People and Society (India)

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People and Society (India) by Mind Map: People and Society (India)

1. Gender

1.1. Different gender roles in the society

1.1.1. Gender roles put the women at home. The people believe that a woman's place is at home, not in the world of men. Why is this so? "Girls are often seen as a burden that parents can ill afford, largely due to the hefty dowry of cash and gold jewelry that is required to marry them off."

1.2. What caused the gender inequality?

1.2.1. Their gender roles in India are based on religion (Hindu) and culture more than laws. Women often have a lower social status than men and many feel that women are oppressed in India and face sexual discrimination. (Gender equality: India ranked 101 among 136 countries)

1.3. Has this gender inequality affected women in terms of education and jobs? What is the difference between the two genders?

1.3.1. Education In terms of education, the school life expectancy from primary to tertiary education for girls is 10 years, while its 11 years for boys.The literacy rate (15 years and older), 73% of Indian men can read and write while only 47% of women are able to do these basic things.

1.3.2. Jobs the employment rate of unmarried men is 66% while for unmarried women, its 37%. The employment rate of unmarried men is almost twice of that of unmarried women. Is there a strong female representation in the government? any attempt to advance the presence of women in the chambers of Parliament itself has failed time and again. Less than 10% of the directly elected national representatives are women. Even in the Rajya Sabha, where members are appointed and therefore can be more easily chosen to represent a wide spectrum of India, only 28 of 242 seats are held by women. Parliament has repeatedly witnessed ugly political exchanges and male lung power battles over the Women's Reservation Bill, which proposes 33% reservation for women. One government after another has put forward planning meetings that never arrived at a consensus.

1.4. How has this affected the society?

1.4.1. Population of men and women is imbalanced. The problems of sexual violence in India underlines the deep-rooted misogyny of a society where men are valued so much more highly than women. According to India's 2011 census, there are 37 million fewer women than men (586.5 versus 623.7 million). This gender gap is due to a toxic combination of foeticide, infanticide, excessive neglect of girls, murder and destitution. In northern and western states, especially in urban middle-class areas, it is not unusual for foetuses to be aborted before birth, simply because families don't want girls. A girl under the age of five has 75% more chance of dying through neglect than a boy – the highest differential in the world. But as the cost of a dowry is rising in India, making families more reluctant to have daughters, the sex-ratio for children under the age of six is consistently falling – from a high of 983 girls to 1,000 boys in 1951, to 914 girls in 2011. Consequences As the gap between the number of men and women keeps widening, men in some northern areas are finding it harder to find wives. NGOs report "a boom in sex trafficking" as unmarried men turn to prostitution, kidnapping or even buying young girls as "brides".

1.5. Is there anything being done to neutralize the gender inequality? If yes, how has it benefitted the society, especially women?

1.5.1. The Constitution of India (1951) not only grants equality to women and forbids any discrimination based on religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth, but also empowers the state to practice protective discrimination in favour of women.

1.5.2. The National Policy of Education (NPE) 1986 and its Programme of Action (revised in 1992) gives education a mandate to work for women’s equality and empowerment. Closing the gap in well-being between males and females is as much a part of development as is reducing income poverty. Greater gender equality also enhances economic efficiency and improves other development outcomes.

1.5.3. empowering women as economic, political, and social actors can change policy choices and make institutions more representative of a range of voices. In India, giving power to women at the local level led to greater provision of public goods, such as water and sanitation, which mattered more to women

1.6. Is it successful? Impact? Was there any resistance by the men?

1.6.1. there’s little if any evidence that anything much has changed for women in India. Apart from a few high-profile cases that get attention in the media and might be fast-tracked through the courts, vast numbers of women in India every day suffer molestation, humiliation and sexual assault.

1.7. Examples of gender inequality

1.7.1. 2012 Delhi gang rape

1.7.2. 23 december, 16 year old girl (gang raped and set on fire)

1.7.3. According to the Indian National Crime Bureau, 24,206 cases of rape were reported in 2011, or one every 21 minutes. Only 26 percent of these cases resulted in conviction, a 0.2 percent decline from 2010. Domestic abuse also remains a serious problem. The World Bank reports that in India, 47 percent of women were physically abused by their husbands in 2006, 21 percent of whom were beaten for simply “burning the food” and 31 percent for “arguing.”

