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DEMO by Mind Map: DEMO

1. Managing Group Performance

1.1. Building High Performing Teams

1.1.1. Groupthink Janus 1972 Nick Drake - Pink Moon Rolling Stones - Exile on Main Street Stones overrated - group think in action Drake was the outsider and vulnerable" Janis (1972) coined the term ͚Groupthink͛ to describe situations where a group makes faulty decisions because group pressures lead to a deterioration of ͞mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgement͟.

1.1.2. How teams form - Hackman 2002 "Broken Social Scene - You Forgot It In People. BSS are collective so form as many people as needed to create the desired effect. Sound then becomes a combination of the individuals music." Teams must have clear objectives and deliverables. Conditions laid out for a 'team' to be successful include; i) Having a task suitable for a group, rather than an individual ii) have clear team functions, boundaries and be managed as such, iii) the right amount of authority and individual control in the right domains, iv) a supportive structure that encourages and doesn't prevent or hinder 'teamwork' v) organisational support

1.1.3. How teams form Tuckman 1955 "Beatles - Help (1965) Last track is goes something like 'I've got a tuckman to ride' Forming: John Lennon meets Paul McCartney Storming: They spend time in Hamburg and learn their craft. Fire Pete Best and hire Ringo Starr as drummer Norming: Start producing records with Geogre Martin. Lennon and McCartney create songwriting relationship Performing: Beatlemania > discover drugs > eventual descruction when John meets Yoko " Forming Uncertainty about group task, process, structure and leadership. Begin to learn about each other Tend to conform to avoid conflict Testing the waters͛– what sorts of behaviours are acceptable? Storming Intra-group conflict starting to surface, usually around early decisions on control, resources or direction Consensus͛ established and tested Some teams never move beyond this stage Norming Intimacy develops – cohesiveness and group identity around a shared goal Structures and processes settle into a pattern Performing Group is able to function effectively and focus on achieving its tasks Without ͚bad͛ conflict or the need for external supervision The norms for ͚good͛ conflict are regularly practised"

1.1.4. Homogeneity vs. Heterogeneity Homogeneity Easier to build relationships Trust and communication come more readily More efficient Heterogeneity – Greater adaptability – More adept at problem-solving – Greater creativity – Breadth of perspectives and paradigms

1.1.5. Hiring as “cultural matching” - Rivera - 2012 "Killer Mike - RAP Music El-P recruited as producer which resulted in Killer Mike's most succesfull album. They went on to form Run The Jewels which has been the highlight of both of their careers" Organisational/cultural fit will they fit in around here Cognitive fit: looking glass merit – or do they have similar skills to me? Affective processes: searching for a spark – Do I like and get on with them? "

1.1.6. Debate vs Dialogue Yankelovich 1999 Debate: Assumes there is a right answer – and I have it Affective (emotional/ dysfunctional/ bad) conflict Dialogue: Assumes that many people have pieces of the answer and that together they can craft a solution" Cognitive (functional/ good) conflict “The absence of conflict is not harmony, it’s apathy.” Eisenhardt, Kahwajy & Bourgeois, 1997

1.1.7. “The two look deceptively similar on the surface: groups of people, immersed in discussion and debate, trying to select a course of action by drawing on what they believe is the best available evidence. But despite their similarities, inquiry and advocacy produce dramatically different results” Garvin & Roberto, 2001, op. cit. p. 109 Inquiry A contest Persuasion and lobbying Strive to persuade others Depend your own position Downplay your weaknesses Advocacy Collaborative problem-solving Testing and evaluation Critical thinkers Present balanced argument Remain open to alternatives Accept constructive criticism

1.1.8. Takeaways from lecture Groups do not necessarily compensate for individual mistakes in decision-making Groups can make better decisions than individuals – but only under certain conditions Just because we all agree in the group, does not mean it is a good decision – beware of ‘false consensus’ When an individual, group, or organisation’s identity is threatened, each tends to respond by reinforcing its usual or normative way of doing things

