2D Design

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2D Design by Mind Map: 2D Design

1. Elements

1.1. Line

1.1.1. Explicit Lines Horizontal Suggest a feeling of rest or repose Vertical Communicate stability and solidity Diagnal Convey a feeling of movement Can also indicate depth through perspective Curvy Soft, shallow curves often have a pleasing, sensual quality and a softening effect on the composition Sharply curved or twisted lines can convey turmoil, chaos, and even violence Broken

1.1.2. Implied Lines Pointing at something / Connect the dots

1.1.3. Psychic Lines Looking at something

1.1.4. Advanced Types Contour Gesture

1.1.5. Characteristics Thickness Weight

1.1.6. Concept: boundaries, wait in line, pathways

1.1.7. Def: path of point moving through space

1.2. Shape / Form

1.2.1. Def: Enclosed line i.e. contour (edge may be defined by color, value also)

1.2.2. Types Geometric Organic / Biomorhpic

1.2.3. Concept: Are you in shape? What shaped you?

1.3. Space

1.3.1. Def: use of the area within the picture plane or use of depth (real or illusion)

1.3.2. Types Positive aka figure / ground Negative Equivocal Space Transparent, no overlapping Spatial Puzzles

1.3.3. Concept: Waste of space, Too much / not enough

1.3.4. Open v. Closed Form Is subject contained in picture plain?

1.4. Color

1.4.1. Def: Light reflected off objects As light changes, color changes Perception of color changes based on surroundings

1.4.2. 3 Main Characteristics Hue Name of color Value Tints (Light) Shades (Dark) Intensity Bright Dull

1.4.3. Cool / Warm Warm come forward Cool recede

1.4.4. Complimentary, Secondary, Tertiary Mixing compliments create neautrals Mixing neutrals with hues create values

1.5. Texture

1.5.1. Def: surface quality of an object

1.5.2. 2 Types Real (Tactile) Implied Tromp'leil Pattern

1.6. Value

1.6.1. Def: Rrelation of light and shade

1.6.2. Concept: What do you value? What is valuable? "shades of gray"

1.7. Time

1.7.1. Def: limited period or interval

1.7.2. Phenomenological Way in which one perceives and interprets events and one's relationship to them in contrast both to one's objective responses to stimuli and to any inferred unconscious motivation for one's behavior

1.7.3. Concept: Make time; Change is constant; there's no time, fast / slow

1.7.4. Process

1.8. 3D (Form)

1.8.1. Line, Plane (Surface), Volume, Mass, Radiation & Gesture All have explicit and implicit attributes Mass Depends on 1. Material 2. Value 3.Shape 4. Gravity We "know" mass of steel v. wood Line: Direction & Momentum Fast Slow

1.8.2. Increased consideration of physical forces

2. Technique

2.1. Shading

2.1.1. Hatching

2.1.2. Cross-Hatching

2.1.3. Smudging

2.1.4. Stippling

2.2. Depth

2.2.1. Perspective Types One-point Two-point Multi-point Aerial Amplified Multiple views Isometric

2.2.2. Size Farther = Smaller

2.2.3. Overlap Closer = In front

2.2.4. Vertical location Higher = Farther

2.2.5. Atmospheric (Chiaroscuro) Farther = Lighter

2.3. Media & Materials

2.3.1. Concepts "Lifeless until given shape by creator "By their own potential, create their own end." -Eva Hesse

2.3.2. Drawing Additive Subtractive

2.3.3. Painting

2.3.4. Collage

2.3.5. Digital

2.3.6. Video

2.3.7. Print Intaglio

2.3.8. Sculpture Ceramic Metal Wood

2.3.9. Photo

2.3.10. Performance

2.3.11. Architecture

2.3.12. Industrial

2.3.13. Textile

2.3.14. Graphic Design

2.4. Craft

3. Purpose

3.1. Improve Life

3.1.1. Answers problems

3.2. Communicate

3.2.1. Benefits Everyone / Universal IF art community is different from other communities THEN what if art expresses only minority view of art community

3.2.2. Form v. Function How you say v. What you say Audience? Visual vernacular Memory / Experience

3.2.3. Understanding Comics by Scott McCloud

3.2.4. Visual Literacy Visual Culture Material Culture

3.3. Reflect Life / Nature

3.3.1. Relationships

3.3.2. Natural systems

3.4. Creating Meaning

3.4.1. Cause & Effect

3.5. Def. of Design: To Plan; Intent; Conceive; To Assign; To Structure, Organize; Plot; An End

3.5.1. Arrangement of elements in visual pattern or organization

3.5.2. Composition As in writing, not random collection of words K.I.S.S. Keep It Simple, Stupid C.R.A.P. Contrast, Repetition, Alignment, Proximity Opposite of chance? Intention, Clarity & Specificity Window into imaginary world (a la oil painting)

