Types and Purposes of Assessments-3rd Grade

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Types and Purposes of Assessments-3rd Grade by Mind Map: Types and Purposes of Assessments-3rd Grade

1. Assessment OF Learning: involves looking at assessment information at the end of the teaching and learning process to rank students' achievement levels against a standard.

1.1. Summative

1.1.1. Definition and Purpose: used to evaluate student learning, skill acquisition, and academic achievement at the conclusion of a defined instructional period

1.1.2. Advantages: They give great insight to teachers: if none of the children in a class score above a 2 or 3 on an AP exam, it is much more likely to be the result of poor or off-topic instruction than a class of students unable to complete the work.

1.1.3. Disadvantages: Some students become nervous and overwhelmed at test time. They might actually know the material but cannot translate that on the test. As a result, summative assessment is not always the most accurate reflection of learning.

1.1.4. Example: At the end of the unit about Greece and Rome the students will take a written test that consists of multiple choice, fill in the blank, and essay questions to assess what they have learned.

1.2. Portfolio

1.2.1. Definition and Purpose: a compilation of student work assembled for the purpose of (1) evaluating coursework quality and academic achievement, (2) creating a lasting archive of academic work products, and (3) determining whether students have met learning standards or academic requirements for courses, grade-level promotion, and graduation.

1.2.2. Advantages: Portfolios permit individualized assessment. Some students are not good test-takers and portfolios offer them an alternative to demonstrate mastery of content. Numerous work samples can show students moving from basic to advanced skills, demonstrating continued learning growth. Because assessment portfolios are individualized, students and teachers have the opportunity to choose the documents they want to include in the portfolio and to make decisions about how to improve the student's work.

1.2.3. Disadvantages: Gathering all of the necessary data and work samples can make portfolios bulky and difficult to manage. Developing a systematic and deliberate management system is difficult, but this step is necessary in order to make portfolios more than a random collection of student work. Scoring portfolios involves the extensive use of subjective evaluation procedures such as rating scales and professional judgment, and this limits reliability.

1.2.4. Example:

1.3. High Stakes

1.3.1. Definition and Purpose: any test used to make important decisions about students, educators, schools, or districts, most commonly for the purpose of accountability—i.e., the attempt by federal, state, or local government agencies and school administrators to ensure that students are enrolled in effective schools and being taught by effective teachers. In general, “high stakes” means that test scores are used to determine punishments (such as sanctions, penalties, funding reductions, negative publicity), accolades (awards, public celebration, positive publicity), advancement (grade promotion or graduation for students), or compensation (salary increases or bonuses for administrators and teachers).

1.3.2. Advantages: Reveals areas of educational need that can be targeted for reform and improvement, such as programs for students who may be underperforming academically or being underserved by schools.

1.3.3. Disadvantages: Forces educators to “teach to the test”--to much instructional time is spent on preparing students for the test. Not enough instructional time is spent on knowledge and skills that are needed as well.

1.3.4. Example: The Virginia Standards of Learning (SOL) Tests that are taken starting in 3rd Grade.

1.4. Diagnostic

1.4.1. Definition and Purpose: an essential device in a teacher's “tool kit”. It can be used to diagnose strengths and areas of need in all students. Diagnostic assessment involves the gathering and careful evaluation of detailed data using students' knowledge and skills in a given learning area.

1.4.2. Advantage: Allows the teacher to assess prior knowledge. If there is an area that the students need help with the teacher can reteach it.

1.4.3. Disadvantage: If not being used to reinforce prior knowledge it could be a waste of time.

1.4.4. Example: At the beginning of the year the students are given a Reading Placement Test to determine what level they are on as far as reading and comprehension. The test has a focus on their prior knowledge of phonics, vocabulary, and reading comprehension.

2. Assessments OF and FOR Learning

2.1. Authentic

2.1.1. Definition and Purpose: A form of assessment in which students are asked to perform real-world tasks that demonstrate meaningful application of essential knowledge and skills

2.1.2. Advantage: Authentic assessment helps students see themselves as active participants, who are working on a task of relevance, rather than passive recipients of obscure facts. It helps teachers by encouraging them to reflect on the relevance of what they teach and provides results that are useful for improving instruction

2.1.3. Disadvantage: These types of assessments might require funding and technology that the school does not have access to.

