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Chapter 16/17: Electric Forces and Fields/Electric Potential by Mind Map: Chapter 16/17: Electric Forces and Fields/Electric Potential
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Chapter 16/17: Electric Forces and Fields/Electric Potential

Types of Charge

Constant e=1.602e-19C

Polarization: Electrically neutral object has areas of +/- charges separate

Elementary: Magnitude of charge on the proton + electron is equal.

Properties of Charge

*Law of Conservation of Charge*: net charge of a closed system never changes.

Like Charges repel one another, unlike charges attract one another

Means of Charging/Discharging

Conduction: some charge can move easily

Charging a conductor: Rubbing

Semiconductor: intermediate between insulator/conductor

Photoconductor: uses light--no light=insulator, light=conductor

Insulator: charge does not move easily

Glass, plastic, rubber, wood

Grounding: process of discharging a conductor

Coulomb's Law

F= k(q1xq2)/r2

k=8.99e9

F=electrical force each charge exerts on the other

Calculations

Electrical Field(E)=Electric force(F)/q

F=(k*q*Q)/r2

Q=single point charge

Electric Force(F)=Electrical Field(E)xq

Electric Field Lines

Postive Charge: Lines go away from center

Negative Charge: Lines go toward center

Electric Potential Energy

Energy stored in an electric field

Ue=k(q1*q2)/r

Signs of Charges determine sign of PE

Electric Potential

Electric potential energy per unit charge

V=U/q

1V=1 J/C

Potential Difference: change in electric potential energy/unit charge

Electric Field and Potential:

Equipotential Surface

Same potential at every point on the surface

perpendicular to electric field lines at all points

Capacitor

Device that stores electric potential enery by storing separate +/- charges.

Capacitance: Capability to hold charge for a given potential difference

Used in memory chips, condensor microphone, oscilloscope

Discharging:connecting one plate of a charged capacitor with a conducting wire

Parallel Plate Capacitor(simplest)

two parallel plates with the same area set at a distance

Dielectrics

insulating materials that can withstand large electric fields.

Strength is the electric field strength at which dielectric breakdown occurs and the material becomes a conductor

Advantage for use: placing a dielectric between plates increase capacitance.

Constant: ratio of the electric field in vacuum to electric field within material

*Stores both charge and energy*