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2D Design by Mind Map: 2D Design
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2D Design


Characteristic Stages of Students

1. Anxiety, "No right answer" = No criteria for judgment., Antithetical to previous experiences, Lack of understanding

2. Resistance, Involves surrendering to process, Lighten up, Get serious, Commitment to engage materials, Previous negative experiences, Seen as difficult / uncomfortable, Inhibitions, Does not fit into current identity / self-image, Not interested / educated / relevant, Poor skill level, Busy, Distractions, Cultural / Societal Value / Devalue

3. Cultivating Creativity, On Becoming a Person by Rogers, 2 Major Conditions That Foster Creativity, Psychological Safety, 1. Accept unconditional worth of individual, 2. Provide climate with no external evaluation, 3. Understand empathically, Psychological Freedom, Trusting that freedom of expression will lead to positive outcomes, Climate in which positive people take seriously what they make


"Theia Mania", Plato's concept of inspiration, Madness from God

"Ecstaticos", Aristotle's concept of genius and poetic rapture, Altered state of consciousness

"Creō", Latin: to make, create

"Creatio", Christian concept, reserved for god, Creation from nothing


mental state in which a person in an activity is fully immersed in a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, and success in the process of the activity


Art Community

Public Attitude Toward Artists, Annoying, Gulf between art world & public

Myths, Bohemian, Progressive, "In 1913 at famous Armory Show, including Duchamp's Nude Descending Staircase and Matisse's Blue Nude, students from School of Art Inst. of Chicago, training in very conservative French academy tradition, staged a protest. Created effigy, "Henry Hairmattress" that they dragged and stabbed., Starving Artist, True for many of the masters, Myth is WHY: Not because misunderstood by society but BECAUSE they didn't fit in with art community, disjuncture between masters & tradition, Masters: broke free of tradition and produced work diametrically opposed to its values, After death, techniques assimilated, Rembrandt, Vermeer, Poussin, Chardin, Goya, Turner had no followers, only imitators

Levels (accord. Necka)

1. Fluid - used in everyday life requiring no particular knowledge

2. Crystallized - solution to problem requiring knowledge

3. Mature - Expert level requiring domain-specific knowledge and valued by large mature group

4. Eminent - Creativity valued by many disciplines and in many venues

4 Stages (accord. Wallace)

1. Preperation, Information and related ideas gathered

2. Incubation, Prepared material is internally elaborated and organized

3. Illumination, Idea emerges

4. Verification, Idea evaluated and elaborated into its complete form

Overlap and Repear

3 Basic Kinds of Creative Thinking

Analytical, Examining to make sense of, Detecting abstract concept in concrete

Connective or Associative, Forming associations, finding similarities, constructing metaphors thru comparison

Transformative, Elaboration, revision, construction, translation into different style, media or form.

3 Characteristics of Creative Experience (Rogers)

1. Eureka, Awareness of experience

2. Anxiety of Seperateness, Increasing personal investment

3. Wish to Communicate


Emphasis / Focus

Concept: What is important? Attention, "When everything is emphasized, nothing is emphasized

Def: something that is given great stress or importance, Can be more than one, Secondaries = Accents, Interrupts overall feeling, pattern

To achieve, By Contrast, Focal Point more helpful here, By isolation, By Placement, Elements point to i item

Focal Point, Absence, Not always necessary, no starting pt., climax / emphasizes surface or whole, Degree of Emphasis: theme may call for dominant or overwhelming f. pt.



Def: opposition or juxtaposition to show difference or intensify


Concept: Stable; Predictable, Too much / Not enough v. Precarious

Def: to produce equilibrium, Innate sense, developed in childhood

Types, Vertical & Horizontal, Symmetrical, Same on both sides, Static, permanence, strength, stability, dignity, power, clarity, rational order, Can appear artificial, Asymmetrical, Different sides, Casual, less planned, More complicated, Radial, Center emphasis, Crystallographic, No emphasis (all over), Meditative, contemplative

To achieve, by Color & Value, ex. little black v. lots of gray, by Shape & Texture, ex. small, complicated v. big, complicated, by Position & Eye Direction, ex. think see-saw, Rule of Thirds, Divide composition into 9 square grid, Rule of Odds, Placing odd number of elements around main/central element

