6.1.2. Combine words into two-word sentences

6.1.3. Vocabulary increases

6.1.4. Enjoys experiences with books

6.2. Early Childhood: 2-8 years-

6.2.1. Uses pictures to confirm predictions

6.2.2. Can use several reading strategies

6.2.3. Can read for meaning

6.2.4. Readers are approaching independence in understanding comprehension

6.3. Elementary: 8-11 years-

6.3.1. Reading is becoming more automatic

6.3.2. Readers are beginning to move from learning to read to reading to learn

6.3.3. Begins to read more silentally

6.3.4. Self-corrects when reading

6.4. Middle School: 11-14 years-

6.4.1. Reading novels

6.4.2. Getting inside the story world

6.4.3. Reading with absorption

6.5. High School: 15-18 years-

6.5.1. Critical Thinking

6.5.2. Thinking abstractly

6.5.3. Realizing bias

7. Atypical Writing Development

7.1. Difficulty with sentence structure

7.2. Frequent spelling errors, inconsistent spelling, letter reversals

7.3. Difficulty copying from board or overhead

7.4. Poorly formed letters, difficulty with spacing, capitals and punctuation. (dysgraphia)

7.5. Poor organizational skills

8. Vocabulary Development at all Stages:

8.1. Emergent writing: Birth -2 years-

8.1.1. Vocalizes

8.1.2. Responds to name

8.1.3. Uses one or more words with meaning

8.1.4. Has vocabulary of approx. 5-20 words at 18 months

8.1.5. Can name a number of objects common to his surroundings

8.1.6. At 24 months has a vocabulary of 150-300 words

8.2. Early Childhood: 2-8 years-

8.2.1. Can use two pronouns correctly

8.2.2. Responds to cues

8.2.3. About 90% of what child says should be intelligible

8.2.4. By 48 months can name common objects

8.2.5. Understands concepts

8.2.6. At 5 years can use descpriptive words with both adjectives and adverbs

8.2.7. Between the ages of 5-7 the child has a vocabulary of 5000 words

8.2.8. By 8 the child can utilize complex and compound sentences easily

8.3. Elementary: 8-11 years-

8.3.1. School introduces new words not encountered in conversation

8.3.2. Word definitions include synonyms and categories

8.3.3. Some words are understood to have multiple meanings

8.4. Middle School: 11-14 years-

8.4.1. Schools introduce new words not encountered in conversation

8.4.2. Word definitions include synonyms and categories

8.4.3. Some words are understood to have multiple meanings

8.4.4. Can explain relationships between meanings and mulitple-meaning words

8.4.5. Vocabulary in school text is more abstract

8.5. High School: 14-18 years-

8.5.1. Abstract dictionary definitions given for words

8.5.2. Can explain meaning of proverbs in context

8.5.3. Average vocabulary size of a high school graduate is 10,000 words

9. Vygotsky

9.1. Placed more emphasis on culture affecting/shaping cognitive development

9.1.1. Historical and Cultural Contexts

9.2. Development depends on the sign systems that individuals grow up with: the symbols that cultures create to help people think, communicate, and solve problems.

9.2.1. Sign Systems

9.3. Believed that learning precedes development. Development occurs as the child internalizes the signs and is able to think and solve problems:

9.3.1. Self-Regulation

9.4. Children incorporate the speech of others and then uses that speech to help themselves solve problems

9.4.1. Private Speech

9.5. Learning takes place when children are working within their Zone of proximal development . The zpd refers to where a student cannot accomplish certain learning goals without the assistance of more competent individual.

9.5.1. Zone of proximal development

9.6. Providing a child with a great deal of support during the early stages of learning and then gradual taking the support away as the child is able to increase their own learning responsibiity

9.6.1. Scaffolding

9.7. Children work together to help one another learn.

9.7.1. Cooperative Learning

10. Reading Strategies

10.1. Onset-Rime and Word Families

10.1.1. Teaching onset-rime, words are segmented and blended at the onset-rime level rather than at the phoneme level, and words are taught in related groups that are often referred to as word families: at-cat, sat fat, rat

10.2. Fernald (VAKT) Method

10.2.1. This method uses a multisensory or visual-auditory-kinesthetic-tactile(VAKT) approach to teach students to read and write words. It is designed for students who have severe difficulties learning and remembering words

10.3. Sight Word Bingo

10.3.1. This game provides students practice in recognizing words in a fun way.

10.4. Peer-Supported Reading

10.4.1. This process involves matching higher readers with less able readers to practice rereading text and asking/answering questions about the text meaning

10.5. Choral Repeated Reading

10.5.1. Is designed to for students who can comprehend material that is read to them but, because of difficulties in word identification and reading rate

11. Piaget

11.1. Stages

11.1.1. Sensorimotor: Birth-2 years

11.1.1.1. Babies and young children explore their world through their senses

11.1.1.2. Learn to use reflexes

11.1.1.3. Understand objects exists even if out sight

11.1.1.4. Move from trail and error approach to a problem solving approach

11.1.2. Preoperational: 2-7 years

11.1.2.1. Greater ability to think about things

11.1.2.2. Use symbols to mentally represent objects

11.1.2.3. Lack an understanding of conservation

11.1.3. Concrete Operational: 7-11 years

11.1.3.1. Children at this stage can form concepts, see relationships, and solve problems, but only as long as they involve objects and situations that are familiar