3.5.3. Intention Learning Unless student believes she can learn when she wants to, cannot learn Teaching Only definable characteristic (acord James Elkin)

3.6. Common Associations: Fashion, Logos, Decorating, Publishing, etc

3.7. Improved Visual Acuity

3.7.1. Learn to "see" Become more sensitive, alert to visual cues & subtle phenomenon

3.8. Reverence for Past

3.8.1. Wherever there have been humans, there have been tools and images

3.8.2. Restructuring of Environment

3.9. Empowerment

3.9.1. Interpreting media

3.9.2. Participate in culture "Voice"

3.10. Problems

3.10.1. For 1st time in history, images are ephemeral, ubiquitous & valueless No longer depends on rarity

4. Theory

4.1. Color

4.1.1. 5 color schemes Monochromatic 1 Hue Analagous Adjacent hues on color wheel Complimentary Opposed colors on color wheel Split-Complimentary Subs hue adjacent to 1 of complimentaries Triadic 3 Equally spaced hues on color wheel

4.1.2. Properties Tonality Dominant hue Discord Vibrating edge i.e. blue & cyan

4.1.3. Uses Local Color in ordinary light Arbitrary Subjective, not natural Optical Variations depending on light

4.2. Gestalt

4.2.1. Def: Whole is greater than sum of parts Brain is holistic, analog, self-organizing. Perceive in totality

4.2.2. 3 Principles Reification Multistability Invariance

4.2.3. Law of Pragnanz - Basis; We tend to order experience in regular, orderly, simple ways Law of Closure Brain fills in gaps Law of Similarity Brain groups similar items Law of Proximity Brain groups items in close proximity Law of Symmetry Law of Continuity Law of Common Fate

4.2.4. 2 Types of Thinking Productive Solving problem w/ insight; unplanned Reproductive Solving problem w/ previous experience; intentional. ex: analyzing parts, guessing intent

4.2.5. Criticism Descriptive, not explanatory

4.3. Philosophies

4.3.1. Ideas Foucault ideas are a product of subtle distinction between 'old' and 'new'

4.3.2. Creativity Conceptions of 1. Depends on Critical Reflection 2. Based on Interests 3. Learning Process 4. Fuctional 5. Social Activity 6. Involves Production & Reproduction 7. Form of Leadership

4.3.3. Design Critiques Critiques involve look, style & marketing problems, not detailed critiques of meaning / symbolism Philosohpy Story of capitalism & class conflict Nature of objects & Things

4.4. Pedagogy

4.4.1. "Setting up conflict can be more effective in generating creative response" Journal of Art Ed 63.2.11

4.5. Semiotics

4.5.1. Study of Signs & Symbols aka Iconography Ways of Seeing by John Berger "Seeing comes before words" To look is an act of choice Gender Possession Advertising The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction by Walter Benjamin

4.6. Nature of Objects & Things

4.6.1. Heidegger

4.6.2. Phenomenology Merleau-Ponty

5. Aesthetic

5.1. Def: Visual Pleasure

5.2. Style

5.2.1. Representation Ideal As it should be Naturalism / Realism As it is Distortion As it is not Abstraction As it most is Non-objective It is nothing

5.3. Taste

5.3.1. "Fresh"

6. Creativity

6.1. Characteristic Stages of Students

6.1.1. 1. Anxiety "No right answer" = No criteria for judgment. Antithetical to previous experiences Lack of understanding

6.1.2. 2. Resistance Involves surrendering to process Lighten up Get serious Commitment to engage materials Previous negative experiences Seen as difficult / uncomfortable Inhibitions Does not fit into current identity / self-image Not interested / educated / relevant Poor skill level Busy Distractions Cultural / Societal Value / Devalue

6.1.3. 3. Cultivating Creativity On Becoming a Person by Rogers 2 Major Conditions That Foster Creativity

6.2. Origins

6.2.1. "Theia Mania" Plato's concept of inspiration Madness from God

6.2.2. "Ecstaticos" Aristotle's concept of genius and poetic rapture Altered state of consciousness