1.1.9. Multiplier model - Wiseman and McKeown - 2010 "Kayne West - My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy Kayne is a multiplier. He sets the direction but is able to foster the talent at his disposal. " There are many ways to stifle the creativity and smarts of your team, just as there are lots of ways to get the most out of people. To assess your leadership style, take the survey at Diminishers The Empire Builder: Hoards resources and underutilizes talent The Tyrant: Creates a tense environment that suppresses people’s thinking and capabilities The Know-It-All: Gives directives that demonstrate how much he or she knows The Decision Maker: Makes centralized, abrupt decisions that confuse the organization The Micro-manager: Drives results through his or her personal involvement Multipliers The Talent Magnet: Attracts talented people and uses them to their highest potential The Liberator: Creates an intense environment that re- quires people’s best thinking and work The Challenger: Defines an opportunity that causes people to stretch their thinking and behaviors The Debate Maker: Drives sound decisions by cultivating rig- orous debate among team members The Investor: Gives other people ownership of results and invests in their success

1.2. Developing and Leveraging Networks

1.3. Managing feedback and other ‘difficult’ conversations

1.3.1. Providing high quality feedback is arguably the most important and cost-effective people management skill

1.3.2. 3 things happen while have a difficult conversation Facts Feeling Indentity

1.3.3. Important to understand what people are thinking and feeling but not saying Bigger the gap the harder the conversation

1.3.4. 3 types of feedback “coaching” – advice about how you can improve “evaluation” – rates or judges you, lets you know where you stand “appreciation” – thanks you, recognises you, lets you know your efforts have been noticed

1.3.5. Triggers to avoid Truth triggers – “that’s just plain wrong” Relationship triggers – “are you kidding me? I’m not taking that from you!” Identity triggers – “that’s not who I am”

1.3.6. How to give and receive feedback Heen and Stone 2014 "Sun Kill Moon - Benji If Carissa had listened to feedback she might not have been killed by the aerosol can." 1. Know your tendencies 2. Disentangle the “what” from the “who” 3. Unpack the feedback 4. Look for the blindspots 5. Sort toward coaching 6. Contain the feedback 7. Coach your coach 8. Ask for just one thing 9. Engageinsmallexperiments "1) Appreciation – Acknowledgment, motivation, gratitude (the easiest form) 2) Coaching – Expanding knowledge, sharpening skill (see Sort to Coach below) 3) Evaluation – Rate against a set of standards. Inform decision making"

1.3.7. Good vs. Bad Feedback Good Specific: Say exactly what the person is doing wrong, such as “This is what I like, and why” Supportive: Give the sense that the criticism is meant to help the person do better Problem solving: Suggest a solution or offer to help to find a way to improve things Timely: Give the message as soon after the problem occurs as possible Bad Vague: Offer no specifics, but make a blanket condemnation, such as, “That was a lousy job” Blames the person: Attribute the problem to personality or some other unchangeable trait Threatening: Make the person feel attacked, such as, “Next time, you’re through” Unconstructive: Offer no hope for change or suggestion for doing better

1.3.8. Situation-Behaviour-Impact (SBI) Situation: Describe the situation where the observed behaviour occurred. Be as specific as possible Behaviour: Describe the person’s behaviour – physical, observable actions. Again, be as specific as possible. Think of playing back a videotape of what happened, using words to describe what you saw Impact: Share with the person the impact of their behaviour on you and others present, i.e. what you or others experienced as a result of this person’s behaviour

2. Social Identity Theory - Tadjfel and Turner - 1979

2.1. The Clash - London Calling Punk movement had a strong indentify that drew people together.

2.2. Identity exists at several levels, often simultaneously: dominant identity is determined by whichever is most salient in given context.