2. Beliefs

2.1. Religions, ratio and background

2.1.1. Hinduism 80.5%

2.1.2. Islam 13.4%

2.1.3. Christianity 2.3%

2.1.4. Sikhism 1.9% a blend of Hinduism and Islam predominates in Punjab area

2.1.5. Buddhism 0.8%

2.1.6. Jainism 0.4%

2.1.7. Others 0.6%

2.1.8. Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Jainism originated from India.

2.2. Religious conflicts

2.2.1. Hindu-Muslim 1. Historical Background During the Islamic expansion in India which was during the medieval period, there was destruction of Hindu temples and the anti-Hindu practices of Mughal emperors. 2. Divide and Rule by British The British favoured minorities such as Muslims, Sikhs and Parsees over the Hindu majority. 3. Majority vs Minority 4. Kashmir dispute Partition 5. Destruction of Babri Mosque in Ayodhya 6. Hindu & Muslim Extremists

2.2.2. Hindu-Sikh Causes 1. the formation of a Punjabi state based on language 2. Sikh ambition for a state of their own 3. Diversion of Punjab's waters 4. Golden Temple Incident 5. The Indian constitution’s classification of Sikhs as “Hindu”.

2.3. Caste system

2.3.1. Background The caste system had the idea of purity and pollution and people married into the same caste. It was abolished soon after India gained independence. It determined the economic, social and legal status of all Hindus within the country. Introduction An aspect of Hinduism Five different levels: Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya, Shudra/Sudra, Harijans/Dalits/Untouchables. Economic The caste system set out which occupations were religiously worthy and those jobs that were less pure or even unpure. People’s occupations determined the jobs that their descendants were allowed to perform.

2.3.2. Policies The Indian Constitution has outlawed the practice of Untouchability Caste discrimination is not permitted in gaining employment and access to educational & other opportunities. Positive discrimination policies (can be for castes, religious groups or classes) Different state governments have different lists of communities entitled for positive discrimination based on the population of each state. Sometimes a specific community is entitled for rights in a particular state but not in another state of India. Reservation policies (by central government) special quotas in schools for lowest castes Dalits are granted special representation in the Indian parliament. specific employment privileges for Dalits Impact Many state governments offered cash rewards or bonuses to couples opting for inter-caste marriages.

2.3.3. The situation today Economic Due to the new economic order and global interconnectivity, there are more and more caste-neutral occupations. Economic growth also means that the traditional merchant castes are not large enough to fill every job. Thus, other castes (especially lower ones) also have a chance in the business world. While most dalits still support themselves as rural laborers, there is also a growing dalit middle class, many of them civil servants who have benefited from affirmative action laws. Political Dalits are becoming more politically aware of their rights There is now an increasing number of Dalit politicians. Political problem: each caste has their designated candidate who will carry out the political agenda of the caste members and ignore or oppose the political needs of other groups. Social In the cities, caste divisions seem to have become blurred or erased by more apparent class divisions (based on weath) caused by the country's intense economic boom. Today in most villages, caste still dictates marriage, rituals concerning birth and death as well as occupation. Majority of Indians are not in favour of inter-caste marriages. Many Dalits have converted to other religions over the years

2.4. India has a largely secular Consitution.

3. Race/Ethnicity

3.1. Races & Ratio

3.1.1. Indo-Aryan72% white skin live in the northern and central regions last one to immigrate to India, come between 2000 and 1500 B.C

3.1.2. Dravidian 25% dark complexion came from the Mediterranean side, earliest visitors to India settle in the south

3.1.3. Mongoloid and other 3% Mongoloid yellow complexion, Chinese look descendants of the Mongols who invaded India in the 16th century settled in the mountainese terrain in the north east region. increasing number is migrating into the mainland hundreds of tribal groups most are found in geographically isolated areas

3.2. Ethical relationships

3.2.1. Indo-Aryans vs Dravidians discrimination against Dravidians Causes Effects

3.2.2. Mongoloid vs other races racism against Mogonloids Causes Effects

3.3. Inequalities of opportunities & resources

3.3.1. Dravadians (refer to Religion)

3.3.2. Mongoloids employment mostly in the hospitality and retail sector, rarely get into influential positions lack of job opportunities in north east region education lack of education opportunities due to mountaineous terrain in north east region politics political marginalization of north east politicians voice of north-eastener seldom paid heed to infrastructure mountaineous terrain in north east region makes it difficult for infrastructural growth