Rhythm / Repetition

Concept: Fitting in, synchronize, pace

Def: Based on repetition of similar elements, ex: beat = music, legato: connecting or slowing, staccato: abrupt changes / dynamic contrast, ex: meter = poetry

Types, Alternating Rhythm, Ex: natural cycles = regular, anticipated sequence, Progressive Rhythm, Changing in regular manner

Kinesthetic, When visual experience stimulates other senses

Scale / Proportion

Concept: Blown out of proportion; size = importance?, Size can impress, esp. if unusual, unexpected, Different context = seen differently

Def: Scale - size; Proportion - proper relation between things or parts, Relative

History, Hierarchical: biggest = most important

To achieve, Scale Confusion, Irrational / Absurd, Unsettling, Internal Proportions, Extreme change grabs attention, Size of element relative to whole composition, Notions of Ideal, 7.5 heads tall, Golden Rectangle, Found in natural growth patterns, Golden Mean

Unity / Harmony

Concepts: Agreement, Whole, Belonging v. Falling Apart, Discord, Boring

Def: whole or totality as combining all its parts into one, Unity w/o variety = negative feelings i.e. institutions, assembly lines

To achieve, Proximity, elements that are close together belong together, eye flows smoothly from one to next, Repetition, repeat elements, Continuation, "connect the dots", Continuity, visual relationship, grid


Concept: Different v. Dull; Life not always ordered, rational

Def: difference; discrepancy

Varied repetition / Related variation, Satisfies need for visual interest, Extreme repetition = viewer searches for slight differences, Extreme variation = viewer searches for slight similarities


Concept: Change

Def: suggestion of motion, movement of eye thru composition, Control movement of eye within composition

To achieve, Kinetic, actually moves, Repeated Element / Figure, Blurred edges, Multiple Image, Time Lapse Photo, Think comic books

Difference Between 3D / 2D

Perhaps only diff. is initial passivity / activity of viewer, Ultimately, both speak to agency / interactivty, Video game v. Movie

Both wrestle with reality and illusion of space



Explicit Lines, Horizontal, Suggest a feeling of rest or repose, Vertical, Communicate stability and solidity, Diagnal, Convey a feeling of movement, Can also indicate depth through perspective, Curvy, Soft, shallow curves often have a pleasing, sensual quality and a softening effect on the composition, Sharply curved or twisted lines can convey turmoil, chaos, and even violence, Broken

Implied Lines, Pointing at something / Connect the dots

Psychic Lines, Looking at something

Advanced Types, Contour, Gesture

Characteristics, Thickness, Weight

Concept: boundaries, wait in line, pathways

Def: path of point moving through space

Shape / Form

Def: Enclosed line i.e. contour (edge may be defined by color, value also)

Types, Geometric, Organic / Biomorhpic

Concept: Are you in shape? What shaped you?


Def: use of the area within the picture plane or use of depth (real or illusion)

Types, Positive, aka figure / ground, Negative, Equivocal Space, Transparent, no overlapping, Spatial Puzzles

Concept: Waste of space, Too much / not enough

Open v. Closed Form, Is subject contained in picture plain?


Def: Light reflected off objects, As light changes, color changes, Perception of color changes based on surroundings

3 Main Characteristics, Hue, Name of color, Value, Tints (Light), Often describe a light source or light reflected, Shades (Dark), Dark colors can often convey a sense of mystery or foreboding, Intensity, Bright, Associated with positive energy and heightened emotions, Complimentary colors intensify ea. other, Dull, Create a sedate or serious mood

Cool / Warm, Warm come forward, Cool recede

Complimentary, Secondary, Tertiary, Mixing compliments create neautrals, Mixing neutrals with hues create values


Def: surface quality of an object

2 Types, Real (Tactile), Implied, Tromp'leil, Pattern


Def: Rrelation of light and shade

Concept: What do you value? What is valuable? "shades of gray"


Def: limited period or interval

Phenomenological, Way in which one perceives and interprets events and one's relationship to them in contrast both to one's objective responses to stimuli and to any inferred unconscious motivation for one's behavior

Concept: Make time; Change is constant; there's no time, fast / slow


3D (Form)

Line, Plane (Surface), Volume, Mass, Radiation & Gesture, All have explicit and implicit attributes, Mass Depends on 1. Material 2. Value 3.Shape 4. Gravity, We "know" mass of steel v. wood, Line: Direction & Momentum, Fast, Descending, Uniform or evenly modulated, Slow, Ascending, Rough or irrecugular