2.2.1. 1) Social categorisation – decide which group you affiliate to

2.2.2. 2) Social identification – next level: norms and attitudes of group are compatible with your own

2.2.3. 3) Social comparison – next level again; self esteem is enhanced or detracted from by perceptions of how in-groups (or out-groups) behave in society

3. Motivating Organisational Behaviour

3.1. Motivating others

3.1.1. How to motivate people - Pink- 2009 Individuals value intrinsic rewards more than extrinsic but don't believe other people feel the same Beck - Midnight Vultures Throughout the album Beck uses intrinsic and extrinsic rewards Drive - Pink Tennis ball example Extrinsic promises to destroy intrinsic motivation Autonomy, Mastery and Purpose (AMP) Pink argues that intrinsic motivators are what is really important in motivating people. Autonomy, or the desire to be self-directed Mastery, or the itch to keep improving at something that͛s important to us Purpose, the sense that what we do produces something transcendent or serves something meaningful beyond than ourselves

3.1.2. In order to have a meaningful role in an organisation, that role must be Something you like Something you are good at Something that is valuable to the organisation

3.1.3. How to motivate people - Kerr - 1975 Rewarding A while looking for B Long term success vs short term incentives People get mixed messages on what is desired behavior versus what is actually rewarded behavior lead to undesired outcomes. 1) Focus on 'objective' criterion 2) Overemphasis on visible/measureable behavior (similar to #1) 3) Equality over Efficiency 4) Pure Hypocracy

3.1.4. The Best-Laid Incentive Plans (Kerr, 2003) “The first rule of performance management: you get what you pay for” And, by implication, you don’t get what you don’t pay for “Before senior management starts introducing new rules, then it had better have a good sense of the kinds of games these rules may promote” “All of this suggests another truism about performance management: the devil is in the detail. It’s very difficult to define the right metrics and anticipate exactly how your people will react to it” [Before making any changes, ask] two basic questions: ‘What do we want employees to do differently to support the business?’ and ‘Why aren’t they already doing it?’ how might you design a rewards system that incentivises certain values or behaviours, rather than performance per se?

3.1.5. Carrots and Sticks (Ayers) People find it hard to forego short terms rewards for long term Small sticks might make people less likely to do what you need them to Humans have a fear of losing something more than they fear gaining something.

3.1.6. Organizations get what they reward, which isn't necessarily what they want Managers should: 1) figure out what each employee values; 2) determine what kinds of behavior you desire; 3) make sure levels of performance are reachable; 4) link desired outcome to desired performance; 5) analyse the total situatoin for conflicting expectancies; 6) check the system for its equity

3.2. Agents, Structure & T Shapes

3.2.1. The agency problem - Chandler - 1977 The problem of motivating one party (the agent) to act on behalf of another (the principal) is known as the principal-agent problem, or agency problem for short Separation between the people running the company vs those that own the company.

3.2.2. T-shaped leaders and diagonal assets - Dodd and Favar - 2006 Girl Talk - Night Ripper Totally T shaped mash up album T-shaped management relies on a new kind of executive, one who breaks out of traditional corporate hierarchy to share knowledge freely across the organisation while remaining fiercely committed to individual business unit performance. To be T-shaped you need to be curious about all parts of the company. Managers who are not T-shaped may succeed initially but will eventually struggle to rise up the organisation.

3.2.3. Structuration Theory - Giddens - 1984 "The Smiths - The Smiths Morrisey > agency Manchester in the early 80's > social structure" Human agency and social structure are in a relationship with each other, and it is the repetition of the acts of individual agents which reproduces the structure.

3.2.4. Leader-leader system, the power to make decisions is distributed throughout the chain of command, Leader-follower system is perfectly suited for work requiring physical labor, Ways to implement a leader-leader system Find out what people need to feel empowered Reallocate power Introduce employee lead decision making: 'I intend to...' > 'Go ahead' Deliberate action: pause, vocalise, gesture Certifying instead of brief - ask questions to determine if members understand the situation Core values need to be up held

3.3. Leaders as

3.3.1. Catalyst someone who causes a reaction or change without being absorbed by the process.

3.3.2. Sense-maker and sense-giver is able to create meaning for oneself and others. Coach: guide, adviser, someone who helps others improve or develop.

