Special Education

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Special Education by Mind Map: Special Education

1. Autism Spectrum Disorders |

1.1. What are some effective strategies for working with children who have autism?

1.1.1. Always be clear and specific in your instructions and your feedback

1.1.2. Present instructions step-by-step, using verbal, visual and physical cues

1.1.3. Adjust your communication with the understanding that many children with autism have trouble interpreting facial expressions and tone of voice

1.1.4. Provide lots of positive feedback and repeated opportunities for practicing new skills

1.1.5. Provide opportunities for social interaction and classroom collaboration, and look for good peer models who will initiate social contact and be more forgiving of potentially awkward or unusual responses

1.1.6. Keep classroom routines and schedules consistent

1.1.7. Visual modalities tend to be a strength – use visual schedules, directions, and behavior guides

1.1.8. When routines and schedules have to change, prepare students for the change and be clear and specific about what will change

1.1.9. Have a quiet space in your classroom that students can go to in order to calm down and regain control if they are feeling overwhelmed

1.1.10. Even when there are changes, reassure students that the underlying structure of the classroom and their learning in the classroom will remain consistent

1.1.11. Communicate with families and other professionals to share information and strategies

1.2. http://www.emstac.org/registered/topics/autism/case.htm

2. Blindness/ Visual ImpairmenBlindness/ Visual Impairment

2.1. What are some effective strategies for working with children who have a visual impairment?

2.1.1. Verbally and specifically narrate what is happening in the classroom at any given time so students always feel included

2.1.2. Communicate with families and other professionals to share information and strategies

2.1.3. Adapt activities to promote independence

2.1.4. Provide multisensory, tactile, and experiential learning experiences

2.1.5. Explore and use assistive technology and other accommodations, such as text-to-speech software

2.2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=raYBAZ9CBLA

3. Deafness - Hearing Impairment

3.1. What are some effective strategies for working with children who have deafness or other hearing impairments?

3.1.1. Make sure that students are always positioned in class so they are close to your instruction and teaching tools (blackboard, projector, etc.)

3.1.2. Always look at students when you are addressing them, even if the students use an interpreter

3.1.3. As much as possible, use visual aids and tools like speech-to-text and closed captioned videos; tap into all of the students' senses

3.1.4. Embrace silence - allow time for students to process information and communicate back their answers and understanding.

3.1.5. Ensure equitable response opportunities when competing with hearing students

3.1.6. Reinforce instructions and other important information with visual cues on the blackboard or elsewhere

3.1.7. Keep classroom routines and schedules consistent

3.1.8. Visual modalities tend to be a strength – use visual schedules, directions, and behavior guides

3.1.9. When routines and schedules have to change, prepare students for the change and be clear and specific about what will change

3.1.10. Have a quiet space in your classroom that students can go to in order to calm down and regain control if they are feeling overwhelmed

3.1.11. Even when there are changes, reassure students that the underlying structure of the classroom and their learning in the classroom will remain consistent

3.1.12. Communicate with families and other professionals to share information and strategies

4. Deafness-Blindness

4.1. What are some effective strategies for working with children who have deaf-blindness?

4.1.1. As often as possible, create opportunities for students to interact and collaborate with other students in structured activities

4.1.2. Build exploration and touch into your teaching

4.1.3. For students who have limited hearing/vision, reduce auditory and visual distractions so that students can focus exactly where they need to focus

4.1.4. Learn about and use assistive technology such as speech to text, adjustable type, etc. that can help with communication and learning

4.1.5. Offer extended response times

4.1.6. Communicate with families and professionals about tools that are helpful for students

4.1.7. Practice experiencing the world minus one or both of your senses; how did you feel, what did you experience, how would you change your instruction to compensate for the reduction of your senses?

5. Developmental Delay

5.1. Effective Strategies for Working with Students Who have a Developmental Delay

5.1.1. Seating Arrangements

5.1.2. Children with developmental disorders can have a variety of issues that can effect learning for themselves and those around them. Keep in mind that a student that displays behaviors that are distracting would work better at an individual desk. If there is not a way to seat the students in the classroom in his own space, pairing him with a capable buddy that can assist with keeping the student on track without it being detrimental to his own education would be beneficial. Also, minimizing distractions and the possibility for over stimulation will assist the student with focusing. For example, do not seat the student next to a window facing the playground.

5.1.3. Routines

5.1.4. Students with developmental disabilities struggle with becoming more independent. One way to encourage that behavior is to be consistent with classroom routines. By doing the same thing each day the student knows what to expect and can begin following the same actions without additional guidance. For example, if the requirement each day is to come into the classroom, hang up her jacket, empty her back pack and put her lunch away, she will likely begin doing that independently due to the predictability and consistency.

5.1.5. Predictability

5.1.6. Routines and procedures that provide predictability are important to a student with developmental delays. Predictable procedures will not only help teach skills and promote independence, but also decrease unwanted behaviors caused by not understanding expectations. One way to do this is by providing a schedule of activities that can be understood by the student. This will vary depending on the age and cognitive level of the student. For example, one student might be successful using a daily planner with a schedule written in while another might only be able to understand an object or photo representing the activity.