6.2.3. "Creō" Latin: to make, create

6.2.4. "Creatio" Christian concept, reserved for god Creation from nothing

6.3. "Flow"

6.3.1. mental state in which a person in an activity is fully immersed in a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, and success in the process of the activity

6.3.2. Csíkszentmihályi

6.4. Art Community

6.4.1. Public Attitude Toward Artists Annoying Gulf between art world & public

6.4.2. Myths Bohemian, Progressive "In 1913 at famous Armory Show, including Duchamp's Nude Descending Staircase and Matisse's Blue Nude, students from School of Art Inst. of Chicago, training in very conservative French academy tradition, staged a protest. Created effigy, "Henry Hairmattress" that they dragged and stabbed. Starving Artist True for many of the masters Myth is WHY: Not because misunderstood by society but BECAUSE they didn't fit in with art community

6.5. Levels (accord. Necka)

6.5.1. 1. Fluid - used in everyday life requiring no particular knowledge

6.5.2. 2. Crystallized - solution to problem requiring knowledge

6.5.3. 3. Mature - Expert level requiring domain-specific knowledge and valued by large mature group

6.5.4. 4. Eminent - Creativity valued by many disciplines and in many venues

6.6. 4 Stages (accord. Wallace)

6.6.1. 1. Preperation Information and related ideas gathered

6.6.2. 2. Incubation Prepared material is internally elaborated and organized

6.6.3. 3. Illumination Idea emerges

6.6.4. 4. Verification Idea evaluated and elaborated into its complete form

6.6.5. Overlap and Repear

6.7. 3 Basic Kinds of Creative Thinking

6.7.1. Analytical Examining to make sense of Detecting abstract concept in concrete

6.7.2. Connective or Associative Forming associations, finding similarities, constructing metaphors thru comparison

6.7.3. Transformative Elaboration, revision, construction, translation into different style, media or form.

6.8. 3 Characteristics of Creative Experience (Rogers)

6.8.1. 1. Eureka Awareness of experience

6.8.2. 2. Anxiety of Seperateness Increasing personal investment

6.8.3. 3. Wish to Communicate

7. Principles

7.1. Emphasis / Focus

7.1.1. Concept: What is important? Attention "When everything is emphasized, nothing is emphasized

7.1.2. Def: something that is given great stress or importance Can be more than one Secondaries = Accents Interrupts overall feeling, pattern

7.1.3. To achieve By Contrast Focal Point more helpful here By isolation By Placement Elements point to i item

7.1.4. Focal Point Absence Not always necessary Degree of Emphasis: theme may call for dominant or overwhelming f. pt.

7.2. Contrast

7.2.1. Juxtaposition

7.2.2. Def: opposition or juxtaposition to show difference or intensify

7.3. Balance

7.3.1. Concept: Stable; Predictable, Too much / Not enough v. Precarious

7.3.2. Def: to produce equilibrium Innate sense, developed in childhood

7.3.3. Types Vertical & Horizontal Symmetrical Same on both sides Asymmetrical Different sides Radial Center emphasis Crystallographic No emphasis (all over) Meditative, contemplative

7.3.4. To achieve by Color & Value ex. little black v. lots of gray by Shape & Texture ex. small, complicated v. big, complicated by Position & Eye Direction ex. think see-saw Rule of Thirds Divide composition into 9 square grid Rule of Odds Placing odd number of elements around main/central element

7.4. Rhythm / Repetition

7.4.1. Concept: Fitting in, synchronize, pace

7.4.2. Def: Based on repetition of similar elements ex: beat = music legato: connecting or slowing staccato: abrupt changes / dynamic contrast ex: meter = poetry

7.4.3. Types Alternating Rhythm Ex: natural cycles = regular, anticipated sequence Progressive Rhythm Changing in regular manner

7.4.4. Kinesthetic When visual experience stimulates other senses

7.5. Scale / Proportion

7.5.1. Concept: Blown out of proportion; size = importance? Size can impress, esp. if unusual, unexpected Different context = seen differently

7.5.2. Def: Scale - size; Proportion - proper relation between things or parts Relative

7.5.3. History Hierarchical: biggest = most important

7.5.4. To achieve Scale Confusion Irrational / Absurd Unsettling Internal Proportions Extreme change grabs attention Size of element relative to whole composition Notions of Ideal 7.5 heads tall Golden Rectangle Golden Mean

