Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Schools as Organizations

1.1. Governance

1.1.1. The U.S. Department of Education was created in 1970.

1.1.2. The U.S. Dept. of Education has very little power.

1.2. Centralization

1.2.1. 55 million students are educated at the cost of $650 billion.

1.2.2. 1930’s there were 128,000 public school districts.

1.2.3. The average elementary school has 450 students. High schools have 856.

1.3. Private Schools

1.3.1. There are approximately 28,200 elementary and secondary private schools in the U.S.

1.3.2. Private schools constitute 25% of all schools and educate only 10% of all students.

1.3.3. In 1930’s there were less than 10,000 private schools

1.3.4. In 2009 there were 21,780 private elementary and secondary schools.

1.3.5. Most private schools are located on the east and west coasts.

1.3.6. In 1980’s and 1990’s studies indicate private schools were better learning environments.

1.4. Student Composition in Public Schools

1.4.1. 53.5 % are white

1.4.2. Of the states, 16 have less than 50% white

1.4.3. Large states are heavily multiracial.

1.4.4. Ten states have no minorities

1.5. Degree of Openness

1.5.1. Few academic impediments exist to graduate high school.

1.5.2. Open to all and very inclusive.

1.5.3. Very democratic process of education.

2. Schools as Organizations

2.1. Great Britain

2.1.1. In 19th the rich had education in privates schools. The poor did not get educated.

2.1.2. The 1944 Education created free elem. And sec. education for all.

2.1.3. Schools are stratified socially and economically.

2.1.4. Comprehensive high schools are eliminated. (Prepared students for the workforce).

2.2. France

2.2.1. France has a very elitists educational system.

2.2.2. Only the elite can move up educationally.

2.2.3. Separate schools for poor and elite.

2.2.4. The top students go to the grandes e’coles.

2.2.5. The government controls everything.

2.2.6. The France system is very competitive.

2.3. Former Soviet Union

2.3.1. Very centralized system.

2.3.2. This special interest created a stratified system.

2.3.3. The downfall resulted in the inequality that was created.

2.4. Japan

2.4.1. In the 1880’s Japan centralized its educational system.

2.4.2. Education is highly competitive.

2.4.3. Demanding college entrance exams.

2.4.4. A double system of education exist.

2.5. Germany

2.5.1. students are sorted at an early age to be tracked into their appropriate careers.

2.5.2. The German system is opposite of the U.S. system which is open to all.

2.5.3. Academic achievement is very closely associated with social class.

2.6. Finland

2.6.1. Racial and social classes have very few discrepancies across test scores.

2.6.2. All tracking is eliminated.

2.6.3. Emphasis is on formative evaluations.

2.6.4. The one standardized test is for college entrance.

2.6.5. Finland has a high regard for teachers and has competitive salaries.

2.6.6. Teachers have a high degree of job satisfaction.

2.7. School Processes and Culture

2.7.1. Schools are separate social organizations because;

2.7.1.1. They have definitive populations,

2.7.1.2. They have political structures.

2.7.1.3. They represent a multitude of social groups.

2.7.1.4. They are prevailed by the “we feeling”.

2.7.1.5. They have their own special culture.

2.7.2. Teachers are in conflict with students. Curriculum v. social goals of students.

2.7.3. Administrators and teachers are in conflict. Structure v. teaching.

2.7.4. Communities are in conflict with administration.

2.7.5. Changing Schools

2.7.5.1. Conflict is a necessary part of change.

2.7.5.2. New behaviors must be learned.

2.7.5.3. Team building must extend to all parts.

2.7.5.4. Process and content are interrelated.

2.8. Teachers, Teaching and Professionalism

2.8.1. Teachers have had to develop all kinds of interpersonal skills.

2.8.2. Key to teaching is exercising control.

2.8.3. A classroom must have control to be an effective learning environment.

2.8.4. Turn each day into a special event.

2.8.5. Standardized generic education limits teachers creativity and risk-taking.

3. Equality of Oportunity

3.1. Social stratification – three systems.

3.1.1. Caste- a persons' social level is determined by race or religion.

3.1.2. Estate systems- a persons' social level is determined by family value and worth.

3.1.3. Class systems- a persons' worth is determined by their ability to overcome by personal achievement,

3.2. Class

3.2.1. Schools represent the middle and upper class.

3.2.2. Parental income is directly related to educational achievement and test performance.

3.3. Race

3.3.1. Race has a direct impact on how much educational attainment a person achieves.

3.3.2. Minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities as white Americans.

3.4. Gender

3.4.1. In the last twenty years significant gains have been made to equalize gender educational and professional attainment.

3.4.2. Disparities still exist in education and job salaries.

3.5. The Coleman Study 1982

3.5.1. Private school students outperform public school students.

3.5.2. Differences in schools do make a difference.

3.5.3. The difference is in how much more demanding private schools are of their students.

4. Sociology of Education

4.1. Effects of Schooling On Individuals

4.1.1. Knowledge and Attitudes

4.1.1.1. The higher the social class of a student the higher level of educational achievement

4.1.1.2. Differences between schools is not a significant impact.

4.1.1.3. Academically oriented schools have higher levels of student achievement.

4.1.2. Employment

4.1.2.1. More Education results in better jobs and opportunities.

4.1.3. Education and Mobility

4.1.3.1. Education is the great equalizer in the status race.

4.1.3.2. Poor and rich people see no effect on the social status as a result of their education attainment.

4.1.3.3. Competition is not fair. Winners win with exceptions and losers are dropped from the competition.

4.1.3.4. Rules are not always fair.

4.1.4. Inside the Schools

4.1.4.1. Curriculum is determined by those who want to perpetuate certain values and beliefs.

4.1.4.2. Not all students study the same curriculum.

4.1.4.3. Curriculum determines who goes to college.

4.1.4.4. Cultural transmission, selective channeling of opportunity and social mobility are determined at the school level and its curriculum.