2.1.4. Example:

2.2. Performance Based

2.2.1. Definition and Purpose:

2.2.2. Advantage: Both summative and formative; they can tell teachers about what content a student has or has not mastered, and additionally offer insight into what concepts students are struggling with or where they get lost in a process.

2.2.3. Disadvantage: Takes up a substantial amount of time to administer which takes away from instructional time.

2.2.4. Example:

3. Assessment FOR Learning: embeds assessment processes throughout the teaching and learning process to constantly adjust instructional strategy.

3.1. Formative:

3.1.1. Definition and Purpose: A wide variety of assessments that take place throughout the course of a lesson. Formative assessments help teacher identify areas where the students are struggling so that the teacher can make adjustments to benefit the students.

3.1.2. Advantage: Teachers are able to assess students as the lesson goes along by using scaffolding and differentiating. Formative assessments can help determine which students need a different approach, which students need immediate attention and which students are not learning as a result of not being challenged.

3.1.3. Disadvantage: Too much time could be spent on reteaching in areas where the students are struggling. This could result in boredom and lower scores because the students are not able to focus.

3.1.4. Example: Have the students form groups of 4 or 5 and discuss how their own individual cultures, ideas, and perspectives relate to those of the early civilization of Greece and Rome. Inform them to keep in mind that they must focus on how they are similar and/or different from their peers.

3.2. Self Assessment

3.2.1. Definition and Purpose: Students evaluate their own scholastic performance to figure out areas where they might need some improvement.

3.2.2. Advantage: Encourages student responsibility and involvement.

3.2.3. Disadvantage: Students may not be mature enough to effectively evaluate themselves. Evaluation could be inflated which causes the assessment to be unreliable.

3.2.4. Example: I personally don't think that self assessments will be effective for 3rd graders. I spoke to a few 3rd grade teachers about this and they don't encourage this type of assessment at this grade level.

3.3. Peer Assessment

3.3.1. Definition and Purpose: Students assess each other based on a list of criteria provided by the teacher.

3.3.2. Advantage: Helps to develop students' judgement skills

3.3.3. Disadvantage: Students feel reluctant on evaluating their peers because of friendships that have developed between them.

3.3.4. Example: I don't think that peer assessments will be effective for 3rd graders. I spoke to a few 3rd grade teachers about this and they don't encourage this type of assessment at this grade level.

4. Sources

4.1. Definition of Diagnostic Assessment. 2013. Department of Education. Retrieved from http://www.education.nt.gov.au/parents-community/assessment-reporting/diagnostic-assessments/diagnostic-assessments.

4.1.1. Employee

4.1.2. Employee

4.2. de Velenzuela, Julia. Defining Portfolio Assessment. 2000. Retrieved from http://www.unm.edu/~devalenz/handouts/portfolio.html

4.2.1. Employee

4.2.2. Employee

4.3. Education Testing: Assessment OF Learning Versus Assessment FOR Learning. 2012. Michael and Susan Dell Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.msdf.org/blog/2012/05/education-testing-assessment-of-learning-versus-assessment-for-learning/

4.3.1. Employee

4.3.2. Employee

4.4. Lowe, Jeannine. Describe the Advantage of Portfolio Assessment for Students. 2015. Retrieved from http://education.seattlepi.com/describe-advantages-portfolio-assessment-students-1470.html

4.5. Performance Based Assessment. 2015. Edutopia. Retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/practice/performance-based-assessment-engaging-students-chemistry

4.6. Pros and Cons of Performance-Based Assessment. 2010. Experiential Continuum. Retrieved from https://experientialcontinuum.wordpress.com/2010/12/31/pros-and-cons-of-performance-based-assessment/

4.7. Reading Placement Tests. n.d. Retrieved from https://knights3rd.wikispaces.com/file/view/3rd+Grade+Reading+Placement+Tests.pdf

4.8. Readers Workshop Portfolio Template. n.d. Retrieved from http://aapplegate.weebly.com/student-portfolio-template.html

4.9. Summative Assessment: What Teachers Need to Know. 2013. Retrieved from http://education.cu-portland.edu/blog/teaching-strategies/summative-assessment-what-teachers-need-to-know/

4.10. Types of Assessments. 2013. The Glossary of Education Reform. Retrieved from edglossary.org

4.11. What is Authentic Assessment? 2014. Authentic Assessment Toolbox. Retrieved from http://jfmueller.faculty.noctrl.edu/toolbox/whatisit.htm