3.3.3. Coach guide, adviser, someone who helps others improve or develop.

4. Managing Individual Performance

4.1. Making Good Decisions

4.1.1. Cognitive biases - Kahneman and Tversky - 2011 "Nicolas Jaar: Space Is Only Noise Jaar moves the listener between their system 1 and system 2 throughout the album." 1.Intuitive (System 1): The system the produces the representation of the world around us. It works very fast, and allow us to do thinks like walk, avoid obstacles and make quick decisions, all in the same time. We use this system for tasks that we have learned and mastered. System one is responsible for Cognitive Biases. It is so good at making up contextual stories (which are typically correct) that it can lead us astray to bad decisions. Biases Checklist: Other helpful guides 2.Reflective (System 2): a slow, effortful and deliberate system. This system is used when we are faced with a difficult problem "

4.1.2. Flow - Csikszentmihalyi To live an optimal life, try not to be influenced by external rewards or the opinions of others. You can attain enjoyment in life by focusing your attention on every moment, being mindful of your environment and immersing yourself in your interests.

4.1.3. Thinking Fast and Slow - Kahneman You are more creative and intuitive when you are in a better mood. Linked to Pink AMP Mind is lazy. Bat and ball example. People will stick with system 1 until they need to switch to system 2

4.1.4. Link to culture in a company > values are system 1, rules are system 2

4.1.5. 3Cs Garvin and Roberto 2001 Avalanches - Since I Left You Conflict: how to start the debate Ask questions No defensive language Break up natural coalitions Shift individuals out of comfort zone Consideration: structuring the debate fairness is the key concept Convey openness 'testing and evaluation' make minority views feel 'cultivated and valued' Closure: how to end the decision; critical factor ͚perception of fairness͛ don͛t decide too early: you won͛t have everyone on board decide too late: views become entrenched, people become frustrated you want ͚collective ownership͛ not ͚winners and losers͛ How to know if you’ve made a good decision? You had multiple alternatives You tested your assumptions You had clear goals from the outset You encouraged dissent and debate – and had it! The decision was perceived as fair by participants

4.2. Influencing and Persuading

4.2.1. Critical skills all leaders need High Quality Inquiry Open questions. Able to ask questions genuinely seeking others views of the answer, not for confirmation of my own thoughts/answer. When you are motivated to understand what that person thinks, what can they bring to my thinking and how can they challenge me. Ask/Tell Ratio. Are you asking more than telling? High Quality Communication Quote from Phillip Collins – speech writer for Tony Blair, Kofi Annan “If you can’t say what you think in two to three sentences, you don’t yet know what you think” It is a thinking deficit, not a talking deficit. Average prep of 17 hours for a 20 min Ted Talk. Time for reflection High quality leaders find time to reflect – time is critical, make time to reflect. Also – sleep is critical for reflection. Think/Act ratio. Sometimes you need to make time to think, before you act, so that you can act effectively.

4.2.2. Persuasion Principles Liking: People like those like them, who like them. RECIPROCITY: People repay in kind. SOCIAL PROOF: People follow the lead of similar others. CONSISTENCY: People fulfill written, public, and voluntary commitments. AUTHORITY: People defer to experts who pro- vide shortcuts to decisions requiring specialized infor- mation. SCARCITY: People value what’s scarce. Reference: Cialdini

4.2.3. Made to Stick - Heath The book's outline follows the acronym "SUCCES" (with the last s omitted). Each letter refers to a characteristic that can help make an idea "sticky": Simple — find the core of any idea Unexpected — grab people's attention by surprising them Concrete — make sure an idea can be grasped and remembered later Credible — give an idea believability Emotional — help people see the importance of an idea Stories — empower people to use an idea through narrative The book then goes to mention examples like: Simple: SouthWest Airlines, whose motto is "THE low fare airline".[2] If a steward proposed serving chicken salad in the Texas-Vegas route, thinking about that motto helps one decide that this is not a good idea.

5. Managing Organisational Contexts

5.1. Understanding Organisational Power

5.1.1. Power is 20% granted 80% taken. (jeffery pfeffer) Success not gained by people who play by the rules Not much of a link between job performance and promotions Stand out by asking questions and breaking rules 'The nail that sticks out gets hammered down" Exude power by taking your time speaking Help prevent you from wasting words Makes you clear and consistent

5.1.2. Power is defined as the potential ability to influence behavior, to change the course of events, to overcome resistance and to get people to do things that they would not otherwise do.