6. Emotional Disability

6.1. What are some effective strategies for working with children with an emotional disability?

6.1.1. Know the child, not just the behaviors

6.1.2. Build rapport, which can make the difference when you need to help the child regain control

6.1.3. Communicate with families and other professionals about a child's specific emotional disability, as well as to share information and strategies

6.1.4. Be clear and consistent around all classroom expectations and behavior management

6.1.5. Provide consistent structure and support

6.1.6. Build engagement for students

6.1.7. Be extra vigilant around bullying or teasing

6.1.8. Tap into students' strengths and interests

6.1.9. Create situations for student success

6.1.10. Remember the behavior is the problem, not the child

6.2. http://images.pearsonassessments.com/images/ca/rti/downloads/Megan.pdf

7. Intellectual Disability

7.1. What are some effective strategies for working with children who have intellectual disabilities?

7.1.1. Emphasize experiential, hands-on learning

7.1.2. Be specific and concrete in your communication

7.1.3. Demonstrate and model tasks and instructions

7.1.4. Provide lots of positive feedback and repeated opportunities for practice

7.1.5. Break tasks into manageable chunks

7.1.6. Communicate with families and other professionals to share information and strategies

8. Multiple Disabilities

8.1. Effective Strategies for working with Students with multiple disabilities

8.2. Children with multiple disabilities or severe disabilities often have significant needs relating to their healthcare, personal care and educational needs. As a teacher, it is important to keep your mind focused on the educational aspect of your work with these children. Your job is to TEACH, as well as to link in as best you can with therapists, doctors, nursing staff and personal care workers who may provide support and care to the child. As such, you need to consider how your teaching practise relates to the goals which have been established in the IEP document for each student, and work towards achieving those goals.

9. Orthopedic Impairment

9.1. What are some effective strategies for working with children who have orthopedic impairments?

9.1.1. Communicate with families and other professionals to coordinate care and strategies

9.1.2. Provide seating and mobility to suit students' needs

9.1.3. Consider students' medical needs when planning instruction and actvities

9.1.4. Explore assistive technology that might help students

9.1.5. Think about the essence of the skills you want to teach and identify the multitude of ways students can engage in the lesson and demonstrate their learning

9.1.6. Remove barriers to learning, participation, and achievement for students

10. Other health impairment

10.1. What are some effective strategies for working with children who have other health impairments?

10.1.1. Plan ways to keep students engaged during prolonged absences

10.1.2. Consider and plan for students' health needs around school activities outside the classroom

10.1.3. Learn as much as you can about the students' particular health impairments

10.1.4. Communicate with families and other professionals to share information and strategies

10.2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PJ9byGBiPlg

11. Specific Learning Disability

11.1. Effective Strategies to Support Students with Specific Learning Disabilities

11.2. What are some effective strategies for working with children who have a specific learning disability?

11.2.1. Provide multisensory instruction and assessment

11.2.2. Give positive feedback and repeated opportunities for practicing new skills

11.2.3. Offer supports around organizational skills

11.2.4. Plan hands-on learning experiences

11.2.5. Consider relevant assistive technology and other accommodations

11.2.6. Communicate with families and other professionals to share information and strategies

11.3. http://images.pearsonassessments.com/images/ca/rti/downloads/Ellie.pdf

12. Speech or Language Impairment

12.1. What are some effective strategies for working with children who have speech and language impairments?

12.1.1. Model correct speech for students

12.1.2. Always teach new vocabulary in context

12.1.3. Provide plenty of time and opportunities for practicing new language skills

12.1.4. Use multisensory instruction

12.1.5. Communicate with families and other professionals to share information and strategies

12.1.6. Provide necessary supports including accommodations

12.2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9F0RBuA7e20

13. Traumatic Brain Injury

13.1. What are some effective strategies for working with children who have a traumatic brain injury?

13.1.1. Keep classroom routines consistent

13.1.2. Offer students multiple ways to learn new skills and information

13.1.3. Allow extra time to practice new skills and to finish tasks

13.1.4. Communicate with families and other professionals to share information and strategies

13.1.5. Reduce distractions to help students focus

14. Hearing Impairment

14.1. Efffective Strategies for working with a Student with a Hearing Impairment

14.1.1. 1. Make sure hearing-impaired students wear amplification devices, such as a frequency modulated (FM) unit that will connect to a microphone for you to wear. “The FM device allows your voice to be heard directly by the student,” according to the UFT website.

14.1.2. 2.Use the child’s residual hearing, as total hearing loss is rare.

14.1.3. 3. Allow hearing-impaired students to sit where they think best, as sitting close to the teacher will help the child to better understand the context of your words by observing your facial expressions.

14.1.4. 4. Don’t shout. If the child is already wearing an FM device, your voice will be amplified, as it is.

14.1.5. 5. Give interpreters copies of lessons in advice. This will help the interpreter prep the student for the vocabulary used in the lesson.

14.1.6. 6. Focus on the child, not the interpreter. Teachers do not need to give interpreters directions to give to the child. The interpreter will relay your words without being asked.

14.1.7. 7. Only speak while facing forward. Do not speak with your back to hearing impaired children. They need to see your face for context and visual cues.

14.1.8. 8.Enhance lessons with visuals, as hearing impaired children tend to be visual learners.

14.1.9. 9. Repeat words, directions and activities.

14.1.10. 10. Make every lesson language-oriented. Have a print-rich classroom with labels on the objects inside.