11.1.3.2. Seriation

11.1.3.3. Transitivity: Some first graders would be able to perform this skill

11.1.4. Formal Operational: 11-Adulthood

11.1.4.1. Hypothetical Situations

11.1.4.2. Systematic Reasoning

11.1.4.3. Monitored Reasoning

11.1.4.4. Symbolic Thinking

11.2. How Development Occurs

11.2.1. Schemes

11.2.1.1. Children began to demonstrate patterns of behavior

11.2.2. Adaptation

11.2.2.1. Is the process of adjusting to schemes in response to the environment

11.2.3. Assimilation

11.2.3.1. Is the process of understanding a new object in terms of an existing scheme

11.2.4. Accommodation

11.2.4.1. Modifying existing schemes to fit new situations

11.2.5. Equilibration

11.2.6. Constructivism

12. Writing Development at all Stages:

12.1. Emergent Stage: Birth-2 years-

12.1.1. Scribbles

12.1.2. Patterns may be repeated over and over

12.1.3. Shows increased muscular control

12.2. Early Childhood Stage: 2-8 years-

12.2.1. Picture labeling

12.2.2. Invented spelling

12.2.3. Children write for a purpose

12.2.4. These age of writers shows an awareness that aletters match sound

12.2.5. Uses one or two letters to represent a word

12.3. Elementary Stage: 8-11 years

12.3.1. Students begin to demonstrate that words and sentences convey meaning

12.3.2. Begin to add detail and corporate conventions of wtiting

12.3.3. They may attempt to organize writing in a specific fromat

12.4. Middle School Stage: 11-14 years

12.4.1. Demonstrates and understanding of transitions, description, organization, and conventions

12.4.2. Their writing includes a focus

12.4.3. Students will use a specific language for a specific writing purpose

12.5. High School Stage: 15-18 years

12.5.1. These students will use language in complex ways to convey meaning

12.5.2. They have mastered different modes of writing

12.5.3. They will use different writing styles with specific language as appropriate to different subjects and audiences

13. Writing Strategies

13.1. Writing Warm-Up

13.1.1. Writing exercise that helps build reluctant writers self esteem in writing

13.2. Peer Editing

13.2.1. Provides students the opportunities to edit a revised draft as one part of the editing process

13.3. Using computers to facilitate writing

13.3.1. Provides assistance for students whose writing or motor skills interfere with their ability to develop independent writing skills.

13.4. Step-by-step cartoon writing

13.4.1. Helps provide beginning or reluctant writers experience sequencing steps, using transition words, and writing a paragraph

13.5. Graphic Organizers

13.5.1. Help students organize their ideas when writing first drafts

14. Atypical Vocabulary Development

14.1. Moderate hearing loss associated with otitis

14.2. Family history of language and learning problems

14.3. A smaller than average vocabulary

14.4. A language comprehension delay of 6 months or a comprehension deficit with a large comprehension producation gap

14.5. Phonological problems, including limited vocalizations and restricted babbling

14.6. Few spontaneous vocal imitations and reliance on direct modeling in imitation tasks

14.7. Few communicative or symbolic gestures (pointing, waving)

14.8. Behavioral prloblems

14.9. Difficulty interacting with peers as compared with adults

15. Vocabulary Strategies

15.1. Semantic Maps

15.1.1. Helps students to generate a list of related vocabulary from their background knowledge

15.2. Morphemic Analysis

15.2.1. Morphemic analysis in vocabulary instruction involves breaking a word into morphemes, the smallest linguistic units that have meaning, and using their meanings to figure out the meaning of the whole word

15.3. Contextual Analysis

15.3.1. Involves using the context or text that surrounds an unknown word to find clues to reveal a word's meaning

15.4. Preteaching Before Reading

15.4.1. Pre-teaching vocabulary before reading is an effective strategy to enhance students' knowledge of word meanings

15.5. Dictionaries and Other Reference Aids

15.5.1. Help to broaden and deepen student word knowldege

16. First Grade Rading Development

16.1. Fluently reads 60 words per minute by the end of the year

16.2. Understands that letters represent sounds and meanings

16.3. Begin to read for meaning

16.4. Read and retell stories

16.5. Begins to read with expression

16.6. Introduced to other types of reading genres

17. First Grade Vocabulary Development:

17.1. Building sight words

17.2. Understanding phonics concepts

17.3. Can use context clues to help figure out unknown words

17.4. Able to decode words

17.5. Has expressive vocabulary of about 5,000 words

17.6. Able to apply strategies taught when it comes to unknown words

18. First Grade Writing Development

18.1. Focus on the writing process to help students become independent writers

18.2. Students learn to write for different purposes and audiences

18.3. Develop a plan for their writing: (draw or make webs to help convey idea)

18.4. Keep a journal

18.5. Begin to understand sentence structure and apply it to their writing

19. Promoting Literacy Development

19.1. Language and vocabulary represent the very foundation of learning to read and write. Children who do not develop strong oral language skills and vocabulary in their early years will find it difficult to keep up with their peers and will have difficulties from year to year.

20. Vocabulary Development

20.1. Motivate students

20.2. Encourage a variety of materials

20.3. Give students the opportunity to use new vocabulary words

20.4. Teach words that are frequently used

20.5. Cooperative learn techniques in which students have regular opportunities to student together and use new vocabulary

21. Writing Development

21.1. Allow children to scribble

21.2. Allow children to express ideas and stories

21.3. Encourage children to write daily

21.4. Allow children to use invented spelling

21.5. Model writing to children

22. Piaget

22.1. When to teach

22.1.1. When child is ready and has reached the appropriate stage

22.2. How to teach

22.2.1. Child centered approach.

22.2.2. Learning must be active

22.3. Role of teacher

22.3.1. Adapt lessons to suit the needs of the learner

22.3.2. Be aware of the child's stage of development

22.3.3. Provide stimulation through a variety of tasks

22.3.4. Provide resourses