5.1.3. When people experience conflicts in organisations they generally think, ‘It’s your personality, it’s my personality, we’re not getting along.’ But a lot of the stuff that seems personal is actually systemic.

5.1.4. Recognise the systemic instruments of, and impediments to, power in an organisation – both the power to get things done and the power to veto change. Important to recognise what decision-makers want from their organisation Powerful departments tend to offer higher salaries Location of department - is it closer top?

5.1.5. The empowered organisation is one in which people at all levels and in all positions are able to make happen what they would want to have happen and what the organisation needs to happen.

5.1.6. If you see impediments within the system, or instruments that are being misused, make your move to redress the balance, but be aware that you will be perceived as an irritant rather than a visionary – at least in the short term.

5.2. Understanding Organisational Culture

5.2.1. Culture Web

5.2.2. Managing culture O’Reilly 1989 "Beasie Boy - Paul's Boutique New York white guys blend hip-hop culture with punk pop-rapper full of intelligence" Culture can be though of as many things - a control system, a normative order. Need intensity and consensus for a strong culture to exist. Culture can be developed via encouraging participation, having senior managers 'walk the walk' consistently, getting reinforcing messages from co-worker peers (not just senior managers), and having a comprehensive reward system that is not just about money (i.e. frequent recognition).

5.2.3. Culture Web tool for how organisational culture can be diagnosed Johnson and Scholes 1997 Radiohead - OK Computer - (Computer. Web.) Culture is comprised of 'practices, actions, and behaviors'. CW is a tool (based on observational/anecdotal/self-reported 'data') that helps organisation first articulate and then change their underlying culture. There are 6 components of the web: 1. Stories - past events told to newcomers (the biscuit story) 2. Rituals & Routines - daily behavior, esp. leaders', who signal what is acceptable 3. Measures, KPIs and Controls - measures that benchmark the organization's performance (previously Symbols) 4. Reward & Recognition (previously Control Systems) - what signifies good/poor work, how are each rewarded? 5. Power Structures - who has decision-making/veto power? 6. Organisational Structures & Symbols - how is the structure manifested (office layout, flat hierarchy? etc)

5.3. Leading Organisational Change

5.3.1. The Greiner Curve Greiner 1972 "David Bowie - The Rise And Fall Of Ziggy Stardust And The Spiders From Mars. Bowie was the creative founder. Reinvented himself over time but this became harder the bigger his fame grew. He had to apply structure and process and also expanded into movies. " Periods of smooth growth and stability (Evolution) followed by intermittent 'stages of crisis' (Revolution) are often seen as companies develop. How steep the progress is often dependent on whether their industry is a 'high-growth' or 'low-growth' one. CREATIVITY DIRECTION DELEGATION COORDINATION COLLABORATION

5.3.2. How to lead organisational change - March 1981 Kraftwerk - Computer World "Five footnotes to change in organizations, which are comments on change, not a theory of change They emphasize the relation between change and adaptive behavior more generally. 1: Organizations continually change, but change cannot be controlled 2: Changes in organizations depend on a few stable processes 3: Theories of change in organizations are primarily different ways of describing theories of action in organizations not different theories 4: organizational response to environmental events is broadly adaptive and mostly routine, may have surprising outcomes 5: Adaptation to a changing environment involves an interplay of rationality and foolishness."

5.3.3. Six ‘fatal errors’ made by CEOs leading change They place the burden of change on decentralised middle managers, viewing them simply as “transmission belts” for implementing whatever change was announced They assume that ‘Do as I say’ will be enough to produce change They assume ‘charismatic’ leaders will produce change automatically They focus too much on the rational aspects of change They have too general a view of the change and assume it must all happen at once They are too pre-occupied with external events e.g. shareholders

5.3.4. How to lead organisational change Nadler and Tushman 1990 Madonna - The Immaculate Collection Orgs are changing all the time: (quadrant of change). Leaders can provide energy and vision and enable change. But charismatic leadership on its own is not enough to lead change. If you rely on it, you risk dependency / disenfranchisement (need for continuing magic) - it's an 'agentic' solution to a problem that cries out for structure. You need to build executive teams, roles and systems in support of the change. Important is the role of of “mundane behaviours”that support success.