4.1.5. Teacher Behavior

4.1.5.1. Teachers may have as many as 1000 interactions with students on a daily basis.

4.1.5.2. Teacher expectations directly influence student achievement.

4.1.5.3. Self-fulfilling prophecy has a direct impact on student success.

4.1.5.4. The more teachers demanded from their students results in higher student self esteem and success.

4.1.6. Student Peer Groups and Alienation

4.1.6.1. Nerds, coolness and athletes.

4.1.6.2. Careerists which are middle and upper middle class.

4.1.6.3. Intellectuals come from highly educated families.

4.1.6.4. Strivers come from middle and lower class hard workers.

4.1.6.5. The Unconnected come from all backgrounds.

4.1.7. Education and Inequality

4.1.7.1. American society resembles a triangle where most people are at the base.

4.1.7.2. The top 20% posses 75% of wealth.

4.1.8. Inadequate Schools

4.1.8.1. Affluent schools provide better social mobility than poorer schools.

4.1.9. Tracking

4.1.9.1. Tracking has a direct effect on student expectations and success.

4.1.10. De Facto Segregation

4.1.10.1. People segregate themselves into their comfort areas.

4.1.10.2. Racial integration benefits minorities more than the majority.

4.1.11. Gender Biases

4.1.11.1. Men are still paid more for equivalent jobs.

4.1.11.2. Academics are leveling between the sexes.

4.1.11.3. Schools are still perpetuating gender inequalities.

4.1.12. The Current Educational Crisis

4.1.12.1. One third of children are at-risk of failing.

4.1.12.2. One fourth of preschool children live in poverty.

4.1.12.3. Fifteen million are reared by single mothers.

5. History of U.S Education

5.1. Our Purpose Then

5.1.1. To read the Bible to save our souls

5.2. Our Purpose Now

5.2.1. Transmit culture

5.2.2. Prepare for a global workforce

5.2.3. Prepare for the workforce

5.2.4. Become a productive citizen

5.2.5. Pursuit of happiness

5.2.6. Pursuit of freedom

5.2.7. Pursuit of life

5.3. Public Schools

5.3.1. Boys only

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Historically

6.1.1. Idealists say we should teach the great works of mankind

6.1.2. Conservatist say we should return to a humanist foundation

6.1.3. Social Efficiency became the cornerstone of Progressivism

6.1.4. Social meliorists – reform society through schools also known as social reconstruction

6.1.5. Communities reflect what is important to them as a society.

6.1.6. The social class composition of the school and community have determined what is of value in the curriculum.

6.2. Sociology of the Curriculum

6.2.1. Society influences the curriculum

6.2.2. Formal curriculum – what is cognitively taught (subjects)

6.2.3. Informal or Hidden curriculum

6.2.4. Null curriculum

6.2.5. Social order determines the curriculum

6.2.6. A capitalist society perpetuates the curriculum for maintaining social order

6.2.7. Multiculturalists influence on curriculum has promoted a diverse needs classroom.p.294

7. Philosophy of Education

7.1. Student-Centered

7.1.1. Progressivism

7.1.1.1. Teaching through field trips and games

7.1.1.2. Experiential learning

7.1.1.3. Education based on needs and interest of students

7.1.2. Social Reconstructionism

7.1.2.1. Learn from meaningful social experiences

7.1.2.2. Focus on social, political, and economic needs

7.1.2.3. Become intelligent problem solvers, enjoy learning

7.1.3. Existentialism

7.1.3.1. Students determine what is true, right, beautiful

7.1.3.2. Emphasis on individuality

7.1.3.3. Teachers expose students to various paths; students choose which to follow

7.2. Teacher-Centered

7.2.1. Essentialism

7.2.1.1. Emphasis on academics

7.2.1.2. Academically rigorous

7.2.1.3. Administrators and teachers set curriculum

7.2.2. Perenialism

7.2.2.1. Focus on classic ideas

7.2.2.2. Focus on concepts, not facts

7.2.2.3. Teachers set curriculum

8. Politics of Education

8.1. Conservatives

8.2. Liberals

8.2.1. KPI's

8.3. Radicals

8.4. Neo-Liberals

9. Educational Reform

9.1. Two waves of attack.

9.1.1. The first was concerned with accountability and achievement.

9.1.2. The second was concerned with the processes of the school.

9.2. A Theory of Educational Problems and Reforms

9.2.1. Integrative Realm - basic skills and knowledge is the focus for school improvement and student achievement.

9.2.2. Developmental Realm – focus is on developing the whole child by having schools become more humane institutions.

10. Educational Inequality

10.1. Sociological Explanations of Inequality

10.1.1. Functionalist Theorists support the idea that each students’ success is determined by their own hard work and desire to succeed.

10.1.2. Conflict Theorists support the idea that student success is affected by their environment.

10.1.3. Interactionists Theorists support that student success is determined by a combination of factors such as family, social class schools and environment.

10.2. Other factors that influence student success are;

10.2.1. Student-centered factors such as family, peer group, community, culture and the student.

10.2.2. School-centered factors include teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, school climate and teacher expectations.