Increased consideration of physical forces



Looking, See what others overlook, Look again, Slow down, See relationships, Shaped by mass media, Influence self-image, relationships, Complex blend of, Conscious searching, Visual recollection

Planning Strategies, System, Mind Map, Sketch, Develop Multiple Variations, Discover new relationships, Minimal Effort, Discover unanticipated problems and alternative solutions, Word Association, Outline, Modeling, Peer Conversations

1. Acceptance & Definition 2. Ideation 3. Judgement, 1. "Make problem your own, 2. Collecting ideas, Moving away from obvious, Avoiding pre-judgment, 3. Decisions


Thinking through materials

Play, Fun, Casual, Unexpected



Risk, Confidence, Experience


Look at other artists' work


Problems, Given, Created

Solutions, No correct answers, Not all answers equally valid or successful


Opposite of Design?

Happy Accident or Fate?


Start Over, Cycles

Multiples/ Alternatives

Revision, Grows ideas beyond obvious






Theft, Plagarism


"Conceptual Glue', Unifying concept may not produce visual unity


Is there such a thing?

Forming of new relationships or connections based on past experiences and interpretations

Most radical new work firmly rooted in past









Perspective, Types, One-point, Vanishing point, Horizon line, Intersecting diagnals, Proposes viewer as center of world, Camera / film = no center, Two-point, 2 Vanishing pts., Multi-point, Aerial, Amplified, Extreme / Exaggeratd view, Multiple views, Simultaneous, Isometric, Skewed, all lines parallel

Size, Farther = Smaller

Overlap, Closer = In front

Vertical location, Higher = Farther

Atmospheric (Chiaroscuro), Farther = Lighter

Media & Materials

Concepts, "Lifeless until given shape by creator, "By their own potential, create their own end." -Eva Hesse

Drawing, Additive, Subtractive





Print, Intaglio

Sculpture, Ceramic, Metal, Wood






Graphic Design



Rob Roy Kelly Mini-Course


Conflict, One v. Many, Old v. New, Chaos v. Order, Quiet v. Loud, Give v. Take, Push v. Pull, Clear v. Hidden

Emotional Response

Dynamic v. Static

Incongruous / Contradictions

Unifiers & Modifiers

Unexpected combinations

Unexpected circumstances

Unify elements and modify character

Ex: Reflectivity & Transparncy




Clarity, Peer, Individual, Group, Mentor, Fellow Artists


Interpreting, Statement?, Point of view?

Context, Culture, Time, Place, Community, Personal, History, Specificity

Connections, Personal, Popular


Revision, Critiques

Judgements, "Good"?, Sagmeister - Graphic design, Empathetic, Attractive / Seductive, Thought-provoking, Personalized, Percy - Art & Composition, 1. "Avoid sore thumb" - integrated whole, 2. "Keep everything connected" - theme & variation, 3. "Include secrets" - reward diligeence, 4. "Challenge common assumptions" - Is there an argument?, 5. "Cherish mistakes" - respond, gain experience, but see #1, 6. "Be accident prone" - involuntary opportunities for growth, developments, revision, 7. "Steal ideas" - Ideas are free, Jonathan Baldwin, "Logic suggested that if a pizza flyer does its job then, no matter how awful it looks it must, by definition, be well designed.", "They look the way they are expected to look. It’s not the designers that are bad, but the visual language. i.e. Visual expletive", "I would take issue with the idea that it is the role of the visually literate to impose their values on those they see as the visually illiterate. And I would question anyone who thinks that effective design, no matter how it looks, is not in some way good design.", "Bad"?,,


Initial responses

Sitting with work


Improve Life

Answers problems


Benefits Everyone / Universal, IF art community is different from other communities THEN what if art expresses only minority view of art community

Form v. Function, How you say v. What you say, Audience?, Visual vernacular, Memory / Experience

Understanding Comics by Scott McCloud

Visual Literacy, Visual Culture, Material Culture

Reflect Life / Nature


Natural systems

Creating Meaning

Cause & Effect

Def. of Design: To Plan; Intent; Conceive; To Assign; To Structure, Organize; Plot; An End