3.3.3. Tribal groups employment limited opportunities due to their lack of education education limited opportunities as they live in geographically isolated areas politics limited opportunities due to their lack of education infrastructure limited opportunities as they live in geographically isolated areas

3.4. Solutions

3.4.1. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Act prevent racial discrimination 573 tribes which are recognized by the government are eligible to receive special benefits and to compete for reserved seats in legislatures and schools

3.4.2. incentives for inter-caste/inter-faith marriages

3.4.3. social profiling is considered as a crime under Article 15 of Indian Constitution

3.4.4. creation of Department on Development of the North East (DONER)

3.4.5. extending the system of primary education into tribal areas

4. Socio-economic

4.1. Socio-economic groups

4.1.1. There are 12 grades in the new Socio-Economic Classification (SEC) system, ranging from A1 to E3. A1 is considered as high socio-economic status, E3 is considered as low socio-economic status. It is based on two variables: education of chief earner, number of “consumer durables” from a predefined list - owned by the family. (discrimination)

4.2. Income inequality

4.2.1. Income gap has doubled through the last 2 decades Why? Rapid economic growth in India whereby the earnings of the different socio-economic groups will increase differently, and the higher-income and middle-income groups may have a bigger increase in their salary as compared to the low-income group, therefore enlarging the gap between them Consequences? Poorest people in India, face severe poverty that can result in the disability of receiving education, healthcare, as well as food. Many of the children who were born into low-income families face the problems of malnutrition at a young age which can cause the mortality rates to rise. Many can’t afford education. It was stated that 4% of India’s children never started schooling, and only 10% of them are able to reach up to college standard What was done by the government? The idea of "India's "super rich" should be required to pay more income tax"is mooted by C Rangarajan, chairman of the Prime Minister's Economic Advisory Council What else can be done? Lower tax rates Recalibration

4.3. Urban VS Rural

4.3.1. Living conditions People living in the urban areas have better living conditions as compared to people living in the rural areas.

4.3.2. Career People in urban areas have the opportunities to attain jobs that require better education and skills, people on the rural areas usually work in the fields (self-employed??) Resulting in a large economic gap

4.4. Unemployment rate

4.4.1. The unemployment rate in India has increased from 2012 to 2013. It was said that out of 1000 people, 27 of them were unemployed. Considering the fact that India has a large population of 1.237 billion (as of 2012), at least 10 million of the population is unemployed.

4.4.2. In rural areas, both genders have the same percentile of unemployment. However, in urban areas, females have a higher percentile of unemployment as compared to males. Why? Check: Gender

4.4.3. Impacts? Financial People face the crisis of poverty due to the fact that many aren’t able to support their large family due to unemployment Social Violence and crimes may happen due to unemployment rate because of desperation for survival, psychological issues may also occur due to stress from financial crisis

4.5. Healthcare

4.5.1. Access to healthcare A person from the poorest quintile of the population, despite more health problems, is six times less likely to access hospitalization than a person from the richest quintile. The poor are unable to afford and access hospitalization in a very large proportion of illness episodes, even when it is required.

4.5.2. Access difficulties Geographical distance Those who live in remote areas with poor transportation facilities are often removed from the reach of health systems. Incentives for doctors and nurses to move to rural locations are generally insufficient and ineffective. Socio-economic distance People in urban slums are particularly affected due to lack of good housing, proper sanitation, and proper education. Economically they do not have back-up savings, large food stocks that they can draw down over time. Urban slums are also home to a wide array of infectious diseases that easily spread in highly concentrated populations where water and sanitation services are non-existent. Poor housing conditions, exposure to excessive heat or cold, diseases, air, soil and water pollution along with industrial and commercial occupational risks, exacerbate the already high environmental health risks for the urban poor. Lack of safety nets and social support systems, such as health insurance, as well as lack of property rights and tenure, further contribute to the health vulnerability of the urban poor. Gender distance An Indian woman is less likely to seek appropriate and early care for disease, whatever the socio-economic status of family might be. This gender discrimination in healthcare access becomes more obvious when the women are illiterate, unemployed, widowed or dependent on others Gender discrimination makes women more vulnerable to various diseases and associated morbidity and mortality. From socio-cultural and economic perspectives women in India find themselves in subordinate positions to men. They have limited access to and control over resources, are restricted in their mobility, and are often under threat of violence from male relatives

4.5.3. Life expectancy: 65.48 years ((low))