7.6. Unity / Harmony

7.6.1. Concepts: Agreement, Whole, Belonging v. Falling Apart, Discord, Boring

7.6.2. Def: whole or totality as combining all its parts into one Unity w/o variety = negative feelings i.e. institutions, assembly lines

7.6.3. To achieve Proximity elements that are close together belong together Repetition repeat elements Continuation "connect the dots" Continuity visual relationship

7.7. Variety

7.7.1. Concept: Different v. Dull; Life not always ordered, rational

7.7.2. Def: difference; discrepancy

7.7.3. Varied repetition / Related variation Satisfies need for visual interest Extreme repetition = viewer searches for slight differences Extreme variation = viewer searches for slight similarities

7.8. Movement

7.8.1. Concept: Change

7.8.2. Def: suggestion of motion, movement of eye thru composition Control movement of eye within composition

7.8.3. To achieve Kinetic actually moves Repeated Element / Figure Blurred edges Multiple Image Time Lapse Photo Think comic books

7.9. Difference Between 3D / 2D

7.9.1. Perhaps only diff. is initial passivity / activity of viewer Ultimately, both speak to agency / interactivty Video game v. Movie

7.9.2. Both wrestle with reality and illusion of space

8. Process

8.1. Conceptualization

8.1.1. Looking See what others overlook Look again Slow down See relationships Shaped by mass media Influence self-image, relationships Complex blend of Conscious searching Visual recollection

8.1.2. Planning Strategies System Mind Map Sketch Word Association Outline Modeling Peer Conversations

8.1.3. 1. Acceptance & Definition 2. Ideation 3. Judgement 1. "Make problem your own 2. Collecting ideas Moving away from obvious Avoiding pre-judgment 3. Decisions

8.2. Doing

8.2.1. Thinking through materials

8.2.2. Play Fun Casual Unexpected

8.2.3. Intuition

8.2.4. Expirement

8.2.5. Risk Confidence Experience

8.2.6. Surprise

8.2.7. Look at other artists' work

8.3. Choices

8.3.1. Problems Given Created

8.3.2. Solutions No correct answers Not all answers equally valid or successful

8.4. Chance

8.4.1. Opposite of Design?

8.4.2. Happy Accident or Fate?

8.5. Change

8.5.1. Start Over Cycles

8.5.2. Multiples/ Alternatives

8.5.3. Revision Grows ideas beyond obvious

8.6. Steal

8.6.1. Homage

8.6.2. Appropriation

8.6.3. Reference

8.6.4. Statement

8.6.5. Theft Plagarism

8.7. Theme

8.7.1. "Conceptual Glue' Unifying concept may not produce visual unity

8.8. Originality

8.8.1. Is there such a thing?

8.8.2. Forming of new relationships or connections based on past experiences and interpretations

8.8.3. Most radical new work firmly rooted in past

8.9. Guess

9. Tension

9.1. Rob Roy Kelly Mini-Course

9.2. Drama

9.2.1. Conflict One v. Many Old v. New Chaos v. Order Quiet v. Loud Give v. Take Push v. Pull Clear v. Hidden

9.2.2. Emotional Response

9.3. Dynamic v. Static

9.4. Incongruous / Contradictions

9.5. Unifiers & Modifiers

9.5.1. Unexpected combinations

9.5.2. Unexpected circumstances

9.5.3. Unify elements and modify character

9.5.4. Ex: Reflectivity & Transparncy

10. Analysis

10.1. Communicating

10.1.1. Vocab

10.1.2. Clarity Peer Individual Group Mentor Fellow Artists

10.2. Understanding

10.2.1. Interpreting Statement? Point of view?

10.2.2. Context Culture Time Place Community Personal History Specificity

10.2.3. Connections Personal Popular

10.3. Assessment

10.3.1. Revision Critiques

10.3.2. Judgements "Good"? Sagmeister - Graphic design Percy - Art & Composition Jonathan Baldwin "Bad"? webpagesthatsuck.com bad-graphics.blogspot.com

10.4. Investigating

10.4.1. Initial responses

10.4.2. Sitting with work

11. Science

11.1. Brain (Neurobiology)

11.1.1. Right Brain v. Left Brain

11.1.2. Looks for organization Filters out unnecessary information

11.1.3. Divergent thought (creativity) Possible correlation with intelligence? Evolutionary? Originality + Appropriateness Characteristics of Creatives high level of specialized knowledge capable of divergent thinking mediated by the frontal lobe able to modulate neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine in their frontal lobe Possible correlation to psychotism? Greatest in schizotypal individuals Creativity quotient?