Arrangement of elements in visual pattern or organization

Composition, As in writing, not random collection of words, K.I.S.S., Keep It Simple, Stupid, more complicated the composition = simpler layout, C.R.A.P., Contrast, Repetition, Alignment, Proximity, Opposite of chance?, Intention, Clarity & Specificity, Window into imaginary world (a la oil painting)

Intention, Learning, Unless student believes she can learn when she wants to, cannot learn, Teaching, Only definable characteristic (acord James Elkin)

Common Associations: Fashion, Logos, Decorating, Publishing, etc

Improved Visual Acuity

Learn to "see", Become more sensitive, alert to visual cues & subtle phenomenon

Reverence for Past

Wherever there have been humans, there have been tools and images

Restructuring of Environment


Interpreting media

Participate in culture, "Voice"


For 1st time in history, images are ephemeral, ubiquitous & valueless, No longer depends on rarity



5 color schemes, Monochromatic, 1 Hue, Analagous, Adjacent hues on color wheel, Complimentary, Opposed colors on color wheel, Split-Complimentary, Subs hue adjacent to 1 of complimentaries, Triadic, 3 Equally spaced hues on color wheel

Properties, Tonality, Dominant hue, Discord, Vibrating edge i.e. blue & cyan

Uses, Local, Color in ordinary light, i.e. green grass, Arbitrary, Subjective, not natural, Emotive, Symbolic, Optical, Variations depending on light


Def: Whole is greater than sum of parts, Brain is holistic, analog, self-organizing. Perceive in totality

3 Principles, Reification, Multistability, Invariance

Law of Pragnanz - Basis; We tend to order experience in regular, orderly, simple ways, Law of Closure, Brain fills in gaps, Law of Similarity, Brain groups similar items, Law of Proximity, Brain groups items in close proximity, Law of Symmetry, Law of Continuity, Law of Common Fate

2 Types of Thinking, Productive, Solving problem w/ insight; unplanned, Reproductive, Solving problem w/ previous experience; intentional. ex: analyzing parts, guessing intent

Criticism, Descriptive, not explanatory


Ideas, Foucault, ideas are a product of subtle distinction between 'old' and 'new'

Creativity, Conceptions of, 1. Depends on Critical Reflection, "MLK, "Create Tension" = Makes people act, John Dewey, 2. Based on Interests, 3. Learning Process, Self-motivating, 4. Fuctional, Usefulness of creative thought / action, 5. Social Activity, Community dynamic, Disciplinary boundary-crossing, 6. Involves Production & Reproduction, 7. Form of Leadership

Design, Critiques, Critiques involve look, style & marketing problems, not detailed critiques of meaning / symbolism, Philosohpy, Story of capitalism & class conflict, Nature of objects & Things, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty


"Setting up conflict can be more effective in generating creative response" Journal of Art Ed 63.2.11


Study of Signs & Symbols, aka Iconography, Ways of Seeing by John Berger, "Seeing comes before words", To look is an act of choice, Relation bt things and ourselves, We see and are seen, Gender, Man, Acts, Looks, Woman, Appears, Watch themselves being looked at, Possession, Levi Strauss, Confirms status of affluent and powerful, Previously, power was fixed social/divine order, Advertising is descendant, "Hack' work result of market being more insistent than art, Not a window, but a safe filled with visual deposits, Advertising, Never speaks of present, Refers to past, Speaks of future, Language constantly making same proposal, Not just assembly of competing images, Transform ourselves by buying more, About social relations, not objects; happiness, not pleasure, Process of manufacturing glamour, Envy, Happiness judged from outside, by others, Gender: Steals love of herself, and offers it back for price of product, Contradiction bt who he is (powerless, envious) & who he'd like to be (powerful, happy), The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction by Walter Benjamin

Nature of Objects & Things


Phenomenology, Merleau-Ponty


Brain (Neurobiology)

Right Brain v. Left Brain

Looks for organization, Filters out unnecessary information

Divergent thought (creativity), Possible correlation with intelligence?, Evolutionary?, Originality + Appropriateness, Characteristics of Creatives, high level of specialized knowledge, capable of divergent thinking mediated by the frontal lobe, able to modulate neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine in their frontal lobe, Possible correlation to psychotism?, Greatest in schizotypal individuals, Creativity quotient?


Def: Visual Pleasure


Representation, Ideal, As it should be, Naturalism / Realism, As it is, Distortion, As it is not, Abstraction, As it most is, Non-objective, It is nothing