The Modal Perfects

Meanings and examples of the modal perfects in English

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The Modal Perfects by Mind Map: The Modal Perfects

1. Criticism given after an event

1.1. should have -ed

1.2. ought to have -ed

2. A logical conclusion about a past action

2.1. must have -ed

3. A guess about a past action

3.1. may have -ed

3.2. might have -ed

4. Ability to have done something that in the end wasn't done

4.1. could have -ed